Tagarchief: Alice de Lacy fourth Countess of Lincoln

Thomas of Lancaster, rebel cousin of king Edward II, from warlord to Saint/Chapter Eight

THOMAS OF LANCASTER, REBEL COUSIN OF KING EDWARD II, FROMWARLORD TO SAINT/CHAPTER EIGHT

File:Thomas Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster.jpg

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet,_2nd_Earl_of_LancasterTHOMAS 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

Thomas of Lancaster’s main possessions (Maddicott).THOMAS OF LANCASTER’S MAIN POSSESSIONShttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet,_2nd_Earl_of_LancasterTHOMAS 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

Thomas of Lancaster’s main possessions (Maddicott).THOMAS OF LANCASTER’S MAIN POSSESSIONShttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster7626ba0b19e62826ef9090c93b10a11b.jpg

MURDER OF PIERS GAVESTON,INTIMATE FRIEND ANS[POSSIBLE] LOVER OF KING EDWARD II, UNDER THE DIRECT RESPONSIBILITYOF THE EARLS OF LANCASTER, WARWICK, HEREFORD AND ARUNDELMURDER OF PIERS GAVESTON,INTIMATE FRIEND ANS[POSSIBLE] LOVER OF KING EDWARD II, UNDER THE DIRECT RESPONSIBILITYOF THE EARLS OF LANCASTER, WARWICK, HEREFORD AND ARUNDELhttps://themortimersblog.wordpress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traitor-the-life-execution-of-thomas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post-by-stephen-spinks/

File:Pontefract Castle.JPG

PONTEFRACT CASTLE, THOMAS OF LANCASTER’S FAVOURITECASTLE [INHERITED FROM HIS FATHER IN LAW, HENRY DE LACY, 3TH EARL OFLINCOLN, AT HIS DEATH IN 1311]IN HIS FAVOURITE CASTLE HIS SOCALLED ”TRIAL” TOOKPLACE AND NEAR HIS FAVOURITE CASTLE,  IRONICALLY,  HE WAS EXECUTEDhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontefract_Castle#Historyhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontefract_Castlemanuscript-images-medieval-castles

Edward was twice jeered by Lancaster’s garrison at Pontefract in 1317 & 1320 as he passed from north to south 

EDWARD II WAS TWICE JEERED BY THOMAS OF LANCASTERAND HIS HOUSEHOLD, IN AT PONTEFRACT IN 1317 AND 1320, WHEN HEPASSED FROM NORTH TO SOUTH…..https://themortimersblog.wordpress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traitor-the-life-execution-of-thomas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post-by-stephen-spinks/

THE EXECUTION OF THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTERhttp://www.luminarium.org/encyclopedia/thomasoflancaster.htmThomas, Earl of Lancaster

THE EXECUTION OF THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTERhttp://www.englishmonarchs.co.uk/plantagenet_74.html

File:Edmund Crouchback Arms.svg

PLANTAGENETCOAT OF ARMS OF EDMUND CROUCHBACK [SON OFKING HENRY III, BROTHER OF KING EDWARD I ANDFATHER OF THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER], THOMAS,EARL OF LANCASTER AND HIS SUCCESSORShttp://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster


FOLLOWING THE STORY……
Smart Readers with interest in English medieval history have travelled withme to the first half of the fourteenth century, where we were Internet eyewitnessesof the feud between king Edward II and his cousin Thomas, Second Earlof Lancaster, which resulted in an open war, lost by…….
Read the former chapters

ONE
https://www.astridessed.nl/thomas-of-lancaster-rebel-cousin-of-king-edward-ii-from-warlord-to-saint-chapter-one/

TWO

THREE

FOUR

FIVE

SIX

SEVEN

SO!Now you know who won and who lost
But was it a real victory?
I’ll deal with that in a next chapter
BUT FIRST THE SAD CONTINUATION OF CHAPTER SEVEN:
CHAPTER EIGHT

THE END

The travel
Revenge of the King
Reception
Trial
The others
Last passage

””Now the king of Heaven give us mercy, for the earthly king has forsaken us!”

The long battle between Thomas and his cousin King Edward II
was over.
The way to the grisly end was about to begin:

An end, which was not about to bring the King and the
[in january returned] Despensers much joy, but
would cast a shadow on their lives and reign.

After the devastating end of the Battle of Boroughbridge,
resulting in the horrible death of the Earl of Hereford [452],
companion till the last of Thomas of Lancaster [and
by the way, the brother in law of Edward II] , Thomas
of Lancaster found himself prisoner of the King.

The humiliation could begin…….

THE TRAVEL

Thomas was taken by water via York to Pontefract Castle.
That was an intent torment and humiliation, since
Pontefract Castle was his favourite residence.
[His constable had surrendered to the King without a fight]
That must have been very bitter for Thomas.

He was forced to wear garments of the striped cloth which the squires of his household wore, an intentional humiliation of a man of high birth and rank. [453]

But that was not enough:

On the way to York, a crowd of people threw snowballs at him, called him a traitor, and shouted “Now shall you have the reward that long time you have deserved!” [454]
Interesting though that there must have been among them people,
who later revered him……

At the meantime other adherents of Thomas of Lancaster were
taken prisoner, who would share his fate, as the story will show.

REVENGE OF THE KING

The King had tried to make it as humiliating as possible
for his cousin and long time adversary Thomas.
He ”received” his cousin at his own favourite Castle
of Pontefract,
accompanied by his favourites the Despensers, who
must have thought, that it was their moment of joy.
Quod non [Latin for: that is not the case] [455] as will
the story reveal later [See Chapter 10, Aftermath]

But although sad for Thomas, the satisfaction the King’
undoubtedly felt, now his powerful cousin was
at his mercy, is in a way understandable.

It was not only the 10 year long resistance of Thomas,
complete with jeering at the King [in 1317 and 1320],
and blocking his way with armed guards [456], probably
the King’s most important feeling was revenge for the death of
Piers Gaveston, since Thomas was one of the responsibles
for his [Gaveston’s] murder [457], a cruel and illegal act against a man,
who was vain, avaricious and insulting [to the Lords] [458],
but further didn’t do the Lords any wrong.

And Edward II had made no secret of his need for revenge!
During the siege of Berwick in 1319 [459] in which Thomas had
cooperated with Edward [460], he [Edward] made clear what was on his mind by declaring “When this wretched business is over, we will turn our hands to other matters. For I have not forgotten the wrong that was done to my brother Piers.” [461]
That threat was obviously aimed at Thomas, who
left Berwick later [and right he was!]. [462]

And as I have said before, when it came to revenge, Edward II
was true to his word.

RECEPTION

On 21 march, Thomas of Lancaster arrived at his
Castle of Pontefract.
And what was to be expected, the Despensers couldn’t resist
to show their satisfaction in humiliating Lancaster.
Thomas was ”contemptuously insulted……to his face with
malicious and arrogant words” by the king and the recently returned Despensers” [463]
Nice reception in your own castle……

TRIAL

Now rumour had  it that Thomas of Lancaster had built a tower in which to hold the king captive for the rest of his life.
And, surprise, surprise……
In that very [supposed for imprisonment of the King] tower
Thomas was kept prisoner….. [464]
The day after Thomas’ arrival, 22 march 1322, his ”trial” took place.
I say ”trial” because it didn’t deserve the name at the least.

It was a mock trial, that took place in the hall of
Lancaster’s own castle [how bitter…..] and the outcome was a foregone conclusion.
Thomas was not allowed to speak in his own defence as his crimes were deemed ‘notorious’ [465]

According to sources he was said to have exclaimed:
” “This is a powerful court, and great in authority, where no answer is heard nor any excuse admitted,” [466]
And right he was!
The fact that Thomas didn’t grant Piers Gaveston a fair trial too
[yet apart from the fact that he had no right to give him
a trial anyway], doesn’t excuse his ”judges” to do the same with him.

And there were ”judges”, who undoubtedly would later
regret their own injustice…………

See Chapter 10 ”Aftermath”

”Judges”:

The composition of those  socalled ”judges” was a laughing
stock anyway, were it not so grave an affair, since they
consisted of either his enemies, or staunch adherents of
the King [or a combination of those two]

The ”judges” were:

Thomas’ first cousin, King Edward II

The Despensers [father and son]

The Earl of Pembroke  [Thomas’
first cousin once removed.
Originally one of the besiegers of Piers
Gaveston in 1312, now he was a staunch adherer of the King,
since he was against his will, forced to break his word
against Piers Gaveston, who was in his custody
and in Pembroke’s absence abducted by the 10th Earl
of Warwick, which lead to Gaveston’s execution.
His presence at this mock trial was a pity, I have mentioned
him several times as a man of honour, who repeatedly
tried to reconcile Edward II and Thomas of Lancaster,
but perhaps he
was forced to become part of this show trial] [467]

The Earl of Kent [halfbrother of King Edward II, and
first cousin to Thomas of Lancaster] [468]

The Earl of Richmond [first cousin to King Edward II
and Thomas of Lancaster] [469]

The Earl of Arundel [choose the King’s side
after the murder of Gaveston, whom he had executed
after a mock trial together with Thomas of Lancaster, the 10th Earl
of Warwick and the Earl of Hereford,
who died at the Battle of Boroughbridge] [470]

The Earl of Surrey , [originally one of
the besiegers of Piers Gaveston in 1312 and
later a mortal enemy of Thomas.
Under his responsibility Thomas’ estranged wife Alice de
Lacy was abducted, which lead to a private war between
Surrey and Thomas] [471]

The [Scottish] Earls of Atholl and Angus, who had once
served in the retinue of Thomas of Lancaster. [472]

The royal justice Robert Malberthorpe, who spoke out
the charges against him. [473]

Striking is, that three of the ”judges” [Edward II, the Earl of Kent,
the Earl of Richmond] were first cousins of Thomas of Lancaster
[474] and one, the Earl of Pembroke, his first cousin removed.
[475]

NICE FAMILY……..

Charges:

Thomas was charged [of course] for treason, as he and other Contrariants had invited several of Robert Bruce’s liegemen to England in 1322 to ride with them against their king. [476]

But that was not all:

The list of charges comprised the many grievances Edward managed to dredge up against his cousin, going back to Thomas’s seizure of his possessions at Tynemouth in 1312 [when Lancaster
and the other barons were pursuing the King and his favourite Piers Gaveston, after his return from permanent exile. The charge however was unjust, since Lancaster had given the
possessions back in 1313] [477] and including Thomas’s jeering at him from the Pontefract battlements in 1317, [478]
and Lancaster’s blocking of the roads in an attempt to prevent Edward’s travelling through Yorkshire. [479]

Verdict:
A fourtheenth century scandal

One need not to be surprised about the verdict:

Of course Thomas was found guilty, since this
was a show trial, containing ”judges”, who were
extremely hostile to him.

But to be fair:
Even if it WERE a fair trial, the exchanged letters and dealings with the Scots [480] were reason enough to condemn him.

Therefore it was not the CONDEMNATION  that was shocking, and caused a scandal, but the
fact, that Thomas was condemned to death, which was
a break with the convention of the time, not only because of his close
kinship to the King [first cousin, Lancaster’s father was the younger brother of King Edward I], but especially because since
Waltheof, the Earl of Northumbria was executed  in 1076 on the orders of William the Conqueror [481], no English Earl was ever executed. [482]
In cases, comparable with Lancaster, an Earl had to suffer
”only” life imprisonment or exile. [483]

I think, that the King perhaps had shown mercy [I mean, not
imposing the death penalty], were it not for Lancaster’s involvement
in the murder of King’s favourite Piers Gaveston[484],
which was not one of the charges, but the underlying reason
for the King’s need for revenge. [485]

But there was more:
Not only the death penalty was pronounced, Thomas was
condemned to the worst form, the traitor’s death:
In other words: to be hanged, drawn and quartered…..[486]

But the King was not totally crazy:
Executing a [royal] Earl was already a scandal,
but to be hanged, drawn and quartered……
Besides, whatever had happened between them, Thomas
was the King’s first cousin and of royal blood
Therefore the King commuted this verdict to ”merely”
beheading……[487]

However, some sources mention, that the King commuted
the ”hanged, drawn and quarted” verdict to beheading “for the love of Quene Isabell,”[488], which possibly means, that the King
commuted the verdict to beheading as a result of intercession
of Queen Isabella [489], who was with King Edward at
Pontefract [brrrrrr, horrifying, to accompany one’s husband
at the eve of an execution….yet when she really intervened,
it was a good thing that she came…..] [490]
Queen Isabella was, you remember still,,,, Thomas’ niece, since he was the halfbrother of her mother, Queen Joan I of Navarre]
[491]

Of course the phrase “for the love of Quene Isabell” can also

mean, that the beheading verdict was the King”s own decision,
but that he considered his and Queen Isabella’s relationship
with Thomas of Lancaster……

THE OTHERS

Before we follow Thomas on his last passage, there is
a lot to tell about his adherents, who were captured together
with him or on other locations around the same time:
I mention six knights, who were hanged at Pontefract around
or at the same time as Thomas were executed:
William Cheyne or Cheney, Warin Lisle, Henry Bradbourne, William Fitzwilliam, Thomas Mauduit and William Tuchet [492]

According to the Flores Historiarum [493], such a lack
of humanity was shown, that Thomas had to face their execution
before he himself was executed[494] [although the Flores Historiarum mentioned
nine of his knights, while other sources give six] [495]

Anyway, Edward II was not satisfied with seven executions
[Thomas and the six knights], as a whole at least between
19 and 22 lords and knights were executed and one, Lord
Badlesmere [from the Siege of Leeds, see Chapter 7] suffered
the traitor’s death. [496]
Many were imprisoned, even the wives and children of
the rebels [see also Chapter 10, Aftermath] [497]
A bloody project of a vengeful King, undoubtedly
stimulated by the [with right mentioned so by the rebels!] evil councillors, the Despensers. [498]

LAST PASSAGE

It was on the morning of 22 march, that Thomas of Lancaster
heard his verdict, condemned in the Hall of his own
Favourite Castle in Pontefract.
The same morning, on a cold, snowy day, Thomas was executed.
The King, apparently making a holiday of his cousin’s
trial and execution, had arrived there on 19 march, together
with Queen Isabella and spent there until 25 march…..[499]
[strong nerves they must have had…….]

However, rather than have him executed in the castle
bailey, Edward II had a painful ”surprise” for
Thomas of Lancaster, which showed his desire for
revenge on the execution of his favourite, Piers Gaveston:
In fact, he arranged a ”parody” on the execution of
Piers Gaveston [who was executed on a hill, called
”Blacklow Hill” and also beheaded] [500]

Thomas was taken  outside to a small hill,  outside of the walls of his favourite Castle Pontefract, mirroring Piers’ 1312 death on Blacklow Hill.
He was forced to ride “some worthless mule” and “an old chaplet, rent and torn, that was not worth a half-penny,” was set on his head. A crowd of spectators again threw snowballs at him.
Apparently at the king’s order, Thomas was forced to kneel facing towards Scotland, in a pointed reminder of his  correspondence with Robert Bruce [which of course had been treason] [501]

Then Thomas uttered the words:

“Now the king of Heaven give us mercy, for the earthly king has forsaken us!” [502]

Two or three strokes of the axe and he was beheaded.

Thomas of Lancaster, Earl of Lancaster, Leicester, Derby,
Lincoln and Salisbury, long time adversary of his cousin
Edward II and the last to defend the Ordinances
[503] was no more………

ASTRID ESSED

NOTES 1-250

NOTES 251-347

NOTES 348-400

NOTES 401-451

NOTES 452-503

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Thomas of Lancaster, rebel cousin of king Edward II, from warlord to Saint/Chapter Seven

THOMAS OF LANCASTER, REBEL COUSIN OF KING EDWARD II, FROMWARLORD TO SAINT/CHAPTER SEVEN

File:Thomas Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster.jpg

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet,_2nd_Earl_of_LancasterTHOMAS 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

Thomas of Lancaster’s main possessions (Maddicott).THOMAS OF LANCASTER’S MAIN POSSESSIONShttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet,_2nd_Earl_of_LancasterTHOMAS 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

Thomas of Lancaster’s main possessions (Maddicott).THOMAS OF LANCASTER’S MAIN POSSESSIONShttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster7626ba0b19e62826ef9090c93b10a11b.jpg

MURDER OF PIERS GAVESTON,INTIMATE FRIEND ANS[POSSIBLE] LOVER OF KING EDWARD II, UNDER THE DIRECT RESPONSIBILITYOF THE EARLS OF LANCASTER, WARWICK, HEREFORD AND ARUNDELMURDER OF PIERS GAVESTON,INTIMATE FRIEND ANS[POSSIBLE] LOVER OF KING EDWARD II, UNDER THE DIRECT RESPONSIBILITYOF THE EARLS OF LANCASTER, WARWICK, HEREFORD AND ARUNDELhttps://themortimersblog.wordpress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traitor-the-life-execution-of-thomas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post-by-stephen-spinks/

File:Pontefract Castle.JPG

PONTEFRACT CASTLE, THOMAS OF LANCASTER’S FAVOURITECASTLE [INHERITED FROM HIS FATHER IN LAW, HENRY DE LACY, 3TH EARL OFLINCOLN, AT HIS DEATH IN 1311]IN HIS FAVOURITE CASTLE HIS SOCALLED ”TRIAL” TOOKPLACE AND NEAR HIS FAVOURITE CASTLE,  IRONICALLY,  HE WAS EXECUTEDhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontefract_Castle#Historyhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontefract_Castlemanuscript-images-medieval-castles

Edward was twice jeered by Lancaster’s garrison at Pontefract in 1317 & 1320 as he passed from north to south 

EDWARD II WAS TWICE JEERED BY THOMAS OF LANCASTERAND HIS HOUSEHOLD, IN AT PONTEFRACT IN 1317 AND 1320, WHEN HEPASSED FROM NORTH TO SOUTH…..https://themortimersblog.wordpress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traitor-the-life-execution-of-thomas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post-by-stephen-spinks/

THE EXECUTION OF THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTERhttp://www.luminarium.org/encyclopedia/thomasoflancaster.htmThomas, Earl of Lancaster

THE EXECUTION OF THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTERhttp://www.englishmonarchs.co.uk/plantagenet_74.html

File:Edmund Crouchback Arms.svg

PLANTAGENETCOAT OF ARMS OF EDMUND CROUCHBACK [SON OFKING HENRY III, BROTHER OF KING EDWARD I ANDFATHER OF THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER], THOMAS,EARL OF LANCASTER AND HIS SUCCESSORShttp://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster


Readers, I greet you:Following my Chapers of the Earl of Lancaster Saga, whose feud withhis cousin, king Edward II, ended in an Open War, you’ll understand,that this exciting Drama must come to an End with one winner
The smart reader, who read my former chapters well, will have an idea,who that is.But was it a real victory?You’ll see
This were the chapters you read already
https://www.astridessed.nl/thomas-of-lancaster-rebel-cousin-of-king-edward-ii-from-warlord-to-saint-chapter-one/

NOW READ CHAPTER SEVEN…………………………..

CHAPTER SEVEN
OPEN WAR

DESPENSER WAR/SECOND PHASE
[October 1321[March 1322]

I BOLDLY STATE, THAT IF THOMAS OF LANCASTER, THE MARCHER
LORDS AND THEIR ATTACHING ALLIES HAD JOINED TOGETHER
EFFECTIVELY, FORGOTTEN UNDERLYING FEUDS AND IGNORED THE
DIVIDE AND RULE GAME OF THE KING, THEY COULD HAVE WON.

Preview
For the readers, who failed to read Chapter six:

What happened in Despenser war, first phase?

After the Treaty of Leake in 1318 [reconciliation between the King and
his overmighty cousin Thomas of Lancaster, with whom he
the King feuded endlessly] and the banishment of the three favourites of the King [what Lancaster had demanded], a new favourite, Hugh Despenser the Younger
rose [who took his father along with him in his enjoyment of favouritism].
The King’s excessive favouritism towards Despenser, and Despenser’s abnormal
avariciousness, drove the Marcher Lords
into rebellion and they made an alliance with Thomas of Lancaster, who
loathed those favourites of the King.
The Marcher Lords marched on London in 1321 [later supported by
Lancaster] and forced the King to send the Despensers in exile.

A
Prelude

B
Queen Isabella’s Pilgrimage to Canterbury and

her reception at Leeds Castle

C
Hell breaks loose:

The Siege of Leeds Castle
The Siege of Leeds: Aftermath
King’s military victory/Political consequences

D
Fight to the death

Edward II’s war with the Marcher Lords
Events in november, december and begin of january

E
Fight to the death
The Marcher Lords and Thomas of Lancaster
Edward II’s war with the Marcher Lords
Swan Song

F
Fight to the death
Edward II and Thomas of Lancaster
Last dance

A

PRELUDE

After the Marcher Lords’ ”March on London” late july 1321 [348], in august backed

by Thomas of Lancaster [349] and eventually forcing the King to banish the Despensers, tensions grew high in the country, both sides mobilising their forces.
And of course the King sought for an opportunity, to bring back his favourite
Despensers as soon as possible.
Then in the autumn of 1321, Something took place, which would change
the course of events for the King, the Despensers and the opposing rebels.

B

QUEEN ISABELLA’S PILMGRIMAGE TO CANTERBURY
AND HER RECEPTION AT LEEDS CASTLE

It happened in october 1321, that Queen Isabella went on pilgrimage
to Canterbury, and, not taking the usual route headed for Leeds
Castle, where Lord Badlesmere was appointed as governor.
[350]
And this Lord Badlesmere was at first loyal to the King,
being the King’s household steward [351], but later switched sides and
became a Contrariant, thus an ally of the Marcher Lords
and Thomas of Lancaster. [352]
At the moment of the Queen’s arrival, Lord Badlesmere was
at a Contrariant’s meeting at Oxford and whether on instructions
of her husband or not [353], his wife, Lady Badlesmere, refused
the Queen entrance to the Castle, which, of course, was a gross insult.
Queen Isabella, probably furious,  ordered her escort to force an entry into the castle, and the garrison of Lady Badlesmere
opened up a volley of arrows at them, killing six men of the Queen.
Isabella was left outside and had to find other lodgings..,.
Of course the King was furious.
He avenged the insult to the Queen, by
besieging the Castle of Leeds. [354]

Coincidence or deliberate?

Now it is possible, that Queen Isabella for some innocent
reason had taken another route than usual, but
according to some historians, she did so to create a casus belli. [355]
With other words:
Her heading for Leeds Castle was deliberate and on the
orders of the King, in the hope that Lady Badlesmere
[what she did, indeed] as the wife of a Contrariant rebel,
would refuse the Queen entrance to the Castle, giving
the King the excuse to revenge his wife’s insult, starting
the war again. [356]
And not only that:
Because of the insult of the Queen, many moderate barons,
who didn’t take sides yet, would join the royal army.

It also gave the King opportunity to a policy of
”divide et impera” [Latin for ”divide and rule],
since Thomas of Lancaster loathed Lord Badlesmere
and would probably not come to Lady Badlesmere’s assistance, when the castle were besieged. [357]

And Thomas of Lancaster
fell right into the trap [poor Lord Thomas, not very smart
and dishonourable, the Lady was in need…..] and indeed didn’t help , even ordered the Marcher Lords not to  …..[358]
Lord Badlesmere himself assembled an army and tried
to help his wife and break the siege of the castle, but
was not able to do so, since Thomas of Lancaster
and the Marcher Lords didn’t come to his aid …[359]

This strategic failure of Lancaster led to a major strengthening of the position of the King:

Because of the insult to the Queen and King’s readiness
to go á royal ”fist to fist, toe to toe on this,
many barons and volunteers indeed rallied
to his  assistance ……[360]

AND his victory would lead to his regaining control of South-East England…..
Another ”great” thing happened
Edward II felt his position strong enough to revoke the
banishment order of the Despensers in december 1321…..[361]
So the same mess started over again……

THAT’S WHY I STATED, THAT ONE OF THE
CAUSES OF THE DEFEAT OF THE CONTRARIANTS
WAS UNDERLYING FEUDS [as between Thomas of Lancaster and Lord Badlesmere] AND THE DEVIOUS DIVIDE ET IMPERA POLICY OF THE KING…

But to the honour of Lord Badlesmere [who did get a bad press
in history, whether it is uncertain, if it is deserved] [362] must be said, that he fought
side by side with Thomas of Lancaster in his last battle
against the King, the Battle of Boroughbridge, in spite of the
fact, that Thomas didn’t come to the assistance of his wife,
when besieged, nor help him [Badlesmere] to break the siege….[363]

Now about the coincidence or deliberate act regarding
Queen Isabella heading for Leeds Castle:
Assuming that it was a deliberate trap of the King, it
was very clever strategy.
What poses the question, whether the King had thought this
out for himself, since he had, to put it mildly, no great
strategic talents:
Therefore some historians think, that he was in contact with
[and likely had met] the banished Hugh Despenser the Younger,
who perhaps was the mastermind behind the casus belli….[364]

And concerning the clever ”divide and rule” policy of the KIng:

Edward [and possibly Hugh Despenser, when it was true
that they had met and were together in this] must have known that the earl of Lancaster detested Badlesmere, and gambled that the he would not help him. [365]
And he gambled right, alas for Thomas of Lancaster, the
other Contrariants and Lord and Lady Badlesmere themselves,
as the story will tell….

But again:
It was no clever strategy of Lord Thomas either, not to
help a man, who was his ally, just because he didn’t
like him.
In a rebellion, you can’t always choose your friends,
my lord of Lancaster…..

C

HELL BROKE LOOSE
THE SIEGE OF LEEDS CASTLE

THE SIEGE AND AFTERMATH

Edward II mobilised his forces and placed Leeds
Castle under siege, giving Queen Isabella the Great Seal
and control of the Royal Chancery. [366]
The assault on the Castle persisted for more than five days
and on 31 october 1321 Lady Badlesmere surrendered. [367]

Now any siege of a city or a Castle is a nasty business,
but especially Edward II’s siege of Castle Leeds:
It was a siege of a Castle, held by a woman, who
was totally outnumbered by the forces of the King [368]
and got no help whatsoever from the Contrariants [as I
from now on will call the rebels against the King, the
Marcher Lords, the Earl of Lancaster and their forces and
allies] [369], despite of her husband Lord Badlesmere
begging them to come to the aid of his wife. [370]
Of course there was a problem here, in this case
for the Marcher Lords.
Destroying the Despenser lands is one thing, using
your forces in a direct battle against the King is another
and openly, treason.
Besides, their ally the Earl of Lancaster had ordered them,
not to come to the aid of Badlesmere [which included his
wife], since he had a great personal dislike of him
[Badlesmere] [371]

A nasty business, as I said.
The King, with on his side the Earls of Kent and Norfolk
[his two halfbrothers] and the Earls of Surrey, Arundel,
Pembroke and Richmond

[372]
The King even brought his nearly nine year old son, the Earl
of Chester [the later Edward III] [373]

I can’t see this siege , even if the King wanted to revenge
the insult to his Queen, as utter cowardly.
But to be fair:
Also is the behaviour of the Contrariants, not to
come to the aid of the wife of one of their allies.

Siege of Leeds
Aftermath:

The aftermath was gruesome:
Thirteen members of the garrison were drawn and hanged

after the end of the siege, even in those cruel times unusual,
since men had never been executed within for holding a castle against the king……….[374]
Lady Badlesmere pleaded for mercy, but was arrested and
with her children, sent to the Tower of London. [375]
She therefore became the first recorded woman, imprisoned
in the Tower. [376]
She was released in november 1322, seven months after
the horrible execution of her husband in april 1322
[hanged, drawn and quartered, the ”traitors’ death] [377], after
his fighting in the Battle of Boroughbridge, where Lancaster
was defeated by the royal forces. [378]

King’s military victory
Political consequences:

The Siege of Leeds [casus belli or coincidence…]
where the Contrariants failed to help Lady Badlesmere,
led to an enormous strenghtening of the position
of the King in the South-East [379] and a demoralisation
of the Contrariants, who must have realized, too late,
that they fell into the trap of the King’s game of
divide and rule….[380]

And not only his military position was strengthened,
also his political, with the increasement of
loyal barons [caused by the King’s readiness to avenge
the insult to the Queen] and the come back of the
Despensers, revoked out of banishment.

But now the fight  between the King, his
cousin Thomas of Lancaster and his allies
the Marcher Lords [together the Contrariants]
was about to begin in earnest.

D

FIGHT TO THE DEATH
EDWARD II’S WAR WITH THE MARCHER LORDS
EVENTS IN NOVEMBER, DECEMBER AND BEGIN JANUARY

As been said, Edward II’s succesful besiegement of
Leeds Castle led to his control over South-East England
again.
A setback for the Contrariants, and Marcher Lords
Roger Mortimer and the Earl of Hereford [brother
in law of the King], travelled North to discuss the situation
with Thomas of Lancaster, who in thed meantime and
as a reaction on Edward II’s regained control of South-East
England, had mobilised his forces in the North. [381]

They met on 29 november [Edward II had prohibited
the meeting, to no avail], probably in Pontefract Castle
[other sources call Doncaster] and they were sworn together a second time to maintain that which they had commenced.
[382]

Battle with words:
Amusing:
Doncaster petition
Thomas of Lancaster’s high opinion about himself…..

As shows the story [as has
shown already], the
Despenser war and its aftermath was an extremely bloody mess, complete
with executions [including the ”traitor’s death], pillaging lands, robbing and extortioning
innocent people, hard imprisonment of wives and children
of the Contrariants [as we shall see].
Yet there was not only fighting with weapons, but also
with words:
Famous example is the ”’Doncaster Petition’, drewn up
by Thomas of Lancaster and his allies, which said that Hugh Despenser the Younger, amusingly called Sire Huge throughout, had been exiled “for diverse reasonable reasons” with the consent of the king himself and all the magnates in parliament. It accused Edward of placing Despenser under the care of the men of the Cinque Ports [383] [which proved to be right] [384]and supporting him in his piracy and various other crimes and included the usual  references to Edward’s ‘evil counsellors’ [which was certainly true in the case of the Despensers]
See for the sample text of the petition note 385

Now the amusing thing is not only their accusation of their
own Lord the King of accomplicity with some crimes
of Hugh Despenser [which by the way
was probably not nonsense at all] [386], but the fact that the petition showed
how highly Thomas of Lancaster thought about himself.
That because the petitioners [Thomas and his allies]
asked Edward to respond to the petition by 20 December….[387]

Understandably, the King was not amused by this and
informed Lancaster,  that imposing a deadline on him on to reform the affairs of his kingdom gave the impression that he was the earl’s subject, not vice versa……[388]

This ”deadline” was not the first time for Thomas to do such an act, which proved his arrogance and high opinion about himself:

Apart from the jeering at the King from the walls
of Thomas’ Castle of
Pontefract [1317 and 1320] and blocking the King’s way [in 1317] [389], Thomas had done another shocking thing, considering
the fact, that he was Edward II’s subject and not vice versa:

In February 1311, his father-in-law Henry de Lacy, earl of Lincoln, died, and Thomas inherited his lands by right of his wife Alice. He had to perform homage to Edward II for the lands, but Edward was then on campaign in Scotland. Thomas refused to cross the Tweed to meet the king; Edward refused to return to England
Edward II was right:
WHO THE HELL WAS THE KING HERE
It was absurd, for the King to come to a subject!
At the end, Edward gave in, met Thomas on the English side of the river Tweed.
And there Thomas payed homage…..[390]

Back to the Marcher Lords:

THE MARCHER LORDS/RETURN TO WALES/ATTACKS MAFFIA
STYLE AND UPRISING
After the meeting with the earl of Lancaster at Pontefract in
november where they renewed their allegiance against
the King [Edward II had forbidden the meeting, to
no avail] [391], the Marcher lords returned to the west of England and Wales with a great armed force [392] and
were playing the same  tricks, maffia
style again, as they did before:
Stealing, extorting and assualting mostly innocent
people under the pretext of attacking Despener lands [393]

This happened in november and december

Back in the Welsh borders, the Marcher Lords had firstly to
pay attention to an uprising of the  local peasantry [394]
Making use of the problems of the Marcher
Lords, in december the Edward II marched to
Cirencester to invade the Welsh borders. [395]

MEANWHILE IN THE NORTH/THOMAS OF LANCASTER

Meanwhile in the North, Thomas of Lancaster had tried to
win the support of the northern barons, his usual allies, but they stayed loyal to the king. [396]

Worse was, that Thomas to be already engaged in some
negociations with the Scots, to get their support, supposedly
to prevent the King to retake South Wales from the Marcher
Lords. [397]
How it came to light, that Thomas was engaged to parley with the Scots, the national enemy? [but I am on their
side, because they fought for their freedom….] [398]

It will be revealed in this article [or book, HAHAHAHAHA]
in this very chapter [seven]

Those military things took place in december 1321 and begin
january 1322.

E
FIGHT TO THE DEATH
END DECEMBER 1321 AND JANUARY 1322
EDWARD II’S WAR WITH THE MARCHER LORDS
SWAN SONG

As been said, the Contrariants [The Marcher Lords and Thomas of
Lancaster, and allies] could have won, were it not for
underlying feuds and the divide and rule policy of the King.
Added to that, a fatal strategic error of Thomas of Lancaster and lack of good
cooperation between the Marcher Lords themselves……
Tragic for them

EDWARD II’S WAR WITH THE MARCHER LORDS

December 1321/January 1322
Edward II’s war with the Marcher Lords

Edward marched to Cirencester in December 1321, preparing
to invade the

Welsh borders, [399] ordering the arrest of some main Contrariants,
like his former steward Bartholomew Badlesmere [the
man from ”The Siege of Leeds Castle”, see above], and his
[Edward’s] former Favourite, Roger Damory [first main enemy
of Thomas of Lancaster, now his ally, alienated from the King by the Despenser avariciousness] [400]
Meanwhile, the Marcher Lords seized Gloucester, twenty miles from Cirencester, and thus controlled the bridge over the river Severn.
[401]

”Strategy” of the Marcher Lords:
Don’t fight the King, run off from him…..

Now the strangest thing happened:
In stead of confronting the King in open war [when
Edward approached Gloucester], the Marcher Lords
failed to do that and simply….fled……
Not without playing their old maffia tricks of
robbing and assaulting innocent people again
[probably out of frustration not engaging the King
in battle] [402]

But there is a good explanation for their not engaging the
King in battle [although their forces were allegedly
almost four times bigger than the King’s]

Attacking Despenser lands and raging and pillaging
innocent people [who only happened to live on
or near Despenser lands] is one thing, openly engaging
the King in battle is treason…….

But the Marcher Lords were not totally crazy and hold
the bridge over the Severn against the King, so that he
could not cross it. [403]

And that was the last clever thing they did:

Fatal strategic errors of the Marcher Lords:
Not engaging the King in battle
Splitting up
Pillaging again

THEY SPLIT UP!
Damory remained at Worcester [a city, he at least took for the Contrariants], others headed north, while the earl of Hereford started plundering again [had The Marcher Lords

never got enough of those criminal games…….] and now for
a change not from innocent people, but their old goal:
Despenser property: this time Despenser the Younger’s younger Worcestershire castles of Hanley and Elmley. [404]

HOW STUPID!

Instead of staying together as a group, engaging the King in
battle, they fled, split up and started pillaging again.

When they saw, that their military position started
weaker and weaker, they desperately hoped for Thomas
of Lancaster to come to their aid.

The aid of Thomas was extremely necessary, since
Edward II had arrived at Shrewsbury at 14 january and managed to cross over the river Severn and Roger Mortimer of Wigmore and his uncle Roger
Mortimer of Chirk were in a desperate position:
They were running out of money, their men were deserting
them and they were squeezed between two forces, Edward’s on the east side of the Severn and his allies on the west side, and their lands being occupied and burnt [yes, the Marcher Lords
received a taste of their own medicine, poor people,
who lived on their lands…..] [405]

Thomas of Lancaster’s fatal strategic error:

I don’t know, whether Thomas of Lancaster knew exactly,
how desperate the position of the Marcher Lords was, but
he certainly knew that they were losing the game in Wales.

And in stead of coming to the rescue of the
besieged Mortimers, he wasted his time and forces
to besiege Edward II’s Castle at Tickhill [near Doncaster]…..
[406]

Had he ridden out to the rescue of the Mortimers, together they would
have good chance to defeat the forces of the King [Lancaster
had a big army]

But he did not.

SWAN SONG:

The end was predictable
Running out of money and men and without the help
of Thomas of Lancaster, who could not have come
to their aid anymore, anyway, since his two castles
of Holt and Bromfield were later seized by Edward’s forces [407],

the both Mortimers had no choice but surrender to Edward II…..
This happened on 22 january 1322 at Shrewsbury.
[408]

The last Contrariants surrendered on 6 february 1322 at Hereford [at the border of Wales] [409]

Their fight with the King was over, but there was still hope
for victory:
Thomas of Lancaster in the North.

So finally, the remaining Contrariants fled towards Yorkshire to seek refuge with the earl of Lancaster, their last hope
for fulfilling their cause…….

F
FIGHT TO THE DEATH
I EDWARD II AND THOMAS OF LANCASTER
II LAST DANCE

I

EDWARD II AND THOMAS OF LANCASTER

Now the Marcher Lords were dedeated, Edward could finally give his attention to his cousin, Thomas
of Lancaster.

HENRY OF LANCASTER, THE MYSTERY MAN

But before telling this dramatic story, first the readers attention
for a mystery man I mentioned occasionaly in this story:
Henry of Lancaster, younger brother of Thomas of Lancaster
and the great ancestor of the House of Lancaster [410]
To say it like it is:
Where the hell was he in this fight to the death of his brother?
Oddly perhaps [since rebels mostly were joined and supported by their brothers ] Henry spent most of the years between 1318-1322 in France,
where he in 1317 had inherited the lands of his younger brother John, who died childless. [411]
During the life of his brother Thomas, he seemed to have been loyal to the King and took part, on the orders of the King, in dealing with an uprising in Wales in 1316. [412]
So he was made from quite other stuff than his brother….
However, in 1320/begin 1321, he was one of the Lords who formed a coalition against the Despensers
and stood [at that time],
shoulder to shoulder with the Rogers Mortimer, the former
favourites of the King and others. [413]
Doubtless his brother Thomas [who would soon
join the club] appreciated that.
But Henry was an interesting ”come and go” guy:
He suddenly seemed to have disappeared to
France, in each case untill january 1322 [414] [and so
kept out of trouble], when the Despenser war reached its
finale, which turned out dramatically for
Henry personally.
So clearly he did not participate in his brother’s rebellion
and opposition against the King [except for his initial
opposition against the Despensers, Henry was by the way
married with the half sister of Hugh Despenser
the Younger, by his mother’s side]

But as we shall see later, Henry was a man
to settle old scores……[415]
We’ll meet him again.

LETTERS, ROYAL WARNINGS:

Back to Thomas and his last fight with his cousin, the King:

Oddly enough, after the surrender of the Marcher Lords,
there was no immediate fight between the King and
his not so dear cousin Thomas, as would be expected.
At first the King ”warned” Thomas.
On 8 February 1322 Edward II wrote to him, stating
that he “wished to continue and augment his affection to the earl” and ordering him not to adhere to the Contrariants, who “have publicly boasted that they were going to the earl, and that they would draw him to them in the aforesaid excesses, and that they were sure of this.” Edward pointed out that joining the Contrariants would render Thomas guilty of treason [416]

To put it mildly:
This was a strange letter, since Edward knew very well,
that Thomas and the Marcher Lords were ”thick as thieves”
[HAHAHA] [417]
Also the King knew [of course!] that since 10 january, Thomas
held his Castle Tickhill under siege. [418]

The answer of Thomas on the letter of the King
[but to be fair: he could hardly be honest,
criminalising himself as a traitor] was still stranger, since
he pretended not to have anything to do with rebels. [419]
YEAH RIGHT………

FIGHTING
THE CAPTURE OF CASTLES

But then the to be expected fight broke out:

And for the direct cause, the King certainly
was not to blame.
He was right:
Because, besiegement of a royal
Castle [Thomas had put Edward II’s Tickhill Castle
under siege] is a gross provocation and downright
treason.
And on 13 february, Edward announced his intention of going to raise the siege.
He asked his brother-in-law Charles IV of France – Thomas’s nephew,
son of his half sister Joan I of Navarre, who was also
the mother of Queen Isabella of France – to send men to help him fight Thomas and the Contrariants, and also asked his nephews the duke of Brabant and the count of Bar, his kinsmen the counts of Eu, St Pol, Aumale and Beaumont, Charles IV and Isabella’s uncle the count of Valois, and the count of Hainault to send horsemen and footmen, and ordered Amaury de Craon, steward of Gascony, to come to him with armed men and advice. [420]

I don’t know if they all send military aid to Edward, but
certain was, that Edward firmly wanted to confront his cousin
in battle.
On 19 february, Edward captured Thomas’s great Warwickshire stronghold of Kenilworth. [421]

But on 1 march 1322, Something would come to
light, what would lead, directly to the dramatic end
of the story…….

NEVER PUT YOUR TREASON ON PAPER/
THOMAS AND THE SCOTS
ANOTHER FATAL ERROR: THE LETTERS
”KING ARTHUR”

I mentioned the fatal error Thomas had made, not to come
to the aid of the besieged Rogers Mortimer, but instead of that, besieging
the royal Castle of Tickhill. [422]

But what directly  would seal his fate was writing
treason down!
The first lesson in the criminal’s handbook:
NEVER WRITE DOWN SOMETHING ON PAPER!

AND WHEN YOU WRITE TREASON LETTERS
OR RECEIVE ANSWER, BURN THEM!

That was the fatal error he made.

Poor Thomas.
Proud and a high, an extremely well connected
royal Lord, but not capable to see
the danger of the written word….

What was the case here:

As I wrote before, when Edward marched on Cirencester in
december 1321 to invade the Welsh border, Thomas had apparently
asked the Scots to come to his [and the Contrariants] help, to
prevent Edward to retake control over South Wales. [423]
Now of course he could have done such a request only
when he was already parleying with the Scots…..
[424]

Now he was, apparently, earlier suspected of dealing with the
Scots:
Because:
It was noticed that when the Scottish forces raided the north of England, they left his lands alone [425]

Now this is, obviously, circumstancial evidence [426],
since you can’t accuse someone of treason
for NOT being attacked by the national enemy,
but what raised understandable suspicion [although
not yet serious evidence] was the fact that although Thomas had a great army at Pontefract, he seemed not to have attempted to pursue the Scottish raiders……. [427]

Alas, for Thomas personally, real evidence DID show iself:

THE  FATAL 1 MARCH

1 March was a fatal date for Thomas, because then,
William Melton, archbishop of York,
came into possession [I don’t know how] of letters,
that had been exchanged between the Scottish Sir
James Douglas [The Black Douglas]
[428] and a mysterious ”King Arthur”
In one of those letters, ”King Arthur” informed Douglas that the earl of Hereford, Roger Damory, Hugh Audley, Roger Clifford, Henry Tyes, Thomas Mauduit, John Wilington and  Bartholomew Badlesmere [See the Siege of Leeds Castle]
had come to ”King Arthur”
They were prepared to treat with the Scots, as long as the Scots did what had previously been discussed: “to come to our aid, and to go with us in England and Wales” and “live and die with us in our quarrel.” [429]

HOW STUPID!
Using a pseudonym [430] but naming the men by their own name,
all adherents to Thomas of Lancaster!
And to make matters worse:
Thomas Randolph, earl of Moray and another close ally of Bruce, granted safe-conducts on 16 February 1322 for Roger Clifford, John Mowbray and forty horsemen to travel to Scotland.

Needless to say:
John Mombray and Roger Clifford [431]were diehard homies [432]
of Thomas of Lancaster.
By the way Mowbray was [not that the others were peaches,
but this went far] a  bad guy anyway.
When going on the rampage in one of those
Marcher Lords pillaging projects [somewhere in august or september 1321] he not only stole livestock, goods and chattels from the villagers of Laughton-en-le-Morthern in Yorkshire,
but even robbed the church! [433]

Back to the stupidity of putting treason on paper:

How is it possible that a high Lord, a political animal
as Thomas of Lancaster, who ruled de facto England for
four years [although not very cleverly, forlorn in feudism
with Edward II], could have fallen in the trap to put his
treason ON PAPER……,while he could have sent trusted men, with a verbal message,
then there was no evidence whatsoever…….
Unbelievable

Yet it happened

I think:
The arrogance of power.

Anyway, the discovery of the letters proved to be disastrous
for Thomas.

I don’t know, whether the King already suspected Thomas of
possible parleying with the Scots, but it must have
been a great shock to him anyway.
In each case, he gave orders, to make the letters
public, which was, of course, a great moral setback
for Thomas, because the support he still enjoyed
, just scrumbled away.
After all, getting along with Thomas of Lancaster
now didn’t mean merely resistance against the destructive
influence of the Despensers on the King and subsequently
[since the King was so closely tied with those Despenser
guys] against the King [which was treason], but also
conspiring with the national enemy, the Scots…….[434]

And he felt it instantly.
Not only he had absolutely no hope to gain others for his cause
anymore [remember he wanted the Despensers out of
the throne’s influence and the Ordinances to be executed][435]
his allies were deserting him.
Sir Robert Holland, one of his most faithful men, deserted
him, when he needed him most [436], something his brother,
Henry of Lancaster [our ”mystery man”, who did not take part
in his brother’s rebellion] would not forget nor forgive. [437]

And others would soon follow. [438]

Battle of Burton-on-Trent:

Thomas and the earl of Hereford and their allies left Pontefract on 1 March, broke the siege of Tickhill, and took up position at Burton-on-Trent near Tutbury Castle in Staffordshire, which belonged to Thomas.

In the meantime, Edward had pronounced Thomas, Roger Damory, Hugh Audley, Hereford, Lords Clifford and Mowbray and others to be traitors, and ordered all the sheriffs of England, the justice of Chester and the bishop of Durham to arrest them, saying that they “inflicted evil against the king’s servants, conducting war against the king with banners displayed.” [439]
To cut a long story short:
Thomas tried to hold the stronghold at Burton on Trent, but when
Edward II’s forces came and Thomas saw, that he was outnumbered, he and his adherents withdrew [440]
[smart, when you see you can’t make it].
According to some sources, “they turned their backs, set fire to the town, and fled.” [441]

They retreated to Pontefract [442], where a heated debate
took place about what to do now.
Some wanted to flee to  Dunstanburgh, yet another of Thomas’s great castles on the Northumbrian coast, but Thomas didn”t want
that, since it would seem as fleeing towards the Scots [you remember: Scottish raids were succesfully held in North
England]. [443]
Strange way of reasoning, since Thomas’ correspondence
with the Scots had already been revealed……

At the end,Thomas was ”persuaded” [yeah, with Lord
Clifford’s sword waving in Thomas face….] [444] and they fled North anyway.
At least, they tried……

II

LAST DANCE

They did not get far.
On 16 march, as the King’s army continued to move
up from the North, Thomas of Lancaster, the Earl of
Hereford, Lord Clifford and others were suddenly
halted at Boroughbridge by the arrival of Edward’s second
army of approximately 4000 men under the command of Sir Andrew Harclay [445], sheriff of Cumberland and a
former adherent of Thomas of
Lancaster [446], who already
had secured the bridge against the rebels. [447]
Commanders at the side of the rebels were:

Thomas of Lancaster
his faithful companion [and also a Marcher Lord]
the Earl of Hereford [who had Piers Gaveston executed, together with Thomas of Lancaster, the Earl
of Arundel and the 10th Earl of Warwick]
And Roger, 2nd
Baron de Clifford [son of Robert de Clifford, one
of the besiegers of Piers Gaveston and died at the Battle
of Bannockburn in 1314] [448]

The Royal Commander was:

Andrew Harclay, 1st Earl of Carlisle [449]

To cut a long, dramatic story short:

Thomas and his men were forced to battle, the Earl
of Hereford and others, attempting to walk across the bridge  to break through Harclay’s lines, didn’t succeed and Hereford
died horribly. [450]

So they lost the Battle of Boroughbridge, which
took place on 16 march 1322. [451]

And Thomas, the great Earl of Lancaster, saw himself
made prisoner…….

The long battle between him and his cousin King
Edward II was over.

But Thomas’ humiliation and suffering was about to begin…….

ASTRID ESSED

NOTES 1-250

NOTES 251-347

NOTES 348-400

NOTES 401-451

Reacties uitgeschakeld voor Thomas of Lancaster, rebel cousin of king Edward II, from warlord to Saint/Chapter Seven

Opgeslagen onder Divers

Thomas of Lancaster, rebel cousin of king Edward II, from warlord to Saint/Chapter Six

THOMAS OF LANCASTER, REBEL COUSIN OF KING EDWARD II, FROM WARLORD TO SAINT/CHAPTER SIX

File:Thomas Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster.jpg

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet,_2nd_Earl_of_LancasterTHOMAS 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

Thomas of Lancaster’s main possessions (Maddicott).THOMAS OF LANCASTER’S MAIN POSSESSIONShttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet,_2nd_Earl_of_LancasterTHOMAS 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

Thomas of Lancaster’s main possessions (Maddicott).THOMAS OF LANCASTER’S MAIN POSSESSIONShttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster7626ba0b19e62826ef9090c93b10a11b.jpg

MURDER OF PIERS GAVESTON,INTIMATE FRIEND ANS[POSSIBLE] LOVER OF KING EDWARD II, UNDER THE DIRECT RESPONSIBILITYOF THE EARLS OF LANCASTER, WARWICK, HEREFORD AND ARUNDELMURDER OF PIERS GAVESTON,INTIMATE FRIEND ANS[POSSIBLE] LOVER OF KING EDWARD II, UNDER THE DIRECT RESPONSIBILITYOF THE EARLS OF LANCASTER, WARWICK, HEREFORD AND ARUNDELhttps://themortimersblog.wordpress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traitor-the-life-execution-of-thomas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post-by-stephen-spinks/

File:Pontefract Castle.JPG

PONTEFRACT CASTLE, THOMAS OF LANCASTER’S FAVOURITECASTLE [INHERITED FROM HIS FATHER IN LAW, HENRY DE LACY, 3TH EARL OFLINCOLN, AT HIS DEATH IN 1311]IN HIS FAVOURITE CASTLE HIS SOCALLED ”TRIAL” TOOKPLACE AND NEAR HIS FAVOURITE CASTLE,  IRONICALLY,  HE WAS EXECUTEDhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontefract_Castle#Historyhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontefract_Castlemanuscript-images-medieval-castles

Edward was twice jeered by Lancaster’s garrison at Pontefract in 1317 & 1320 as he passed from north to south 

EDWARD II WAS TWICE JEERED BY THOMAS OF LANCASTERAND HIS HOUSEHOLD, IN AT PONTEFRACT IN 1317 AND 1320, WHEN HEPASSED FROM NORTH TO SOUTH…..https://themortimersblog.wordpress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traitor-the-life-execution-of-thomas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post-by-stephen-spinks/

THE EXECUTION OF THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTERhttp://www.luminarium.org/encyclopedia/thomasoflancaster.htmThomas, Earl of Lancaster

THE EXECUTION OF THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTERhttp://www.englishmonarchs.co.uk/plantagenet_74.html

File:Edmund Crouchback Arms.svg

PLANTAGENETCOAT OF ARMS OF EDMUND CROUCHBACK [SON OFKING HENRY III, BROTHER OF KING EDWARD I ANDFATHER OF THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER], THOMAS,EARL OF LANCASTER AND HIS SUCCESSORShttp://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster


Readers!Here is your traveller to history again!And she is continuing the Thomas of Lancaster drama saga!My attentive readers will remember:Earl Thomas of Lancaster, cousin of king Edward II, initially loyal to his king,then for political and personal reasons fell out with him, which would end up inan open battle.See the chapters that I sent you before:
ONE
https://www.astridessed.nl/thomas-of-lancaster-rebel-cousin-of-king-edward-ii-from-warlord-to-saint-chapter-one/

TWO
https://www.astridessed.nl/thomas-of-lancaster-rebel-cousin-of-king-edward-ii-from-warlord-to-saint-chapter-two/

THREE
https://www.astridessed.nl/thomas-of-lancaster-rebel-cousin-of-king-edward-ii-from-warlord-to-saint-chapter-three/

FOUR

FIVE

But not only Earl Thomas was a warlord, but also was proclaimed asa Saint after his death, which I find fascinatingFor how becomes a warlord a Saint?
Read all about that!
AND NOW DEAR READERS, CHAPTER SIX!

CHAPTER SIX
OPEN WAR

DESPENSER WAR/FIRST PHASE
[February-August 1321]

First

This ”book” [this article is so long, beginning to show like a book
really, patience readers] is about Thomas of Lancaster, but since
so many other players play a part in this magnificent story, they
have to be described too.
Especially to point out the complicated situation and all those
changements of alliances…..
I will mention the events of the war, but probably not all details, I am sorry
Would I have done that, it would fill a university paper…
For more reading, just look to the notes below…….

The reader must realize also, that in the first phase of
the Despenser war, the role of Thomas of Lancaster is
important, but limited.
The biggest role is played by his allies
the Marcher Lords.
You will see, that in fact, they started the war, which
was, in short, due to the Kings excessive favouritism
of his friends the Despensers.
The first phase of the war ends with the coerced banishment
of the Despensers.

A Prelude
B United against the King’s favourites/
Despenser war/Unlikely allies
C The storm breaks out/Despenser war/ started/Sworn Oaths/Fist to
fist/Toe to toe/I [First phase february-august 1321]

A

PRELUDE

In chapter five I wrote, that Thomas of Lancaster cooperated
well with the King in the unsuccesful siege of Berwick  [in the war
against the Scots][277]
But as I wrote earlier, the fragile co operation between
the two most powerful men, was ruined by the following
remark of the King
””When this wretched business is over, we will turn our hands to other matters. For I have not forgotten the wrong that was done to my brother Piers.” [278]
That despite the earlier pardons for the murder
of Piers Gaveston, the King had issued in
1313 [279] and the extended pardons to Lancaster and
his allies, given at the Treaty
of Leake. [280]
To say it again:
A king must rise above his personal feelings and must
be true to his word.
Edward II couldn’t or wouldn’t do that……

That being said:
Understandably Thomas of Lancaster, knowing
that the King’s remark about Piers Gaveston was directly aimed against him,
said ”Hasta la vista” and left Berwick. [281]
And from that moment, relations between the two men deterioriated again.

But not only the unpredictability of the King was to blame
for the deteriation between the two men,
also the rising of a new star favourite, more dangerous
than all the others had been:
You’ve met him already:
Hugh Despenser the Younger [282] and
with his coming, things would never be the same again….

To be fair, Thomas himself was certainly NOT
innocent either [not to speak about the murder of Gaveston],
because of his repeated provocations of the King.
I wrote about it in chapter five
Jeering at the King from his [Thomas’] castle Pontefract,
in 1317 [that jeering would be repeated in 1320 with the Queen accompanying the King] [283]
Once blocking the King’s path…. [284]

That could be considered as treason, and not without reason!
In each case it was to be expected, that the King would not
consider those insults lightly as will appear in this
story….. [285]

B

UNITED AGAINST THE KING’S FAVOURITES
DESPENSER WAR/UNLIKELY ALLIES

Thomas of Lancaster and his allies
The Marcher Lords and allies
Two former royal favourites

The last ”fight to the death” between Thomas and his cousin,
King Edward II, was actually a fight against the influence
of a new, far more dangerous favourite, Hugh
Despenser the Younger [286] and his father,
Hugh Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester[ Despenser
the Elder]. [287]
Who were in this fight and why?
Thomas of Lancaster of course, being the leader
of the baronial opposition against the King,
the ”Marcher Lords” [288],
Roger Mortimer and his uncle, Roger Mortimer de
Chirk [289] and their allies.
And, painfully for Edward II, his two former favourites, Roger Damory and Hugh
Audley. [290]
Once deadly enemies of Thomas of Lancaster, now allies……

In the last battle Lancaster would fight against his king,
the battle of Boroughbridge [291], Hugh Audley  would even
fight at his side…..[292]
While Sir Robert Holland, his [Thomas’] close and die hard ally, would abandon him
in his hour of need… [293]
Something Thomas’ brother Henry of Lancaster [who by
the way NOT participated in any of his brother”s rebellions, although
he seemed to be involved in the anti Despenser coalition]
[294] , would not forget or forgive…..[295]

This anti Despenser  fight [and subsequently against the King]
was called the ”Despenser war”, with the aim to
crush the Despenser’s influence over the King, which
would eventually result  in avariciousness and tyranny. [296]
But that’s for later.

What thar Despenser influence really meant?

For the Marcher Lords, to be robbed of their lands
and privileges, as the revival of an old feud.

The former favourites of the King held a grudge against Hugh
Despenser the Younger regarding his land grabbing as
the ”Gloucester inheritance case”[see below]

And for Thomas of Lancaster it was threefold:
A personal matter [he seemed to have loathed Despenser
the Elder, the reason why I don’t know]
A wish to curb royal power through the Ordinances [297]
[which included no avaricious favourites].
And of course [let’s not make an idealist of Thomas, hahaha]
a personal need for power.

COMEBACK OF THOMAS OF LANCASTER, LEADER OF THE BARONIAL
OPPOSITION AGAINST THE KING, BUT TEMPORARILY POLITICALLY
ISOLATED

As written in chapter four, after the death of his father in law in 1311,
the 3rd Earl of Lincoln [called ”Burst Belly” by vain and tragic Piers Gaveston],
Thomas became very powerful [inherited from his father in law the Earldoms
Lincoln and Salisbury, already in the possession of Lancaster, Leicester and
Derby, inherited from his own father, Edmund Crouchback, brother of King
Edward I].
So he became the ”natural” leader of the opposition against
Edward II and his favourite Piers Gaveston.
After the battle of Bannockburn in 1314, which ended so destastrous
for England, Edward II was at the mercy of Thomas, in name King,
while Thomas was the real king, de facto.
See chapter five
He became gradually politically isolated  [298] [not attending parliaments,
personal conflicts/feuds with other barons, no wise political insight, lack
of governmental talents, unable to protect the borders
against the Scottish raids, etc], but was yet too powerful
to be ignored, because of his five Earldoms and,not to forget, his royal
birth [being first cousin of Edward II]

However, when the resistance against the Despensers grew, The Marcher
Lords and others looked up to Thomas as a leader of the resistance
again, since he was the most constant factor in the struggle
against King’s favourites [and the King]….. [299]

Together, they would go ”fist to fist’, toe to toe” in this rebellion……[300]

THE MARCHER LORDS

Let’s say it like it is.
The Despensers, father and son, were a bunch of thieves
and criminals, who went into length to aggrandise their power
and wealth, with less [or not at all] scrupules.
From noble birth, admitted and married into the royal family [301],
but nevertheless, thieves.
Whether Hugh Despenser the Younger [favourite of the
King] was really attached to Edward II[302]  is food for
Medieval historians [although even they can’t look into
the royal bedchamber, supposedly Hugh was the ”husband”
of Edward II, as Queen Isabella would write later [303].
In each case, he was a shameless royal adventurer
[funny side  was, not for his victims of course, that he was a pirate
during his exile, hahahahaha [304]
And one thing was sure:
Edward II was really very attached to him. [305]

ANYWAY:

Appointed as chamberlain of the King in 1318, Hugh moved himself
into the affections of the King [306], replaced the former royal
favourites [Roger Damory, Hugh Audley and William Montecute]
and the Piers Gaveston story [but this time a far more dangerous
player] started all over again.
But this time worse, given the greed and avariciousness of
the Despensers, their excessive ambition and need for
political power.
They didn’t allow anyone access to Edward unless at least one of them was present.
Even Queen Isabella couldn’t see her husband alone! [307]
Such a crazy situation existed….

Back to the avariciousness of the Despensers:

In the Middle Ages, land was power and that was just the thing
the Despensers wanted.
They wanted to build a huge ‘empire’ in South Wales and
that was the very territory where the Marcher Lords
[keepers of the borders with Wales] had lands.
They feared their lands to be taken over, with consent
of the King [who was infatuated with our Hugh Despenser..]

Their fears were proved to be right.
In october 1320 Edward II ordered the peninsula of Gower in South Wales to be taken into his own hands, apparently to
give it to Hugh Despenser.
See for the whole, complicated story, note 308
Roger Mortimer , his uncle Roger Mortimer of
Chirk and the other Marcher Lords were furious, considering
this as a deprivation of their rights [309]
Hugh Despenser was granted also other lands in the
Marches [Welsh territory]’, which was taken fromRoger
Mortimer and  other Marcher Lords [310]

Not only unfair, but also foolish of Edward, since
most of the Marcher Lords, especially Roger Mortimer and his uncle, were, until Edward’s clear favouritism of
Despenser, at the cost of them and the other
Marcher Lords, were loyal to the throne. [311]

To make matters complicated, there also was an old
feud between Marcher Lords Roger Mortimer [and his uncle,
Roger Mortimer de Chirk] and the Despensers….
Read about that in note 312

TWO FORMER ROYAL FAVOURITES AND HUGH DESPENSER
THE YOUNGER

Hugh Despenser the Younger [as his father] had a mastertalent to
incite the fury and hatred from his colleague noblemen.
He pushed the Marcher Lords to the edge with his avariciousness
and unlimited ambition, and his avariciousness also led to a big
conflict with two former favourites of Edward II, Roger Damory and
Hugh Audley:

Not only Hugh Despenser replaced Damory and
Audley as favourites[also Montecute, but he played no further role, died in 1319 in
Gascony], he also claimed the best lands from the Gloucester inheritance.
[Hugh Despenser, Hugh Audley and Roger Damory were married to
the three sisters of the 8th Earl of Gloucester and when he died in the
battle of Bannockburn childless, his sisters were his heirs] [313]

And to further enrage Damory and Audley:
In october 1320 Edward II took the South Wales peninsula of Gower into his own hands prior to granting it to Hugh Despenser
See for background information about that, note 314
Despenser also had taken the Welsh lands of Hugh
Audley. [315]
That Despenser really was a man, who knew how to
make friends……[hahahahahaha] [316]

Is it wonder, that men like the Marcher Lords
, who once were loyal to the throne,
were driven into rebellion and that even sworn enemies
as Thomas of Lancaster and the former favourites found each other and fought side by side?

C

THE STORM BREAKS OUT/DESPENSER
WAR/SWORN OATHS/FIST TO FIST/TOE TO
TOE
I
FIRST PHASE/FEBRUARY-AUGUST 1321

1

The Marcher Lords on the rampage/sworn oaths:

The  MarcherLords must have thought:
”Attack is the best way of defence.”

Because the war started with them attacking the
Despenser lands and properties in Wales. [317]
Those calamities [sacking, looting, pillaging,
with most of the victims of course the common
people….] took place from may 1321.
Stealing from the Despensers was one thing, far more
worse was, that, as usual, the poor and defenseless people
paid the highest price:
Sacking, looting, pillaging, extorting money
from poor villagers with the threath of burning their
village. [318]
It was degrading and cruel.
Those same horrors the Marcher Lords would repeat
in the second phase of the Despenser war, in
november and december 1321. [319]

But before going on the rampage, the Marcher Lords had arranged for support in the back:

In february 1321, they held a meeting with Thomas of
Lancaster [probably at his favourite Castle Pontefract]
and there was decided to attack
Despenser lands. [320]
However, Thomas  did not take part in the attack
itself.

As a reaction on the Marcher Lords-Lancaster agreement
[to attack Despenser lands], Edward II responded in March by mobilising his forces in Wales, demonstrating that he intended to make any attack on the Despensers an attack on the crown, and therefore treasonable
[321]

That was no clever movement of the King, thereby confirming his onesided favouritism of the Despensers
and making it nearly impossible for those who were hesitant
to go into rebellion, to stay loyal to the crown.
At the other hand, the King tried to placate the
rebels [or resistance fighters against the Despenser
avariciousness, it depends from how you see it], by
calling them [the Marcher Lords] to convene with him [first in Gloucester, later in Bristol] to no avail. [322]

After attacking Despenser properties [lands, castles, etc]
as much as they pleased, Roger Mortimer and Hereford
[brother in law of Edward II and together with Thomas of Lancaster, the 10th Earl of Warwick and the 9th Earl of
Arundel, the murderer of Piers Gaveston in 1312] marched
North to join Lancaster at Pontefract.

In june the barons swore an alliance at Sherburn-in-Elmet,
near Pontefract, calling their faction
the ”Contrariants” and promised
to remove the Despensers for good.
Sadly for Thomas and his allies:
An attempt to attract the northern Lords to
their cause failed.
They stayed loyal to the King. [323]

Lancaster and the Marcher Lords would swear an oath once more on 29 november 1321, in the second phase of
the Despenser war ”to maintain what they had
commenced” [324]

2

March on London
”We bow down to no man”………..

One thing you can say about the Marcher Lords”
They DID have guts……..

Not only destroying, looting, pillaging, extortioning
and terrorising as they pleased and not
only the Despenser possessions [and innocent
people, who were unlucky to live on Despenser
lands] [325].

No, they went farther.
Much farther…..

After making their alliance with Thomas of
Lancaster at Sherburn-in-Elmet [326], the
Marcher Lords marched [hahaha, but that was what
they did] from Sherburn [near Pontefract, in
Yorkshire] to…….London….
From all places, they had the audacity to march
on the royal centre of power….

From Yorkshire to London they repeated the
same atrocities as in Wales:
Assault, extortion and terror:
They seized victuals from local inhabitants and pillaged the countryside – not only Despenser manors – all the way from Yorkshire to London. [327]
Four Marchers [John Mowbray, Stephen Baret, Jocelyn Deyville and Bogo Bayouse] even robbed the Church in Laughton-en-le-Morthen [in Yorkshire] [328]

Further they tried to buy people’s allegiance with money, and seized the property of those who refused to join them. [329]

Real maffia practices……

But that terrorising and pillaging was only
a [bad] game:
Their goal was London, to put pressure on the King
in order to banish the Despensers for good.

When they arrived outside of London on july 1321,
not really surprisingly [even without Internet
and smartphone, bad news travels fast], the citizens
of London refused to let them in.
The King also refused to meet them or even to listen to their demands that the Despensers be perpetually exiled from England, and they and their heirs disinherited “as false and traitorous criminals and spies.” [330]

Then, to go  a stadium further [in fact that was treason]
, they   placed themselves and their armies outside the city walls, at strategic locations, to prevent the king leaving……[331]

Let us put this straight:
THEY BESIEGED LONDON, ”IMPRISONING”
THE KING IN HIS OWN CAPITAL!

They then sent two knights as envoys to Edward II, to tell him that they held both Hugh Despensers “enemies and traitors to you and to the kingdom, and for this they wish them to be removed from here.” [332]
Not surprisingly, the King, again, refused to meet the envoys.

On 1 August the Marchers entered London, while their
great ally, Thomas of Lancaster, arrived also in August to support
them. [333]
Meanwhile, Despenser the Younger threatening them
from a ship  on the River Thames, and the rebels [Contrariants]
threatened  to begin to destroy royal properties and lands outside London unless he desisted. [334]

To cut a long story short:
the earls of Pembroke, Richmond, Surrey and Arundel finally brought the Marchers’ demands to Edward. If he refused to consent to the Despensers’ exile, he would be deposed. [335]

Even then the King refused.

3

QUEEN ISABELLA ON HER KNEES

And as in the chess play [336], where the Queen holds the most
important playing position, the solution came from Queen
Isabella:

Queen Isabella went down on her knees before her husband and begged him, for the good of his realm, to exile the Despensers.
[337]

That had not only the desired effect, it gave the King the opportunity, to get out from this without losing his
face, making it look like fulfilling his wife’s desire.

But it must have been very painful for Edward II, losing
his friends, who meant that much to him….
I think we must consider that, besides his foolish
and unfair favouritism at the cost of the other Lords.

4

AGAIN A MAN OF HONOUR
THE EARL OF PEMBROKE, MEDIATOR

And with all that negociating, let’s not forget the
important role of the Earl of Pembroke [the man of
honour, who didn’t want to breach his oath against
Piers Gaveston and after Gaveston’s death, diehard
loyal to the King [338] , who continually had
mediated between the Marcher Lords and the King and
was behind the exile plea of Queen Isabella. [339]

5

BANISHMENT

And finally the King decided on the banishment of
The Despensers, father and son [the favourite]
At 14 August in the Great Hall of Westminster it was to
be, in the presence, of course, of the King
Charges:
”They were accused, among many other things, of “evil covetousness,” accroaching to themselves royal power, guiding and counselling the king evilly, only allowing the magnates to speak to Edward in their presence, “ousting the king from his duty,” removing good counsellors from their positions and replacing them “by other false and bad ministers of their conspiracy,” and “plotting to distance the affection of our lord the king from the peers of the land, to have sole government of the realm between the two of them.”  [340]
[They were also called ”evil councillors” by the
Contrariants [The Marcher Lords, Thomas of Lancaster and
allies]
That was all true. [341]
The judgement decreed that the Despensers “shall be disinherited for ever as disinheritors of the crown and enemies of the king and his people, and that they shall be exiled from the realm of England, without returning at any time,” saving only the consent of the king, prelates, earls and barons in parliament. They were convicted by notoriety, with no chance to speak in their own defence. [342]

Utterly unfair, that they had no chance to speak in their own
defence, but what was ”fair trial” in that time?

The same reprehensible thing happened to so many other noblemen thereafter……

The departure date was set on 29 August, 1321.
Despenser the Elder left England immediately, perhaps to one of Edward II’s French territories, Gascony or Ponthieu.
However, his son, Despenser the Younger BECAME A PIRATE
IN THE ENGLISH CHANNEL [HAHAHAHAHA] [343]

[6]

AGAIN, ”ROYAL PARDONS”……

Between 20 August and late September 1321, Edward II
granted a pardon to more than 400 men for the murders, abductions, thefts and vandalism they had committed in the Despensers’ lands, which crimes the Marchers claimed were “a case of necessity, [and] ought not to be corrected or punished by the rigour of the law, nor could this happen without causing too much trouble.” [344]

Which of course was a hypocrite excuse and bagatellising
of serious and undefensible crimes.

Edward later protested that he had done this unwillingly and that any pardon he had given under coercion was invalid and contravened his coronation oath. [345]

I must say, the King had a point here.
The attentive reader remembers, that I wrote at the beginning
of this chapter [chapter VI], that the King was not true to his word, issuing
pardons and later to come back on them, [346]

But this case was different, because now the King was besieged
in his own capital as threathened with deposition,
if he didn’t consent with the Despensers exile.
That’s clearly coercion. And treason.

[7]

PLANNING FOR REVENGE

The King was furious, of course and by the way [but the reader
has already understood] never to consent with the permanent
exile of his Despenser friends.

The following morning at breakfast, the king talked to his ally Hamo Hethe, bishop of Rochester, “anxious and sad.”  He swore that he would “within half a year make such an amend that the whole world would hear of it and tremble,” [347]

And as we will see in the next chapter, he was true to his word…..

END OF THIS CHAPTER

SEE FOR NOTES

NOTES 1-250

NOTES 251-347

Reacties uitgeschakeld voor Thomas of Lancaster, rebel cousin of king Edward II, from warlord to Saint/Chapter Six

Opgeslagen onder Divers

Thomas of Lancaster, rebel cousin of king Edward II, from warlord to Saint/Chapter Five

THOMAS OF LANCASTER, REBEL COUSIN OF KING EDWARD II, FROM WARLORD TO SAINT/CHAPTER FIVE

File:Thomas Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster.jpg

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet,_2nd_Earl_of_LancasterTHOMAS 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

Thomas of Lancaster’s main possessions (Maddicott).THOMAS OF LANCASTER’S MAIN POSSESSIONShttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet,_2nd_Earl_of_LancasterTHOMAS 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

Thomas of Lancaster’s main possessions (Maddicott).THOMAS OF LANCASTER’S MAIN POSSESSIONShttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster7626ba0b19e62826ef9090c93b10a11b.jpg

MURDER OF PIERS GAVESTON,INTIMATE FRIEND ANS[POSSIBLE] LOVER OF KING EDWARD II, UNDER THE DIRECT RESPONSIBILITYOF THE EARLS OF LANCASTER, WARWICK, HEREFORD AND ARUNDELMURDER OF PIERS GAVESTON,INTIMATE FRIEND ANS[POSSIBLE] LOVER OF KING EDWARD II, UNDER THE DIRECT RESPONSIBILITYOF THE EARLS OF LANCASTER, WARWICK, HEREFORD AND ARUNDELhttps://themortimersblog.wordpress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traitor-the-life-execution-of-thomas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post-by-stephen-spinks/

File:Pontefract Castle.JPG

PONTEFRACT CASTLE, THOMAS OF LANCASTER’S FAVOURITECASTLE [INHERITED FROM HIS FATHER IN LAW, HENRY DE LACY, 3TH EARL OFLINCOLN, AT HIS DEATH IN 1311]IN HIS FAVOURITE CASTLE HIS SOCALLED ”TRIAL” TOOKPLACE AND NEAR HIS FAVOURITE CASTLE,  IRONICALLY,  HE WAS EXECUTEDhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontefract_Castle#Historyhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontefract_Castlemanuscript-images-medieval-castles

Edward was twice jeered by Lancaster’s garrison at Pontefract in 1317 & 1320 as he passed from north to south 

EDWARD II WAS TWICE JEERED BY THOMAS OF LANCASTERAND HIS HOUSEHOLD, IN AT PONTEFRACT IN 1317 AND 1320, WHEN HEPASSED FROM NORTH TO SOUTH…..https://themortimersblog.wordpress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traitor-the-life-execution-of-thomas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post-by-stephen-spinks/

THE EXECUTION OF THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTERhttp://www.luminarium.org/encyclopedia/thomasoflancaster.htmThomas, Earl of Lancaster

THE EXECUTION OF THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTERhttp://www.englishmonarchs.co.uk/plantagenet_74.html

File:Edmund Crouchback Arms.svg

PLANTAGENETCOAT OF ARMS OF EDMUND CROUCHBACK [SON OFKING HENRY III, BROTHER OF KING EDWARD I ANDFATHER OF THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER], THOMAS,EARL OF LANCASTER AND HIS SUCCESSORShttp://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

Readers!

In the chapters one, two, three and four we saw, how the initial loyalcousin of king Edward II, fell out with him in a feud/conflict, for political andpersonal reasons and we watched the tragic fate of king’s dear favourite,Piers Gaveston and Thomas of Lancaster’s deadly role in it.

For reasons you’ll read in Chapter Five, Thomas of Lancaster, England”s wealthiest and most powerful man after king Edward II, became the uncrowned king of England
Read furthrer:

CHAPTER FIVE:

CHAPTER FIVE
DANCE FOR POWER
THOMAS OF LANCASTER, THE UNCROWNED KING
1314-1315

A Battle of Bannockburn [1314]
B The Great Famine [1315-1317]
C Lincoln Parliament [1316]/Thomas triumphant
D Three destructive favourites [1315-1318]
E Thomas of Lancaster/Feud with Warenne
F Thomas a peach?/Dangerous incidents
G Pembroke, man of honour/Treaty of Leake [1318]
H Aftermath/The favourites
I After the Treaty of Leake/New danger….

With his good friend and ally the [10th] Earl of Warwick gone, Thomas of Lancaster
not only suffered a personal loss [they were close, since
Warwick had named his son after Thomas [192], but
also it was a political setback.
Warwick was a skilled and clever ruler, while Lancaster,
although tough and forceful in action, was as incompetent as his
cousin Edward II, when it came to ruling, as the story will show…..

From the moment Piers Gaveston was murdered by Thomas and
his accomplices, it was a dance to the death between him
and Edward II, the two most powerful men in the land, yet apart’
from the struggle for power.
For although Edward officially had pardoned Thomas [and others]
for the murder of Gaveston [193],
it was quite clear, that he would never forgive or forget his cousin’s role
in the murder of a man, whom he lhad oved that much.

During  the [unsuccesful] siege of Berwick [in which Thomas of Lancaster
cooperated, for a change, with Edward II], in 1318, Edward was stated to have said::
””When this wretched business is over, we will turn our hands to other matters. For I have not forgotten the wrong that was done to my brother Piers.” [194]

So there was a situation in which two powerful men
competed for the rule of England, both incompetent
rulers, who could not put their own personal feelings above
the general political problems, like the war with the
Scots and internal questions [I’ll refer to the
great Famine between 1315-1317 later]
Disastrous for the country and eventually for
themselves.

THE FUN WAS JUST ABOUT TO BEGIN:

A

BATTLE OF BANNOCKBURN/1314

After a tense and dangerous year [since the murder
of Gaveston in 1312], where civil war threatened in a
moment and eventually there seemed some
de escalation, tensions flew high, again.
Presumably with the aim of strenghtening his position
[a victory on the Scots would enlarge both Kings popularity
as his royal position against the barons], Edward II decided to take a military campaign
against the Scots, who were leaded by the formidable military
commander and King, Robert the Bruce. [195]

And yes, Thomas of Lancaster reacted!

As to be expected, in June 1314, Thomas refused to accompany his cousin to Scotland for the Bannockburn campaign, and sent only four knights and four men-at-arms to fulfil his feudal obligations. [196]

The outcome was disastrous.
England suffered one of the most humiliating defeats
against the Scots, in the battle of Bannockburn [197]
in which the King’s nephew [remember, Gaveston’s
brother in law, who had refused to help him], the
[8th] Earl of Gloucester, was killed in battle, [198]
as Robert de Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford,
one of the besiegers of Piers Gaveston at
Scarbourough Castle. [199]

To the great credit of the King must be said,
that although a bad military commander, he
fought very bravely and eventually they practically
had to drag
him from the battlefield to prevent the greatest
humiliation: to be captured, as would happen, years
later [in 1356], to the French King John II during
the Hundred Years War with England…. [200]

And figure:
A perhaps yearlong regency for his 2 year old
son [Edward, later Edward III, born in 1312…],
under the leadership of….guess who?
Likely, his cousin Thomas, Earl of Lancaster [King’s
halfbrothers were still too young].

SO:
THIS WAS THE GOLDEN CHANCE FOR THOMAS!

The battle of Bannockburn not only was
a great personal humiliation for Edward II, it
put him entirely at Thomas’ mercy. [201]

Had Edward been victorious, he would
have gained a great prestige and popularity, as
secure borders in the North.
That would have strengthened his position
towards Thomas of Lancaster and the other
opposing barons enormously.

But the painful reality was a humiliating defeat
[and for the Scots a great step in their freedom
fight!]

So Edward needed his cousin Thomas:
Without his help, the borders couldn’t be
defended against the Scottish raids, that now
ravaged English soil. [202]

A nasty position for a King, dependency on
a subject, who was his most powerful
nobleman and enemy.

1315/
THOMAS OF LANCASTER
DE FACTO RULER

In name Edward was the King, but the de facto
ruler was Thomas.
Alas, he proved to be as incompetent ruler
as his cousin Edward and although tough in military
action, he nevertheless was incapable to defend England against the Scottish attacks.

Perhaps it is not fair to reproach him that:
Robert the Bruce was an extraordinary skilled
military leader and the Scots were very motivated
to fight for their freedom [in the meantime ravaging
North England….]

But it IS reproachable, that neither the King nor
Thomas were capable to rise above personal
matters to work together in the State interests.

It was said, that
””Whatever pleases the lord king, the earl’s servants try to upset; and whatever pleases the earl, the king’s servants call treachery…and their lords, by whom the land ought to be defended, are not allowed to rest in harmony.” [203]

B

THE GREAT FAMINE/1315/1317

This disaster lasted from 1315 till 1317:

The first duty of a Medieval Lord [and certainly a King] was to look
to the welfare of the people.
To take care of them.
To feed the poor.
To defend the weak. [204]

When Thomas of Lancaster had sold some of his
precious belongings to feed the poor during that famine,
he should have been a saint already during his life….

That’s a pure joke, of course
Not ONE Lord in that time
would mind about the need of the poor [the chivalric
codes were merely theoretical] or would put it in his
head to sell precious things for the poor.
Besides that, the famine problem was not that simple,
because it was not only merely a question of not
HAVING food, but not capable to PRODUCE it.

The Great Famine started with bad weather in spring 1315. Crop failures lasted through 1316 until the summer harvest in 1317.

It rained heavily and constantly for much of the summer of 1314 and most of 1315 and 1316.
This torrential rain, inevitably, caused flooding; crops rotted away and livestock drowned in the waterlogged fields. So the result was the Great Famine, which is estimated to have killed at least five per cent, and perhaps much more, of the population of England. The rest of northern Europe suffered a similar or higher death toll. [205]

Edward II did his best to handle the crisis, but was not capable
to solve the problem. [206]
Perhaps Thomas of Lancaster took some measures
too, I don’t know.

Of course the famine was a hugh problem, yet it is the task
of rulers to handle wisely and competently.
Both failed, King and cousin, to handle the problems
and of course they didn’t cooperate together, which is
more than just bad ruling.
When famine is concerning, it is a crime against the poor population, which suffered the most.

However, to say to their defence, the situation WAS alarming
and partly they were powerless:
Even the King when visiting St Albans from 10 to 12 August 1315, had difficulties buying bread for himself and his household…….[207]

It is a wonder, that there had been no uprisings or peasants
revolt in that time….

The weather finally improved in 1317, and gradually the famine loosened its dread grip. [208]

Two big disasters and yet the most powerful men in the land couldn’t rise above personal matters and work together…..

A foreboding for all the mess, which was yet to come.

EDWARD II AND THOMAS OF LANCASTER/
TWO IRRESPONSIBLE FOOL RULERS

Just when there were such challenges and a need for strong
leadership, Edward II and his cousin Thomas could
do no better than thwarting each other, to the destruction
of many, including themselves.

For example [to begin with Thomas]:

Although Thomas was chosen as one of the godfathers of Edward and Isabella of France’s second son John of Eltham [209], Thomas’s great-nephew, he failed to attend the boy’s christening, a gross insult to the king and queen. [210]

But honesty obliges me to say, that before the christening solemnity of the second son of the King, Thomas and the King seemed
to have had a serious row in York…..[211]

But yet, try to keep the peace, my Lord Lancaster…..

The King acted no better:

”In April 1318 the Scots took the English town of Berwick which led to a shaky reconciliation between Lancaster and his cousin Edward.
The king, however, had not forgotten, or forgiven the death of Gaveston and was so ”wise” to have said:
When this wretched business is over, we will turn our hands to other matters. For I have not forgotten the wrong that was done to my brother Piers”.[212]

Well, the temporary ”peace” was over and Lancaster [Thomas] left. [213]
Not strange, since the remark of the King was aimed
directly against Lancaster, for his role in the murder of Gaveston.

But since the King had pardoned those involved in the
murder of Gaveston in 1313, [214]
he was obliged to his royal status to hold his word, whatever
his personal feelings and how painful for him as a person.

That’s the honour of a King AND wise ruling.
This remark but showed, that Lancaster was right, not
to trust the King…..

Nor could the King trust Lancaster.
And as will be revealed in the story, there were people
around the king, trusted ”friends”, who played a dirty role
to prevent any reconciliation between the King and
cousin Thomas.[215]

C

1316
LINCOLN PARLIAMENT/THOMAS TRIUMPHANT

The Lincoln parliament of early 1316 – at which Thomas of Lancaster attended,  more than two weeks late – requested of the king’s “dear cousin” that “he might be pleased to be chief of his council, in all the great or weighty matters concerning him [Edward] and his realm,” and Thomas, “for the great love which he bears towards his said lord the king,” agreed. [216]

To cut this shortly
Thomas was appointed to the ”chief place” in the Council
[Chief Councillor]. [217]
Unfortunately, he seemed to take little part in government and
preferred to stay at his favourite residence at Pontefract Castle
[which he had inherited jure uxoris from his father in law,
Henry de Lacy, the 3rd Earl of Lincoln] [218]
That formed a problem, since Edward II and the Council
had to communicate with him ”as though he were an independent
potentate, or another King” [219]
[Hahaha, there was no Internet then/Otherwise they could
have mailed or Facebooked…….”’Dear Cousin”, ”Sire,
my cousin……]

SURPRISE, SURPRISE/ROW WITH COUSIN KING EDWARD II

Edward and Thomas met in York in the summer of 1316 and had a furious row, apparently over Edward’s ongoing reluctance to accept the Ordinances [220], to which Thomas was devoted. [221]

Now I can imagine, that Thomas was irritated:
After all Edward II had agreed with the ordinances in 1311, and
although he was more or less coerced to[222], when a King gives
his word, his subjects have a right to expect, that he holds it.
I refer to the last passage from the coronation oath of the
King [pronounced in French]

”Sire, graunte vous à tenir & garder les loys & les custumes droitureles, les quiels la communaute de vostre roiaume aura esleu, & les defendrez & afforcerez, al honour de DIEU, à vostre poer?”
And his answer and promise
Jeo les graunte & promette.”

[English translation:
Sire, do you grant to be held and observed the just laws and customs that the community of your realm shall determine, and will you, so far as in you lies, defend and strengthen them to the honour of God?

Answer and promise of the King
” I grant and promise them.”] [223]

That means of course, that if the King grants the Ordinances,
he has to hold word.
And as a subject, Thomas of Lancaster had the right
to hold the King accountable to his oath. [224]

On the other hand I can understand the King’s position
too.
He was more or less coerced to those Ordinances, which
assaulted his royal position.
Yet a King is bound to his ”promises”…..

But of course that was not the point here.

After the brutal murder on Gaveston, any conflict
between Edward II and Thomas of Lancaster was in fact
about the King’s need for revenge on his cousin.
Maybe understandable being a private person, but a
King must put the interests of the State first.
And that Edward II was not willing or able
to do.

That was the King’s tragedy, which would led to his downfall.

D

THREE DESTRUCTIVE FAVOURITES
ROGER DAMORY, HUGH AUDLEY AND WILLIAM
MONTECUTE, THREE DESTRUCTIVE FAVOURITES
1315/1318

To make matters worse, the next years [untill the
”reconciliation” treaty of Leake], three friends and
favourites of Edward II, declared enemies of Thomas
of Lancaster, would do their utmost to further arouse
Edward’s hostility towards his cousin Thomas.
Their names were Roger Damory, Hugh Audley and
William Montecute [father of that William Montecute,
close friend of Edward III, who helped him overthrow
the regime of his mother Isabella of France and her lover
Roger Mortimer] [225]
And I am not exaggerating, when saying, that their influence
was destructive, doing everything to enlarge the tensions
in the country.

Roger Damory/Favourite and first disturber of the peace

After having mourned Piers Gaveston for about three years, Edward II had a close companion again [I don’t speculate, whether
their relationship was sexually intimate or not, let the reader
form his or her own opinion] in Roger Damory,
the most important of the three favourites [ancestor of Walt Disney, hahahaha] [226]
That man was one of a kind:

First favourite of the King [about 1315-1319], later ally of the same Thomas of Lancaster he tried to destroy during the time
he was favourite……[227]
Joining the retinue of King’s nephew, the [8th] Earl of Gloucester
[also brother in law of Piers Gaveston, whom Gloucester didn’t help, when he [Gaveston] was in the dungeons of Warwick Castle]
, Damory fought bravely
in the Battle of Bannockburn [1314] and thus attracted the King’s attention.
And so he made a quick career. [228], which especially
seemed to have been characterized by seeking his own advantage
and hinder all reconciliation attempts between Edward II and his] cousin Thomas of Lancaster. [229]
Rightly Pope John XXII wrote to King Edward ” to “remove those friends whose youth and imprudence injure the affairs of the realm.” [230]
By the way, Edward II married Roger Damory to his
niece, Elizabeth de Clare, sister of the [8th] Earl
of Gloucester. [231]

Hugh Audley/Favourite and second disturber of the peace
[only favourite to survive the reign of Edward II  and also
rebel against the King and ally of Thomas of Lancaster
and the Marcher Lords]

Hugh Audley rose in royal favour in 1315 and the relationship
came that close, that Edward II married him to his niece
Margaret de Clare, sister of the [8th] Earl of Gloucester
and dowager countess of Cornwall, widow of Edward II’s
beloved Piers Gaveston [232].
That was a beautiful catch!
Remember, Edward married Roger Damory to his other
niece Elizabeth, sister of Margaret de Clare.

William Montecute/Favourite and third disturber of the peace

William Montecute, father of his namesake William, who
was one of the closesr friends of Edward III [233], rose
into royal favour after 1315 and was a good soldier.
He was appointed steward of the royal household in 1317,
which gave him direct access to the King, so a powerful
position. [234]
He had a reputation as a good soldier. [235]

Alas, he also was a great hindrance in bringing reconciliation
between Edward II and his cousin, Thomas of Lancaster……

THE DESTRUCTIVE TRIUMVIRATE
DANGEROUS THREAT TO THE PEACE
IN THE COUNTRY

Roger Damory, Hugh Audley and William Montecute
had a highly destructive and fatal influence on the
King, intruiging against Thomas of Lancaster at any means
necessary.
The reason I condemn them so harshly is because this
dangerous policy led to further destabilisation of
the situation in the land, which was already torn
apart by the continuing threat of civil war, because of
the enmity between Edward and his cousin Thomas.

And as I see it, the destructive policy came mainly
from those three favourites, not from Thomas of
Lancaster [Thomas is no peach at all, but here he was
certainly not the attacker], who had reason to
feel himself threatened by those three.

For example [list is not complete]

At a meeting of the king’s council at Clarendon in the spring of 1317, the three openly called Thomas a traitor. [236]

That is a very serious accusation, dangerous too.

So understandably, Thomas protested.
He sent letters to the King, to say that “he fears the deadly stratagems of certain persons who thrive under the protection of the royal court…they have already carried off the earl’s wife to his disgrace and shame.” [on the history of his wife I refer later] [237]
That he subsequently [and repeatedly] asked the banishment from
Court of Damory, Audley and Montecute, comes as no suprise
either, since those gentlemen continued to sow discord
and counselled the king to remain hostile to his cousin. [238]

Out of self interest of course, and highly damaging for the
peace in the country.

Edward II, no great champion in knowledge of human nature,
was misled by those three and wrote Thomas, as reaction of
his letters with the request of banishment
””I will avenge the despite done to the earl when I can; I refuse to expel my household; for the abduction of his wife let him seek a remedy in law only.” [239]
By this, the King made things worse.

And Thomas was not alone, but was supported by Pope
John XXII, who wrote the King repeatedly in 1317 and 1318,
warning the King  not to allow any “backbiter or malicious flatterer” to bring about disunity between himself and Thomas, and to send away from court those men who offended the earl. [240]
He advised the King to “remove those friends whose youth and imprudence injure the affairs of the realm. [241]
He also warned  Thomas to “separate himself” from those who displeased Edward and to reject “suggestions of whisperers and double-tongued men.”[242]

The Pope was a real peacemaker!
In addition to the King and his cousin Thomas, he also
wrote to Thomas’ brother, Henry, [later] Earl of Lancaster several times in 1318 as a close kinsman of both the king and Thomas and “bound to pay them reverence and affection,” asking him to promote accord between them “so that the realm may be freed from disturbance” [243]

I don’t know whether Henry tried to mediate, since
it is likely, that he spent the most of that period
in France [perhaps because he wouldn’t be involved
in his brothers’ feud with the King? } [244]

But the machinations of the three favourites were
not done yet:

After several summons of the King to Thomas of
Lancaster to attend council meetings, which he not
attended [not suprisingly, since the three favourites attended,
sometimes armed…][245], the King asked his household and
friends for advice in this situation:
””You see how the earl of Lancaster has not come to parliament. You see how he scorns to obey our commands. How does it seem to you?” [246]
Some advised to arrest or exile Thomas, others, more sensible,
advised to negociate.
After all, although politically isolated now, Thomas of
Lancaster WAS a force of nature, since very powerful by the
possession of his five Earldoms and not to be underestimated,
his private army.

Be as it may, a very dangerous situation threatened:

To cut a long story short:
At the instigation of two cardinalswho had recently arrived in the country – they were with the king at York in September 1318 – a date was finally set for a meeting between Edward and Thomas, although it was postponed.
Edward agreed to take no hostile action against Thomas and his adherents, and Thomas agreed to attend the next parliament, due to be held at Lincoln in January 1318. [247]

At the beginning of October 1317, The King left York to return to London.
Alas, despite his promise a few days earlier not to take action against his cousin, he commanded his men to take up arms and attack him. [248]
Apparently one of Edward’s friends – most likely Roger Damory – had persuaded him that the earl posed a threat to Edward and that he should attack him first.
Fortunately the King informed the earl of Pembroke beforehand what he was intending to do.
He said “I have been told that the earl of Lancaster is lying in ambush, and is diligently preparing to catch us all by surprise.” [249]
Pembroke fortunately managed to convince Edward that this was not in fact the case, and talked the King out of it…..[250]

This unsound situation would continue from 1315 to 1318,
when the man of honour [see the Piers Gaveston story], Lord
Pembroke and the Middle Party intervened and managed to
reach the Treaty of Leake. [251]
But that’s for later

E

FEUD WITH WARENNE

Never a dull moment in the Edward II/Thomas of
Lancaster times.
Not only Edward and his cousin had become
bitter enemies, which included enmity between
Lancaster and the named destructive favourites,
Thomas also had a bitter feud with John de Warenne,
7th Earl of Surrey [one of the besiegers of Piers Gaveston
in Scarbourough Castle].
What the original nature of the hatred of Warenne for Lancaster
was, is not sure:
Probably he blamed Lancaster for his [Warenne’s] inability to secure a divorce [he was unhappily married]. This may be because Lancaster had persuaded the Bishop of Chichester to prosecute Warenne for his adultery [252]

In each case, Warenne retaliated with the abduction
of Lancaster’s wife, Alice de Lacy, with whom he [Lancaster]
was unhappily married. [253]
Whether the abduction took place with or without
the consent of Lady Alice, is not clear.
Lancaster, not a man to forgive an insult, retaliated again
with seizing two castles from Warenne. [254]

At last the King intervened, which led to an uneasy
peace between the two noblemen. [255]

WHAT A FUN!

However, Lancaster also thought, that the three favourites
were behind the abduction [256], which made matters
worse and worse…….

F

THOMAS OF LANCASTER A PEACH?/
FORGET IT/DANGEROUS INCIDENTS
[Jeering at the King/1318/1320/Blocking his way….]

The attentive reader shall have noticed, that I defended
Thomas of Lancaster several times:
Against the unpredictable behaviour of the King
[stating not to attack Lancaster and yet planning
an attack, not holding his word and failing to obey the Ordinances
of 1311] [257]
Against his destructive favourites, who did everything
in their power to prevent a reconciliation between the
King and his cousin Thomas.

But was Thomas then, a peach, only intended to hold
the King to his word?
NOT AT ALL!

The reader has read about his [and others’]  execution
of poor and vain Piers Gaveston.
That’s not ”peach” behaviour, but lawless and ruthless.

The King, on his part, was not ”true to his word”, stating
at one moment not to attack Thomas, and the second
moment attempting to attack him [Thanks to
the Earl of Pembroke, nothing came from that]
Stating to observe the ordinances and then not
to hold his promise.

But to the defence of the King must be said, that Thomas
did, also, his best to stir up the animosity”, which the
King [understandably] harboured because of the tragic
murder on Gaveston:

I already mentioned the absence of Thomas at the
battle of Bannockburn, as his failing to attend the
christening of the Kings second son, John of
Eltham, although he was one of the godfathers. [258]

But it became worse:

BLOCKING THE PATH OF THE KING

During the time of high tension [when the three favourites
accused Thomas of treason, his wife Alice had been abducted]
Edward and Isabella left Nottingham and the failed council meeting on 7 August 1317 [where Thomas didn’t attend, not willing
to meet the King, as long as the three destructive favourites were
not expelled from Court]] , and travelled to York. The most direct route would have taken Edward right through the town, but Thomas had blocked his way by placing armed guards on the roads and bridges south of York,
claiming he had the right to be informed about the
movement of armed men as he was the hereditary Steward
of England…..[259]

Of course the King was furious that a subject had blocked his way!

MORE FUN/
JEERING AT THE KING

Next to blocking the King’s path in his own Kingdom,
one of the worst things subjects can do is, make
a joke of their King, by jeering at him.
And that was precisely what Thomas of Lancaster
did:
1317
”Thomas made matters worse by leading his men out to the top of the castle ditch and jeering at Edward as he and his retinue travelled past. [260]

AND HE DID IT AGAIN!
1320
After the parliament in York ended [which Thomas failed to
attend], Edward II and his wife Isabella of France travelled through Pontefract on their way to London, and Thomas’s retainers once again jeered at the king, and also the queen, from the safety of the castle. [261]

NOT VERY CLEVER, MY LORD THOMAS
Not very clever……

G

PEMBROKE, MAN OF HONOUR/THE MIDDLE
PARTY AND THE TREATY OF LEAKE

Finally a reconciliation
between the two most powerful men, Edward II and his cousin Thomas,
was about to take place.
With special compliments for the Earl of Pembroke, the man of honour, who
had been offended by Gaveston’s abduction since he had given
his word [262].
The same man, who had talked Edward II out of his foolish
and dangerous intention to attack Thomas of Lancaster at his
stronghold at Pontefract [263]

With Pembroke playing an important role,
since April 1318, a group of barons and prelates [the
”Middle Party] [264] had been negotiating with the earl of Lancaster, and trying to persuade Edward and his cousin to overcome their hostility to each other. On 8 June, they came to a preliminary agreement: Edward would uphold the  Ordinances, govern by the counsel of his magnates, and conciliate Thomas, who was threatened with sanctions if he continued to hold armed assemblies [which he indeed had held,
but also the King had permitted armed Lords to his councils]. [265]

On 7 August 1318 the two men exchanged the kiss of peace in a field between Loughborough and Leicester. Edward gave his cousin a fine palfrey “in recognition of his great love” of Thomas. (Hmmmm.) A formal agreement, the Treaty of Leake, was signed in the town of Leake near Loughborough two days later [266]

Thomas of Lancaster demanded [and right he was!] that
Roger Damory, Hugh Audley and William Montacute be sent away from court, the King consented and off they went…..[267]

GOOD RIDDANCE WORKS!

I

THE FAVOURITES/AFTERMATH

Finally the destructive influence of the King’s
three favourites had come to an end!

How fared they?

Roger Damory

From Kings friend to enemy

His influence was over, athough he seemed to have been in the
favour of the king for a while.
At last, he clashed with the new and most destructive favourite
of the King, Hugh Despenser the Younger [268], joined the Marcher
Lords [sworn enemies of the Despensers, father and son and
allies of Thomas of Lancaster] [269]
He fought with the Marcher Lords against the Kings army, was
captured and tried [condemned to the traitor’s death, which was
not executed, happily for him] and died at Tutbury Priory on 12 March 1322, presumably of wounds sustained fighting against the royal army…… [270]

William Montecute

As his co favourites Roger Damory and Hugh Audleu he had
done everything to instigate further animosity between Edward II
and his cousin Thomas of Lancaster.
Therefore he was removed from his post as steward of the royal household and appointed steward of Gascony in november
1318.
He died in Gascony in 1319. [271]

Hugh Audley

Hugh Audley also turned from the friend of the King
to his enemy…..
Hugh fought with the Marcher Lords against the King
[and the Despensers] and later fought at the side of
Thomas of Lancaster [the Marcher Lords were his ally]
in the fatal Battle of Bouroughbridge [272].
He was spared execution thanks to his wife Margaret de
Clare’s pleas [she was the niece of Edward II and widow
of his former lover Piers Gaveston], somehow
survived the reign of Edward II and the regime
of his wife Isabella of France and lover Roger Mortimer [see his life/273]
and died peacefully in november 1347. [274]

He was the only one of Edward II’s favourite to
survive those turbulent times.

J

AFTER THE TREATY OF LEAKE/NEW DANGER

By late 1318, the relationship between Edward II and the earl of Lancaster was relatively good and Pembroke and
the other barons [as the other subjects of the King]
doubtless sighed with relief, because civil war
seemed to be at the end.
And for those, who doubt Thomas:
He actually co-operated with the king and took part in the siege of Berwick in 1319. [275]
But as we shall see:
Nothing lasts forever and the destructive favourites
would soon be replaced by a far more dangerous man:
Hugh Despenser the Younger [276], who would lead the King
to his destruction and his own [Hugh’s]

More about the Despensers and Thomas of Lancaster’s
role in the next chapter.

ASTRID ESSED

NOTES 1-250

NOTES 251-347

Reacties uitgeschakeld voor Thomas of Lancaster, rebel cousin of king Edward II, from warlord to Saint/Chapter Five

Opgeslagen onder Divers

Thomas of Lancaster, rebel cousin of king Edward II/From warlord to Saint/Chapter Four

THOMAS OF LANCASTER, REBEL COUSIN OF KING EDWARD II/FROMWARLORD TO SAINT/CHAPTER FOUR

File:Thomas Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster.jpg

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet,_2nd_Earl_of_LancasterTHOMAS 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

Thomas of Lancaster’s main possessions (Maddicott).THOMAS OF LANCASTER’S MAIN POSSESSIONShttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet,_2nd_Earl_of_LancasterTHOMAS 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

Thomas of Lancaster’s main possessions (Maddicott).THOMAS OF LANCASTER’S MAIN POSSESSIONShttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster7626ba0b19e62826ef9090c93b10a11b.jpg

MURDER OF PIERS GAVESTON,INTIMATE FRIEND ANS[POSSIBLE] LOVER OF KING EDWARD II, UNDER THE DIRECT RESPONSIBILITYOF THE EARLS OF LANCASTER, WARWICK, HEREFORD AND ARUNDELMURDER OF PIERS GAVESTON,INTIMATE FRIEND ANS[POSSIBLE] LOVER OF KING EDWARD II, UNDER THE DIRECT RESPONSIBILITYOF THE EARLS OF LANCASTER, WARWICK, HEREFORD AND ARUNDELhttps://themortimersblog.wordpress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traitor-the-life-execution-of-thomas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post-by-stephen-spinks/

File:Pontefract Castle.JPG

PONTEFRACT CASTLE, THOMAS OF LANCASTER’S FAVOURITECASTLE [INHERITED FROM HIS FATHER IN LAW, HENRY DE LACY, 3TH EARL OFLINCOLN, AT HIS DEATH IN 1311]IN HIS FAVOURITE CASTLE HIS SOCALLED ”TRIAL” TOOKPLACE AND NEAR HIS FAVOURITE CASTLE,  IRONICALLY,  HE WAS EXECUTEDhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontefract_Castle#Historyhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontefract_Castlemanuscript-images-medieval-castles

Edward was twice jeered by Lancaster’s garrison at Pontefract in 1317 & 1320 as he passed from north to south 

EDWARD II WAS TWICE JEERED BY THOMAS OF LANCASTERAND HIS HOUSEHOLD, IN AT PONTEFRACT IN 1317 AND 1320, WHEN HEPASSED FROM NORTH TO SOUTH…..https://themortimersblog.wordpress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traitor-the-life-execution-of-thomas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post-by-stephen-spinks/

THE EXECUTION OF THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTERhttp://www.luminarium.org/encyclopedia/thomasoflancaster.htmThomas, Earl of Lancaster

THE EXECUTION OF THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTERhttp://www.englishmonarchs.co.uk/plantagenet_74.html

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PLANTAGENETCOAT OF ARMS OF EDMUND CROUCHBACK [SON OFKING HENRY III, BROTHER OF KING EDWARD I ANDFATHER OF THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER], THOMAS,EARL OF LANCASTER AND HIS SUCCESSORShttp://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

Dear Readers
Travel with me to 14th century England again……
Recently I sent you chapter one, two and three of my ”book” article ”Thomas of Lancaster, rebel cousin of king Edward II, from warlord to Saint”It inarrates the turbulent lifeof Earl Thomas of Lancaster, cousin of king Edward IIBecause it is extended, I do you the favour of sending my major article to you in chapters
You still remember chapters one, two and three?
https://www.astridessed.nl/thomas-of-lancaster-rebel-cousin-of-king-edward-ii-from-warlord-to-saint-chapter-one/

AND NOW……CHAPTER FOUR!ENJOY AND WATCH CLOSELY, HOW THE DRAMA UNFOLDS……..

CHAPTER FOUR
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND KING EDWARD II
OUTBURST OF THE CONFLICT/PIERS GAVESTON,
THE ROYAL FAVOURITE

[This is a rather elaborated story about Piers Gaveston,
since he played a large part in the enmity between Thomas
and his cousin Edward II]

It was the tragedy of Piers Gaveston, who set a deep and nearly
invincible enmity between King Edward and his cousin Thomas……

The first indication of tension between Edward II and his
cousin Thomas was his abrupt leave of the Court in 1308, the fact
that he, obviously, witnessed no charters after that day, until
march 1310 AND that the constant flow of grants and favours to him from Edward also ceased. [82]
I don’t know, what the cause of the conflict was.
In each case, it didn’t seem to be referred to Gaveston, since
Lancaster, at first, was on friendly terms with him and remained
loyal, when the barons were pressing for Gaveston’s exile
in the spring of 1308 [83], he later completely turned against
Piers Gaveston.

Before going to that, something about Piers Gaveston
[about whom I will write an article in the future, just wait and
see]
He was a fascinating man.
Intelligent, witty, charming, with martial skills and later proved
to be a skilled military administrator.

Alas……
Too arrogant and provocative, which eventually led to his downfall.

PIERS GAVESTON

Piers Gaveston was an English nobleman from Gascon descent.
His father was a Gascon knight, Arnaud de Gabaston, his mother was
a noble woman,
Claramonde de Marsan [84]. Some sources suggest, that she is burned as
a witch [85], but there is no proof for that.
His father was in the service of King Edward I [Edward II’s father] and Piers
[Gaveston]
seems to have served King Edward likewise. [86]
Anyway, King Edward I was apparently impressed by Gaveston’s conduct and martial skills, and wanted him to serve as a model for his son [the
later Edward II], so he became a member of his household. [87]

FIRST EXILE

To cut a long story short:
Prince Edward and Piers Gaveston grew very fond of each other, probably too fond in the
eyes of the King…..and  fearing the apparent influence
of Piers on the [then] Prince of Wales [88], Edward [II], Piers
Gaveston was banished. [89]
That was the first time.
There were still two times to go…..

RETURN TO ENGLAND

Old King Edward I died on 7 july, 1307 and his son, Edward of
Caernarfon [named after his Welsh birthplace] [90], was now King of England.
One of his first acts was, surprise, surprise…..to recall his favourite
Piers Gaveston from exile.[91]

TROUBLES WITH THE BARONS/FAVOURS FROM THE
KING AND PROVOCATIONS

Very soon this led to great displeasure, to say it mildly under
the greatest part of the nobility, since Edward made him
”Earl of Cornwall” and this title was reserved for the members of
the royal family. [92]
So the great barons felt insulted, not only because of this title,
as for the fact, that compared with them, Piers Gaveston was of relatively
humble origins. ‘[93]

And then that coronation business!

As I wrote, Thomas of Lancaster carried the sword ”Curtana” at
the coronation of Edward II [and his wife Isabella of France], his
brother Henry carried  the royal rod, as were many other members
of high nobility involved in the ceremony. [94]

BUT PIERS GAVESTON STOLE THE SHOW!
While the Earls wore cloth-of-gold, as they were entitled to do in the king’s presence (cloth-of-gold is material shot through with gold thread), Gaveston wore royal purple, of silk, encrusted with jewels. [95]
They were beaten by Piers Gaveston at the tournament at
Wallingford in december 1307, what seemed to have aroused fury. [96]
They were also insulted, that the King married Piers
Gaveston off to his niece Margaret de Clare [97], daughter
of Kings sister Joan of Acre [married Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Gloucester] [98] and sister of the powerful [8th] Earl of Gloucester.
[99]

And then those nicknames!

Perhaps out of self-defence, or merely
for the pleasure of provocation, Piers gave the Earls
and barons all sort of insulting nicknames:

Henry de Lacy, [3rd] Earl of Lincoln, the father in
law of Thomas of Lancaster, was called ”burst belly” [boule
crevee], Thomas of Lancaster himself was called ”the churl”
or ”the fiddler”, the [2nd] Earl of Pembroke [100]
[a man of honour, which will show later] ”Joseph
the Jew” and  the [10th] Earl of Warwick [101], one of Piers”
most bitter enemies, was called ”the Black Dog of Arden.” [102]
Whether Piers really called his brother in law, the [7th] Earl of Gloucester ”whoreson”, is doubtful, since the lady in question,
Gloucester’s mother [as the mother of Piers” wife]
was the sister of the King….[103]

Yet, although annoying [apart of course from
that ”whoreson” what really was serious]
, one should think, that some
teasing, defeat at a tournament and arrogance would
not trigger such a hatred, as especially Thomas of
Lancaster and Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick
have had for the vain, witty and charming
Piers, who did them, further [unlike the later
favourite, Hugh Despenser the Younger, who was
real powerseeking and dangerous [104] no harm.

But those were high Earls, most of them royal or
else married with royalty and no men to forget insults,
especially from a man, who was, in their eyes, of
”humble origin” [105] and considered to be an adventurer.

And the King did nothing to stop Piers” arrogance.
On the contrary:
He seemed the witty remarks of Piers ”funny”

Seen the King’s great love and emotional dependence
of Piers Gaveston [as shows not only the  numerous
gifts and honours he bestowed at him, as his reaction
on his banishments], some writers assumed they were lovers
and others, not [106]

I can’t look into the Medieval royal bedchamber, of course, but
given Edward’s great emotional need for Piers, that he swore
vengeance after his death [107] as the fact that
he never forgot him [108], it seems likely to me.

ENOUGH IS ENOUGH/YOUR GRACE, BANISH THAT
RASCAL!
SECOND EXILE

No part to play for Thomas of Lancaster
Not yet……..

Tensions rose between at one side the Earls and barons and
at the other side Piers Gaveston [and subsequently, the King]

This led to the second [Piers was already banished firstly
by Edward I, recalled by Edward II] banishment of Piers Gaveston in 1308

I already mentioned the arrogant behaviour of Piers,
the insulting nicknames, the fact that the King married him
off to a member of the royal family [his niece Margaret
de Clare], Piers” showing off at the coronation
of the King [and Isabella, his wife] [109], his beating of
important members of the nobility at the tournament
of Wallingford, the fact, that the King had made him
regent during his absence [his marriage in France, with
Isabella, daughter of King Philip IV] [110]

Reasons enough for the high and mighty Lords to hate Piers.
What I DIDN’T mention [and do now], that the King
refused to see any of his barons unless Piers was also present, and rudely ignored them, talking only to Piers. [111]

The Medieval
chronicle Vita Edwardi Secundi [Latin: Life of Edward the Second]
wrote about Piers” growing arrogance:’
””scornfully rolling his upraised eyes in pride and in abuse, he looked down upon all with pompous and supercilious countenance…indeed the superciliousness which he affected would have been unbearable enough in a king’s son.”

ENOUGH IS ENOUGH, the Earls and barons must have said:
He has to go!

Under pressure of nearly every member of the nobility, the King was forced to banish Gaveston. [112]

Another powerful influence came from the French King, Philip IV
who, apparently offended by the Edward II’s favouritism
of Gaveston and the [intended or not] neglect, at least
at the coronation banquet [113] of his [Philip IV’s] daughter Isabella, and Edward’s wife, supported the barons. [114]

According some sources he said to have sent 40,000 livres to the earls of Lincoln [Thomas of Lancaster’s father
in law] and Pembroke to encourage them to proceed against Gaveston. [115]

Strangely although, at that time Thomas of Lancaster was
still supportive to the King, along with a small minority,
and was not behind the banishment. [116]
However, that would change, dramatically

Well, on 18 may [1308] Edward consented to exile
Piers, which he did grudgedly, but with no choice:
Civil war was treathening [figure, ONE YEAR a King
and already the nobility willing to rise against you…..]
and although he was stripped from his lands [being
Earl of Cornwall], but was allowed to hold the title.
And he was not without an income!
Edward granted Piers £2000 worth of lands in his homeland of Gascony, and another £2000 of English lands for
him and his wife Margaret [who accompanied him
in exiler, although she was not banished, being
the granddaughter of King Edward I and the sister
of the Earl of Gloucester.
Edward also gave him a gift of 1180 marks, about 786 pounds, an enormous sum ![117]

And he was not actually BANISHED from the realm, since
he was appointed Lieutenant General in Ireland, where he
showed [granted] a skilled military administrator and even
beat down a rebellion. [118]

Meanwhile Edward did his utmost to bring Piers back.
Through distribution of patronage and concessions to political demands, he won over several of the earls who had previously been of a hostile disposition. [119]
Henry de Lacy [Earl of Lincoln, Thomas
of Lancaster’s father in law], who was the leader of the baronial opposition due to his age and great wealth, was reconciled with Edward by late summer 1308. Even Warwick, who had been the most unyielding enemies, of Gaveston, was gradually mollified
The excommunication with which Piers was threatened by the
Archbishop of Canterbury should he come
back, was nullified by Pope Clement V. [120].
That was in april 1309.

So the way was free for Piers to return.
Of course it had come with a price:
At the parliament that met at Stamford in July, Edward had to agree to a series of political concessions, The so-called Statute of Stamford was based on a similar document Edward I had consented to in 1300, called the articuli super carta, which was in turn based on Magna Carta.

The ”Statute of Stamford” implied a promiose to redress baronial grievances. [121]

However:
At 27 june 1309, Piers had returned to England.
On 5 August 1309, Gaveston was reinstated with the earldom of Cornwall.

RETURN/AS ARROGANT AS EVER!

BUT SOME PEOPLE NEVER LEARN.

You would expect some modesty, some cautiousness.

But no, Piers Gaveston was as arrogant as ever, perhaps
even worse and the King did nothing to stop him.
He played the old game again, provocating the nobility
and giving them insulting nicknames. [122]

Of course the Earls and barons were furious!
They had enough of it.

The political climate became so hateful that in February 1310, a number of the earls refused to attend parliament as long as Gaveston was present. Gaveston was dismissed, and, when parliament convened, the disaffected barons presented a list of grievances they wanted addressed. On 16 March, the King was forced to appoint a group of men to ordain reforms of the royal household.[This group of so-called Lords Ordainers cons isted of eight earls, seven bishops and six barons.[123]

Among them supporters of the King, like the Earl of Gloucester
[his nephew and brother in law of Piers Gaveston], but also die hard
opponents of Piers Gaveston [and subsequently the King], like
the [10th] Earl of Warwick and Thomas of Lancaster, who was now
neither a friend of the king, nor of Piers Gaveston.
The natural leader of the Ordainers was ”burst belly” [nickname
by Piers Gaveston….], Henry de Lacy, the [3rd] Earl of Lincoln
and father in law of Thomas of Lancaster.
Lincoln had a moderate influence, which, alas, would disappear…..

LORD ORDAINERS

The meaning of the Ordinances, as eventually presented in 1311 [124], was
twofold.
The great Lords wanted to get rid of Piers Gaveston, surely, but I
think, that even when there had been no Gaveston, such as the Ordinances
would have been presented [since Edward II was not the strong leader
his father was], aiming at limiting royal power.

To say it otherwise:
The eternal struggle between centralization and decentralization, as
I have described in part one.

So:

Hatred against Piers Gaveston, the ”Gascon adventurer” and his
influence over the King, combined with adesire for reforms, partly
based on the ideas of Simon de Montfort [125]
Partly [or mainly, as you see it] based on greater influence for
the nobility and a weaker kingship.

With the King doting over Gaveston no difficult task…..

Anyway, to cut a long story short:

When the Lord Ordainers were working on reforms [consisting
diminishing royal power], the King launched a military campaign against
the Scots, but many barons refused to follow him.
Except his nephew [and brother in law of Gaveston] Gloucester, Warenne [126] and of course, Piers Gaveston.
It came to nothing, however, when the Scottish King and leader
Robert the Bruce [127] refused to engage in open battle, or even get involved in negotiations.
In February, Gaveston was sent with an army north from
Roxburgh to Perth, but he failed to track down the Scottish army. [128]

EXIT ”BURST BELLY”/THE COMING OF THOMAS OF LANCASTER

In the meantime it went worse and going to a new tragedy for the
King and Gaveston:
”Burst Belly”, Thomas of Lancaster’s father in law died on 6 february 1311,
which meant the end of the moderate influence in the
baronial opposition against the King.

Thomas of Lancaster, as his heir [now in the possession of five Earldoms,
three from his father and two from his father in law]
became the new leader of the Lords Ordainers and  a hardliner!

With the Ordainers ready to present their programme of reform, Edward had to summon a parliament. In late July he appointed Gaveston Lieutenant of Scotland, and departed for London.
The Bruce still evaded the English successfully, in early August even staging a raid into northern England, and shortly after this Gaveston withdrew to Bamburgh Castle in Northumberland.

When parliament met on 16 August, the King was presented with a set of proposed reforms of the royal household, as well as specific attacks on individuals, including a demand for the renewed exile of Piers Gaveston.
Edward initially offered to agree to the reforms as long as Gaveston was allowed to stay, but the Ordainers refused.

The King eventually had to agree to the Ordinances, which were published on 27 September.
On 3 November, two days after the allotted deadline, Gaveston left England ………..[129]

A triumph for the barons
A deep, personal tragedy for the King.

DETORIATION OF THE RELATIONS
BETWEEN THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND THE KING/
CLASHES

Before continuing with the Piers Gaveston tragedy, some examples of
the detoriation of the relationship between the King and his cousin
Thomas of Lancaster:

In February 1311, Thomas’  father-in-law Henry de Lacy, earl of Lincoln, died, and Thomas inherited his lands by right of his wife Alice. He had to perform homage to Edward II for the lands, but Edward was then on campaign in Scotland. Thomas refused to cross the Tweed to meet the king; Edward refused to return to England. According to the Lanercost chronicle, Thomas threatened to forcibly enter his lands with a hundred knights, at which Edward gave in and met Thomas at Haggerston, on the English side of the river Tweed.
Whatever they felt for each other by then, the men at least managed to conceal any hostility and “saluted each other amicably and exchanged frequent kisses.” [130]

This in fact was a declaraion of war against his King and is
considered to be treason…..

But there is more:

”In June 1314, Thomas refused to accompany his cousin to Scotland for the Bannockburn campaign, and sent only four knights and four men-at-armsto fulfil his feudal obligations.” [131]

Of course the Gaveston tragedy….. [132]

And in 1316, when open war was imminent between those two
most powerful men in England, the following:

Although Thomas was chosen as one of the godfathers of Edward and Isabella of France’s second son John of Eltham [133], Thomas’s great-nephew, he failed to attend the boy’s christening, a gross insult to the king and queen. [134]

But honesty obliges me to say, that before the christening solemnity of the second son of the King, Thomas and the King seemed
to have had a serious row in York…..[135]

Back to Gaveston:

RETURN TO ENGLAND
PIERS GAVESTON GOES HOME……..

You noticed the hatred, the barons felt for Piers Gaveston
Their attempts to get rid of him.
Twice
And this time, his exile was really
meant forever……

And guess who’s coming to visit?

PIERS GAVESTON!
Came back again.

Despite the fact the barons hated him.
Despite the fact that he was to be excommunicated,
whenever he set his foot on English soil again.

If the man was not playing a crazy and reckless game, his return
must have had a pressing need:
I think perhaps he came back for the birth of his
child.
And for him it must have been a wonderful thing,
that at least he saw his child:
At 12 january, Piers’ wife Margaret gave birth to a
daughter, Joan.
Edward seems to have met Piers at Knaresborough on 13 January, [I don’t know when Piers set foot on English soil]
and the two men rushed the seventeen miles to York that same day, likely so Piers could see his wife and baby. [136]

Seen in the light of the tragic events, it’s good to know
that he at least saw his child, before the tragedy befell him……

What then happened was no clever politics
from the King:
He publicly revoked Gaveston”s exile. [137]
So the barons knew that he was back and were now
preparing for civil war, with Thomas of Lancaster
and The Earl of Warwick ahead!
In march Gaveston was excommunicated [138]
and soon he, the King and Queen Isabella were hunted
down by the barons.

Thomas of Lancaster came after them with an army
and Edward fled with his wife and Gaveston, pursued
by his own cousin Thomas! [139]

WHAT A DEGRADING SITUATION!
WHEN A KING MUST TAKE FLIGHT FOR
HIS OWN, ARMED SUBJECTS, HIS RULE
AND KINGSHIP IS BANKRUPT AND AT THAT
MOMENT HE IS, AS A KING, A TOTAL FAILURE!

Edward should have been warned by this, that if he was not
able to restore his authority in short time, this could be
the beginning of the end!

And it was………

How powerful Thomas of Lancaster must have felt.
As if HE were the King…….

It was a dramatic flight, with a dramatic end.
Edward’s desperate attempts to keep
Gaveston safe seem to have gone so far, that he offered
Robert the Bruce [King of the Scots and the great leader
of the rise against the English domination] to acknowledge
him as King in exchange for the protection of Gaveston. [140]
Which the Bruce refused, who seems to have exclaimed
””How shall the king of England keep faith with me, since he does not observe the sworn promises made to his liege men?…No trust can be put in such a fickle man; his promises will not deceive me.”
[141]

I ask my readers:
If the king wanted to go that far to save his favourite, Gaveston,
were they just friends or lovers?
I think, lovers……

SIEGE OF SCARBOROUGH

Meanwhile the barons, under the leadership of
Thomas of Lancaster, were determined ”to get him”
[Gaveston]

Thomas of Lancaster nearly captured the King and his favourite,
when they were in Newcastle and the [2nd] Earl of Pembroke [142]
and the [7th] Earl of Surrey, John de Warenne [143], were given the task to capture Gaveston. [144]

The King and Gaveston split up [probably the King wanted
to get reinforcements to protect Gaveston] [145], the king and
Queen went to York and Gaveston was in Scarbourough Castle.
That was the last time, King Edward would ever see Gaveston…..

Soon Gaveston was besieged by Pembroke, Warenne, Henry de Percy
[1st Baron Percy] [146] and Robert de Clifford [1st Baron de Clifford][147]

ONE MAN OF HONOUR…..

The rest of the story is gruesome, but one
man should get the credits he deserved.
Aymer de Valence, [2nd] Earl of Pembroke.
As written, Gaveston was besieged in Scarborough by
Pembroke, Warenne, with the help of Henry de Percy
and Robert de Clifford.

Gaveston could not held the castle, so he surrendered to the
besiegers.
The terms of the surrender were that Pembroke, Warenne and Percy would take Gaveston to York, where the barons would negotiate with the king. If an agreement could not be reached by 1 August, Gaveston would be allowed to return to Scarborough. The three swore an oath to guarantee his safety.After an initial meeting with the King in York, Gaveston was left in the custody of Pembroke, who escorted him south for safekeeping.

Pembroke [who was the cousin of the late King Edward I, his father
being the halfbrother of Edward I’s father, King Henry III] [148]
did his utmost to behold his word.
When leaving Gaveston in the rectory at Deddington in Oxfordshire
to visit his wife, Gaveston’s bitter enemy and great ally of Thomas of Lancaster, the 10th Earl of Warwick,
found out about Gaveston’s whereabouts, he immediately rode out to capture him. The next morning he appeared at the rectory, where he took Gaveston captive and brought him back to his castle at Warwick.

Pembroke, who was shocked, that he broke his word without
his guilt and found therefore his honour affronted, did his utmost
to bring Gaveston back:
He appealed for justice both to Gaveston’s brother-in-law Gloucester and to the University of Oxford, but to no avail. [149]

SO, THAT’S A MAN OF HONOUR, AN MAN TRUE TO HIS WORD!

He [Pembroke] was so shocked about what happened thereafter, that
he left the baronial opposition and sided from then with King Edward. [150]

AFTERMATH/PIERS GAVESTON GOES HOME…..
DIRTY ROLE TO PLAY FOR THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND
CO

What happened then was dishonourable and criminal:

After putting Gaveston in his dungeons, Warwick sent word
to Thomas of Lancaster, the [4th] Earl of Hereford [married with the
sister of King Edward….] [151] and the [9th] Earl of Arundel [152]

They came to Warwick Castle and in a show trial they condemned poor Gaveston to death [among
else ”for having violated the Ordinances…]
On 19 June, he was taken out on the road towards Kenilworth as far to
a place, Blacklow Hill, which was on the Earl of Lancaster’s land.

There he was beheaded by two Welshmen….. [153]

They at least ”granted” him the ”honour” of
beheading, the nobleman’s death, since he was
the brother in law of the [8th] Earl of Gloucester, the
King’s nephew. [154]

Poor Gaveston, who flew too high and was too vain and
had a too sharp tongue…..

His daughter was just five months old.
She never knew her father [155]

”MY BROTHER PIERS”/AFTERMATH

[My Brother Piers, that was the way King Edward II called
Piers Gaveston…] [156]

If Thomas of Lancaster and [the 10th Earl of] Warwick had thought,
that their unlawful killing of Piers Gaveston would end the  threat of civil war,
they were wrong.
It only made things worse.

Not only the King who [understandably] was beside himself of grief and
rage and swore revenge on Gaveston’s killers [157],
many former adherents of Lancaster and Warwick were
alienated from them, shocked by the  illegality and brutality of
the murder of a man, who was only too arrogant, witty and
avarious, but posed no political threat.[158]
That would be totally different in the case of a later favourite, Hugh Despenser
the Younger, who, with his father, also Hugh, 1st Earl of Winchester,
would pose a real political threat, was powerseeking, greedy and dangerous
in a way, Gaveston never was…….[159]
People would miss Gaveston en wish he were here, in place ofthe  Despensers
…………….

So the brutal killing of Gaveston had the effect of garnering
support for the king and marginalising the rebellious barons.

So, many  turned to the King again, also those
directly  involved with the fight against Gaveston, especially

the Earl of Pembroke, who reproached Warwick to have offended his
honour by abducting Gaveston, when in his [Pembroke’s] custody
[see above] [160]
But also Warenne, the [7th] Earl of Surrey [161], with Pembroke, one of
the bersiegers of Scarbourough Castle [where Gaveston was hiding]
was pushed back into the kings’ camp, unhappy
about Gaveston’s execution. [162]
By the way:
Later, Warenne would become a bitter enemy of Thomas of
Lancaster, who accused him to have played a role in the abduction
of his wife, Alice de Lacy, with whom he was married unhappily…. [163]

But there was more to it:

Since civil war was still on the move, Thomas of Lancaster and his gang
[let’s bring some humour in this sordid story], the Earls of Warwick and Hereford
[who was, remember, King’s brother in law] [164], brought their armies
in Hertfordshire [immediately North of London] [165] and the King,
moving from York [where he had heard the news of the death of Gaveston],
headed for London.

He arrived in Westminster and on 14 July and stayed there for the rest of the month, and made an impassioned public speech at the house of the Dominicans asking the Londoners to defend the city against Piers Gaveston’s killers.
London supported him and closed the gates of the city against the earls of Lancaster, Warwick and Hereford. [166]

KING’S PARDONS

What to do?
That was the question.
Piers Gaveston was brutally murdered, the King wanted
revenge, he went to London, but the murderers of Gaveston
also brought their armies to Hertfordshire [immediately North
of London], although the Londoners closed the gates for them.

Civil war was close to begin, in earnest.

Something had to be done:

There were mediators between the King and the Earls
[Thomas of Lancaster, Guy de Beauchamp, Earl of
Warwick and the Earl of Hereford, brother in law of
the King]
I mention here:

The [8th] Earl of Gloucester, nephew of the King
[who, by the way, had refused to help Gaveston when
imprisoned in Warwick Castle [167]
Lord Clifford [one of the besiegers of Scarbourough,
but further loyal to the King]
Louis, Count of Evreux [168], halfbrother of King Philip
IV [father in law of Edward II], sent by him to mediate.
The Pope [Pope Clement V] [169], sent two
envoys, Arnaud d’Aux, bishop of Poitiers, and Cardinal Arnaud Nouvel.
Another negotiator was Edward II’s first cousin John of Brittany, earl of Richmond, grandson of Henry III [170]

High profile mediators, thus.

Yet a military confrontation threatened throughout the summer and early autumn of 1312.

But, luckily, nothing came from that.

Meanwhile, Edward II must have been consolated in a way
for the grief about Gaveston, when on 13 november 1312,
his first son, the future King Edward III was born [171], which
of course delighted his father [Edward II] and his
mother, Queen Isabella. [172]

Anyway, a treaty was made and sealed in London on 20 December 1312, in the presence of Cardinal Arnaud Nouvel, Arnaud d’Aux, bishop of Poitiers, Louis, count of Evreux, and the earls of Gloucester and Richmond.
It was agreed that the three earls and various barons would make obeisance to Edward II in his great hall at Westminster, “with great humility, on their knees” (oue graunte humilite as genuz/cum magna humilitate flexis genibus) and “humbly beg him to release them from his resentment and rancour, and receive them into his good will.” [173]

The precious goods, belonging to Edward II and Piers Gaveston,
seized by Thomas of Lancaster [174], must be returned
to the King.

On 16 December, four days before the treaty, Edward had granted Lancaster a safe-conduct and permission to use an escort of forty men-at-arms to bring him his possessions.

No action would be taken against Piers’ followers, and the three earls and all their own followers would be pardoned for anything they had done to Piers.

On 16 October 1313 at Westminster, Edward II pardoned the three earls, and more than 350 of their adherents, “of all causes of rancour, anger, distress, actions, obligations, quarrels and accusations, arisen in any manner on account of Piers Gaveston, from the time of our marriage with our dear companion, our very dear lady, Lady Isabella queen of England.”
Over 350 men were pardoned.
[175]

Of course this was only a show, because the King wanted
to take his revenge, but was was not in
the opportunity, since the power of the Earls was too strong.

The drama would continue.

And another dramatic addition:

When Piers Gaveston was murdered and the body
[that was simply ”left behind” at the place of the execution
and later found by a group of Dominican friars
brought the body and embalmed the body],
Piers Gaveston could not be buried in consecrated ground,
since he was excommunicated.
So the King had to wait, until he had secured a papal
absolution for his favourite. [176]
Eventually  when the absolution was given, Piers
Gaveston was burned at Langley Priory [founded
by Edward II]
at 2 or 3 january 1315…… [177]

AFTERMATH

WHAT HAPPENED TO THE KILLERS/BESIEGERS OF GAVESTON?

Readers, although the story writes itself, I think you want
to know in advance, what happened to the killers of
Piers Gaveston.

An overview:

Guy de Beauchamp, the [10th] Earl of Warwick:

As been written, Guy de Beauchamp, that great ally
of Thomas of Lancaster and bitter enemy of Piers
Gaveston, had abducted him [Piers Gaveston] from
the custody of the Earl of Pembroke,
brought him to Warwick Castle, put him in one of his dungeons
and awaited Thomas of Lancaster and the Earls of Hereford
and Arundel.
Gaveston was given a mock trial and put to
death at Blacklow Hill.
Warwick didn’t attend the murder, in contary with the other
three Earls.

After Gaveston’s death, Warwick remained the enemy
of the King [received pardon nevertheless] and refused
to participate in the campaign of Edward II against
the Scots, which resulted in the defeat at Bannockburn. [178]
However, In mid-July Warwick had to withdraw from government to his estates, due to illness.[36]
He died on 12 August 1315. [179]
There were rumours that Edward II had him poisoned,
but there is no proof for that. [180]

In contrary with Thomas Lancaster, he was an intelligent and skilled politician and was undoubtedly greatly missed by him [:Lancaster]

HUMPHREY DE BOHUN, 4TH EARL OF HEREFORD

One of the killers of Piers Gaveston, who attended his
murder was King’s the [4th] Earl of Hereford.
He did fight in the battle of Bannockburn, was taken
prisoner and although he was out of grace after the
murder of Piers Gaveston, was ransomed by Edward
II, obviously on the pleading of his [Edward’s] wife,
Isabella. [181]
Éventually, he joined the second rebellion of Thomas
of Lancaster and was killed in the Battle of Bouroughbridge.
[182]

EDMUND FITZALAN, [9TH] EARL OF ARUNDEL

Together with Thomas of Lancaster and the  Earl of
Hereford, the Earl of Arundel watched the murder of
Piers Gaveston, after [with Warwick, Lancaster and Hereford]
condemning him to death in a mock trial.
However, he turned to the King again in 1313 [and married
his son Richard to the daughter of Hugh Despenser the Younger,
the Kings later favourite].
As result of his loyalty, he was executed in 1326, when
Isabella of France and her [supposed] lover Roger
Mortimer invaded England and deposed Edward II. [183]

AYMER DE VALENCE, 2ND EARL OF PEMBROKE

The Earl of Pembroke was one of the besiegers of Castle
Scarbourough, where Piers Gaveston was hiding.
And he was a man of honour, who gave Gaveston his
word for his safety and was honestly shocked, when
the Earl of Warwick abducted him.
He tried to save Gaveston by appealing for justice
at the University of Oxford and Gaveston’s brother in
law, the Earl of Gloucester, but to no avail. [184]
Being shocked at this violation of his honour,
he sided with the King again [185], tried to prevent
civil war by mediating between the King and Thomas
of Lancaster.
Eventually he came into trouble because the rise
of the Despensers, was sent to an embassy in France
and died there.  [186]

JOHN DE WARENNE, 7TH EARL OF SURREY

With the Earl of Pembroke and others one of the besiegers
of Castle Scarbourough.
However, unhappy with the extrajudicial execution of Piers Gaveston,
he sided with the King again.
Later he had a long lasting feud with Thomas of Lancaster over
his supposed role in the abduction of Lancaster’s wife.
Together with the Earl of Arundel, they were the last Earls, who
remained loyal to Edward II, when his wife Isabella of France
and her [possible] lover Roger Mortimer invaded England.
After the execution of Arundel, he went over to Isabella and
Mortimer.
Eventually he died peacefully in 1345, as one of the few Earls
during the reign of Edward II. [187]

HENRY DE PERCY, 1ST BARON PERCY

Together with Thomas of Lancaster he had pusued the King and Gaveston
on their way north.
Later he was one of the besiegers of Castle Scarbourough, but as Pembroke
and Warenne, not involved in the murder of Gaveston.
Yet out of revenge and being less powerful than the Earls, complicitín the
murder, the King confiscated his lands in 1312 and had him imprisoned.
However:
The earls made Percy’s release a priority in their dnegotiations with the king and he was freed in January 1313. and was formally pardoned,

with the others involved. [188]
He didn’t participate in the Battle of Bannockburn, along with five of the earls and many other nobles refused summonses to this campaign because it had not been sanctioned by parliament, as required by the Ordinances.
In the first half of October 1314 Henry Percy died, aged forty one, of unknown causes. [189]

ROBERT CLIFFORD, 1ST BARON DE CLIFFORD

As Henry Percy, baron de Clifford had pusued the King and
Gaveston on their way North, under the leadership of
Thomas of Lancaster.
He also was one of the besiegers of Castle Scarbourough.
And in contrary with Henry Percy, Thomas of Lancaster,
the Earl of Warwick and many other nobles he DID fight
in the Battle of Bannockburn and was killed. [190]

Who also was killed in the Battle of Bannockburn,
was Gilbert de Clare, the [8th] Earl of Gloucester,
the brother in law of Piers Gaveston, who neither pusued him or
besieged him, but refused to help him when was asked
by the Earl of Pembroke. [191]

AND LAST BUT NOT LEAST/THOMAS, 2ND  OF LANCASTER
What happened to Thomas of Lancaster, how his
illustrious life ended, is yet shrouded in mist……

The story will tell…….

READ FURTHER

ASTRID ESSED

NOTES 1-250

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Thomas of Lancaster, rebel cousin of king Edward II/From warlord to Saint/Chapter Three

THOMAS OF LANCASTER, REBEL COUSIN OF KING EDWARD II/FROMWARLORD TO SAINT/CHAPTER THREE

File:Thomas Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster.jpg

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet,_2nd_Earl_of_LancasterTHOMAS 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

Thomas of Lancaster’s main possessions (Maddicott).THOMAS OF LANCASTER’S MAIN POSSESSIONShttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet,_2nd_Earl_of_LancasterTHOMAS 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

Thomas of Lancaster’s main possessions (Maddicott).THOMAS OF LANCASTER’S MAIN POSSESSIONShttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster7626ba0b19e62826ef9090c93b10a11b.jpg

MURDER OF PIERS GAVESTON,INTIMATE FRIEND ANS[POSSIBLE] LOVER OF KING EDWARD II, UNDER THE DIRECT RESPONSIBILITYOF THE EARLS OF LANCASTER, WARWICK, HEREFORD AND ARUNDELMURDER OF PIERS GAVESTON,INTIMATE FRIEND ANS[POSSIBLE] LOVER OF KING EDWARD II, UNDER THE DIRECT RESPONSIBILITYOF THE EARLS OF LANCASTER, WARWICK, HEREFORD AND ARUNDELhttps://themortimersblog.wordpress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traitor-the-life-execution-of-thomas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post-by-stephen-spinks/

PONTEFRACT CASTLE, THOMAS OF LANCASTER’S FAVOURITECASTLE [INHERITED FROM HIS FATHER IN LAW, HENRY DE LACY, 3TH EARL OFLINCOLN, AT HIS DEATH IN 1311]IN HIS FAVOURITE CASTLE HIS SOCALLED ”TRIAL” TOOKPLACE AND NEAR HIS FAVOURITE CASTLE,  IRONICALLY,  HE WAS EXECUTEDhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontefract_Castle#Historyhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontefract_Castlemanuscript-images-medieval-castles

Edward was twice jeered by Lancaster’s garrison at Pontefract in 1317 & 1320 as he passed from north to south 

EDWARD II WAS TWICE JEERED BY THOMAS OF LANCASTERAND HIS HOUSEHOLD, IN AT PONTEFRACT IN 1317 AND 1320, WHEN HEPASSED FROM NORTH TO SOUTH…..https://themortimersblog.wordpress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traitor-the-life-execution-of-thomas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post-by-stephen-spinks/

THE EXECUTION OF THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTERhttp://www.luminarium.org/encyclopedia/thomasoflancaster.htmThomas, Earl of Lancaster

THE EXECUTION OF THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTERhttp://www.englishmonarchs.co.uk/plantagenet_74.html

File:Edmund Crouchback Arms.svg

PLANTAGENETCOAT OF ARMS OF EDMUND CROUCHBACK [SON OFKING HENRY III, BROTHER OF KING EDWARD I ANDFATHER OF THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER], THOMAS,EARL OF LANCASTER AND HIS SUCCESSORShttp://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

PLANTAGENETCOAT OF ARMS OF EDMUND CROUCHBACK [SON OFKING HENRY III, BROTHER OF KING EDWARD I ANDFATHER OF THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER], THOMAS,EARL OF LANCASTER AND HIS SUCCESSORShttp://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster


Dear Readers
Recently I sent you chapter one and two of my ”book” article ”Thomas of Lancaster, rebel cousin of king Edward II, from warlord to Saint”It is a travel to 14th century history of England and narrates the turbulent lifeof Earl Thomas of Lancaster, cousin of king Edward IIBecause it is extended, I do you the favour of sending my major article to you in chapters
So recently the chapters one and two
https://www.astridessed.nl/thomas-of-lancaster-rebel-cousin-of-king-edward-ii-from-warlord-to-saint-chapter-one/

Today, chapter threeENJOY and travel with me to 14 century England……

CHAPTER THREE

CHAPTER THREE
THOMAS OF LANCASTER/CONFLICT WITH HIS COUSIN,
KING EDWARD II
From day one?

No.
Because of the bitter battle between King Edward II and his
cousin, Thomas of Lancaster, there are people, who think,
that they were enemies from the very beginning.
However, that’s not the case.

Originally, Thomas was loyal to Edward and in good terms with him,
also before his accession of King.
For example:
In 1305, Thomas was forced to apologise to Edward for being unable to come and attend him, as he was ill. Edward wrote back to say that he hoped to visit Thomas soon, “to see and to comfort you.” [76]

At Edward’s Edward’s coronation, on 25 february 1308, Thomas carried Curtana,
the sword of St Edward the Confessor [one of the last
Anglo Saxon Kings before William the Conqueror]  [77]
And when you read the rest of the story, it will come as
a surprise to you, that according to some sources,Thomas was not after Kings’ favourite Piers Gaveston [78] from day one, but was initially rather on good terms
with him. [79]
He remained loyal to Edward, when in the spring of 1308, the majority
of the barons were pressing for Piers Gaveston’s exile. [80]

However it seems, that  in november 1308, Thomas suddenly
left the Court, from reasons unknown. [81]

ASTRID ESSED

NOTES 1 -250

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Thomas of Lancaster, rebel cousin of king Edward II/From warlord to Saint/Chapter Two

THOMAS OF LANCASTER, REBEL COUSIN OF KING EDWARD II/FROMWARLORD TO SAINT/CHAPTER TWO

File:Thomas Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster.jpg

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet,_2nd_Earl_of_LancasterTHOMAS 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

Thomas of Lancaster’s main possessions (Maddicott).THOMAS OF LANCASTER’S MAIN POSSESSIONShttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

7626ba0b19e62826ef9090c93b10a11b.jpg

MURDER OF PIERS GAVESTON,INTIMATE FRIEND ANS[POSSIBLE] LOVER OF KING EDWARD II, UNDER THE DIRECT RESPONSIBILITYOF THE EARLS OF LANCASTER, WARWICK, HEREFORD AND ARUNDELMURDER OF PIERS GAVESTON,INTIMATE FRIEND ANS[POSSIBLE] LOVER OF KING EDWARD II, UNDER THE DIRECT RESPONSIBILITYOF THE EARLS OF LANCASTER, WARWICK, HEREFORD AND ARUNDELhttps://themortimersblog.wordpress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traitor-the-life-execution-of-thomas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post-by-stephen-spinks/

File:Pontefract Castle.JPG

PONTEFRACT CASTLE, THOMAS OF LANCASTER’S FAVOURITECASTLE [INHERITED FROM HIS FATHER IN LAW, HENRY DE LACY, 3TH EARL OFLINCOLN, AT HIS DEATH IN 1311]IN HIS FAVOURITE CASTLE HIS SOCALLED ”TRIAL” TOOKPLACE AND NEAR HIS FAVOURITE CASTLE,  IRONICALLY,  HE WAS EXECUTEDhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontefract_Castle#Historyhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontefract_Castle

manuscript-images-medieval-castles
Edward was twice jeered by Lancaster’s garrison at Pontefract in 1317 & 1320 as he passed from north to south 

EDWARD II WAS TWICE JEERED BY THOMAS OF LANCASTERAND HIS HOUSEHOLD, IN AT PONTEFRACT IN 1317 AND 1320, WHEN HEPASSED FROM NORTH TO SOUTH…..https://themortimersblog.wordpress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traitor-the-life-execution-of-thomas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post-by-stephen-spinks/

Image result for thomas 2nd earl of lancaster

THE EXECUTION OF THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTERhttp://www.luminarium.org/encyclopedia/thomasoflancaster.htm

Thomas, Earl of Lancaster

THE EXECUTION OF THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTERhttp://www.englishmonarchs.co.uk/plantagenet_74.html

File:Edmund Crouchback Arms.svg

PLANTAGENETCOAT OF ARMS OF EDMUND CROUCHBACK [SON OFKING HENRY III, BROTHER OF KING EDWARD I ANDFATHER OF THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER], THOMAS,EARL OF LANCASTER AND HIS SUCCESSORShttp://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster


Dear Readers
Recently I sent you chapter one of my ”book” article ”Thomas of Lancaster, rebel cousin of king Edward II, from warlord to Saint”It is a travel to 14th century history of England and narrates the turbulent lifeof Earl Thomas of Lancaster, who was one of the mightiest man of his Time, ,nobleman, warlord and cousin of king Edward II.And the most fascinating question:How does a warlord become a Saint?Read further, then you’ll get the answer…..
Because it is extended, I do you the favour of sending my major article to you in chapters
Recently chapter one
https://www.astridessed.nl/thomas-of-lancaster-rebel-cousin-of-king-edward-ii-from-warlord-to-saint-chapter-one/

Today, chapter twoENJOY and travel with me to 14 century England……

CHAPTER TWO

CHAPTER TWO
BEGINNING OF HIS CAREER/SERVICE UNDER HIS
UNCLE KING EDWARD I

In the beginning there seemed to be no trouble in paradise.
Grandson of King Henry III, nephew of King Edward I, who
probably arranged for him  the splendid marriage with Alice de
Lacy [70], daughter of Henry de Lacy, 3rd Earl of Lincoln [71]
[by the death of his father in law, Henry de Lacy, Thomas was to inherit the
Earldoms of Lincoln and Salisbury, added to the Earldoms
he inherited from his father, Edmund Crouchback [72] namely Lancaster, Leicester and Derby, which made him one of the richest
nobles in the land] [73],
what stood in the way of a splendid career?

And it all seemed going just fine:

On reaching On reaching full age he became hereditary Sheriff of Lancashire, but spent most of the next ten years fighting for Edward I in Scotland, leaving the shrievalty in the care of deputies.[74]
He served his uncle King Edward I, by participating in the battle
of Falkirk in 1298. [75]

ASTRID ESSED

NOTES 1 – 250

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Thomas of Lancaster, rebel cousin of king Edward II/From warlord to Saint/Chapter One

THOMAS OF LANCASTER, REBEL COUSIN OF KING EDWARD II

/FROM WARLORD TO SAINT

File:Thomas Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster.jpg

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet,_2nd_Earl_of_LancasterTHOMAS 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

Thomas of Lancaster’s main possessions (Maddicott).THOMAS OF LANCASTER’S MAIN POSSESSIONShttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

7626ba0b19e62826ef9090c93b10a11b.jpg

MURDER OF PIERS GAVESTON,INTIMATE FRIEND ANS[POSSIBLE] LOVER OF KING EDWARD II, UNDER THE DIRECT RESPONSIBILITYOF THE EARLS OF LANCASTER, WARWICK, HEREFORD AND ARUNDELMURDER OF PIERS GAVESTON,INTIMATE FRIEND ANS[POSSIBLE] LOVER OF KING EDWARD II, UNDER THE DIRECT RESPONSIBILITYOF THE EARLS OF LANCASTER, WARWICK, HEREFORD AND ARUNDELhttps://themortimersblog.wordpress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traitor-the-life-execution-of-thomas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post-by-stephen-spinks/

File:Pontefract Castle.JPG

PONTEFRACT CASTLE, THOMAS OF LANCASTER’S FAVOURITECASTLE [INHERITED FROM HIS FATHER IN LAW, HENRY DE LACY, 3TH EARL OFLINCOLN, AT HIS DEATH IN 1311]IN HIS FAVOURITE CASTLE HIS SOCALLED ”TRIAL” TOOKPLACE AND NEAR HIS FAVOURITE CASTLE,  IRONICALLY,  HE WAS EXECUTEDhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontefract_Castle#Historyhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontefract_Castle

manuscript-images-medieval-castles
Edward was twice jeered by Lancaster’s garrison at Pontefract in 1317 & 1320 as he passed from north to south 

EDWARD II WAS TWICE JEERED BY THOMAS OF LANCASTERAND HIS HOUSEHOLD, IN AT PONTEFRACT IN 1317 AND 1320, WHEN HEPASSED FROM NORTH TO SOUTH…..https://themortimersblog.wordpress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traitor-the-life-execution-of-thomas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post-by-stephen-spinks/

Image result for thomas 2nd earl of lancaster

THE EXECUTION OF THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTERhttp://www.luminarium.org/encyclopedia/thomasoflancaster.htm

Thomas, Earl of Lancaster

THE EXECUTION OF THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTERhttp://www.englishmonarchs.co.uk/plantagenet_74.html

File:Edmund Crouchback Arms.svg

PLANTAGENETCOAT OF ARMS OF EDMUND CROUCHBACK [SON OFKING HENRY III, BROTHER OF KING EDWARD I ANDFATHER OF THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER], THOMAS,EARL OF LANCASTER AND HIS SUCCESSORShttp://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

Chapter one

Travelling to 14th century Medieval England….

INTRODUCTION:Readers,
This is a fascinating story about
Thomas of Lancaster and the persons
and events that played an important part in his
life in a very turbulent time.
But like
all fascinating stories, it is not told
in two minutes. It is a real longread.

To understand the political situation
in the early fourteenth century, especially
chapter one, four and five are important.
Chapters six describes the outbreak of the
war between Thomas and his cousin
the King, the chapters seven and eight the
dramatic end.
Chapters nine and ten, what happened
thereafter.

And I end with the Epilogue, giving my final opinionabout the life and activitities of Thomas of Lancaster.Read all the Chapters with care and attention and you
will enter the Medieval world…..
As the attentive reader will know, I have editedmy ”Book” before
https://www.astridessed.nl/thomas-of-lancaster-rebel-cousin-of-king-edward-iifrom-warlord-to-saint/

OR
https://www.dewereldmorgen.be/community/thomas-of-lancaster-rebel-cousin-of-king-edward-ii-from-warlord-to-saint/

But to make it easily readable for my readers, who enjoy history like me, I’ll send itto you in different chapters, so for you it is more easy to read and newreaders can wonder, how the story goes on
SO HERE COMES FIRSTCHAPTER ONEThe next chapters you’ll see in the next days
ENJOY!
BEFORE CHAPTER ONE
”When you play the game of thrones, you win or you die.
There is no middle ground”https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ You_Win_or_You_Die
How many warlords were proclaimed ”holy” after
their death and were venerated as Saints?
Not many, I presume…..
Read further  and experience the excitement of a turbulent
time, with violent, lawless men, thirsty for power.Come with me…..Today I, your travel companion through the Middle Ages, introduce to you
an extroardinary man, who was a warlord, England’s
de facto ruler for certainly four years,  fighting his cousin
King Edward II for nearly ten years.His name was Thomas, the second Earl of Lancaster [1].
No, NOT to be confused with his younger  brother Henry, third Earl of Lancaster, [2]
one of the ancestors of the House of Lancaster [3], that branch of
the Plantagenet Royal House, which fought
a battle to the death with another Plantagenet branch,
the House of York [4] in the Wars of the Roses. [5]
This was Thomas, second Earl of Lancaster, lesser
known, but in his time, a man of power and absolutely not insignificant.
That’s the reason I write about him, because I feel
people should know more about him.Besides:He intrigues me
Because as I said,  not only he was the de facto ruler in England
for certainly four years, fighting his cousin, King Edward II
for many years and making his own laws.

But again:

How many warlords end up ”holy”, as a Saint?

Follow me, through the chapters of history, containing
power,treason, ambition, passion
deceit, cruelty, but also….chivalry….
CHAPTER ONE

A

IN GENERAL/
FAMILY TIES/HISTORICAL CONFLICTS BETWEEN
KINGS AND BARONS/PERSONAL LIFE/POWER AND WEALTH

FAMILY TIES (1)

Thomas was the first cousin of  King Edward II
[King from 1307-1327] [6], since Thomas’ father, Edmund
Crouchback, the first Earl of Lancaster [7], was the younger brother of King Edward I [8],
,father of Edward II.
But he also was the uncle of Queen Isabella of France [9] [wife
of Edward II and daughter of the French King, Philip IV, the Fair,
the Hammer of the Templars] [10], since he was the half-brother
of her mother, Joan I of Navarre [wife of King Philip IV] [11]

Yes my readers, so complicated were the family relations of the
English nobility, not only because of internarriage
with each other, but also with French nobility [also Spanish,
Flemish and other, but often, French]

To give another example to ”tease” you a little and showing
the complexity of noble family relations:

Edward II had two halfbrothers, Thomas, Earl of
Norfolk [12] and Edmund, Earl of Kent [13], since
his father Edward I remarried after the death of his first wife,
Edward II’s mother, Eleanor of Castile. [14]

But the wife he remarried, was Margaret of France. [15]
the sister of the French
King, Philip IV [the Fair] [16], father of Isabella, future wife
of Edward II
[on the moment Edward I married the lady, Isabella was not
yet married to Edward II]

SO:
The Earls of Norfolk and Kent [halfbrothers of Edward II]
were, of course, the brothers in law of Queen Isabella, but
also her first cousins, since their mother, Queen Margaret of France [17], was
also the sister of Isabella’s  father, King Philip IV, the Fair. [18]

No wonder Papal Dispensation was often needed for noble
marriages! [19]

B

CONFLICT SEEN IN A BROADER LIGHT/ABOUT
CENTRALIZATION AND DECENTRALIZATION

Let’s go to Thomas’ interesting, but turbulent life, in a turbulent
time, which led to the disaster of many, including the King. [20]

As shows the story, Thomas of Lancaster had a major conflict with the
King, was four years long the uncrowned King and  two times
leader of oppositional barons against King’s power, leading two
rebellions against the King. [21]

Now some sources called Thomas lawless, violent and powerseeking. [22]
He may have been all that [I am not going to deny that, on the contrary],
but it is shortsighted to see the conflict only from that personal point of view.

It’s more complicated:

Because this was not only a conflict between two powerful men,
cousins, one the King and the other close to the throne.
No:
Moreover this conflict revealed the eternal struggle between centralization and
decentralization.
Between a King and his feudal lords about who should control
the country.

When the King was a ”strong leader”, like Edward I [23], he held the
nobles in order, when the authority was weaker, the nobles
gained power.
The causes of a weak authority may have differed, but fact was,
that nobility, of course, took advantage of weak leadership.

C

EARLIER CONFLICTS BETWEEN KINGS AND THEIR BARONS [24]

KING JOHN [LACKLAND] AND HIS BARONS

As I wrote, apart from the specific circumstances [see below], the fight
between Edward II and his cousin, Thomas of Lancaster has to be viewed
in a broader light:
The struggle between centralization [the Kings absolute power, ”divine
majesty”] [25]
and decentralization [increasing inluence of his feudal lords, the nobility].

Edward II was not the first King, who had serious conflicts with his barons

As well as his greatgrandfather John Lackland [John, King of England], [26]
as his grandfather, King Henry III [27], clashed with their barons:

Because the times changed:

Were John Lackland’s father, King Henry II [28], as his brother, Richard I
of England [The Lion Heart] [29], kings, who ruled on the basis, that the King was
”above the law” [divine majesty”]
, in the time of John Lackland,
there were contrary opinions expressed about the nature of kingship, and many contemporary writers believed that monarchs should rule in accordance with the custom and the law, and take counsel of the leading members of the realm. [30]

[31]
Now John Lackland was, as a person,  hard to
deal with and increasing troubles were ahead:

He had a serious conflict with Pope Innocentius III [32], which resulted in
an interdict of England [33] and John’s excommunication [34]
King John was  reported nearly to have converted to Islam in order
to get support from Caliph Nasir, asking for help…..[35]

He clashed [almost from the beginning of his reign]
with his barons, wanting to hold on

his ”rights” and claimed an “almost imperial status” for himself as ruler. [36]

This resulted in a number of wars with the barons, leading
to the Magna Charta in 1315, enlarging the power of the barons. [37]

KING HENRY III AND HIS BARONS/SIMON DE
MONTFORT

During the reign of King Henry III [38], son of John Lackland and
grandfather of Edward II, at first peace seemed to be restored with
the barons. [39]

But…..nothing lasts forever!

Henry faced a true crisis with the barons, who rose against him
under the leadership of Henry’s brother in law, Simon de Montfort,
6th Earl of Leicester [40], who had [seen in the light of that
time], radical reform ideas. [41]
He was the de facto ruler of England for less than a year. [42]
and is known to have established a Parliament, with not only
the barons and the knights of the shires [43], but also burgesses
[44] of the major towns. [45]
This parliament is sometimes referred to as the first English parliament and Montfort himself is often termed the founder of the Commons.[46]

At the end, he died in the battle of Evesham in 1265, beaten by
the troops of prince Edward [eldest son of Henry III], the latter King
Edward I [47]

In sofar there is a similarity with Thomas of Lancaster, who also ruled England
[de facto] and seemed to have been influenced by
Simon de Montfort’s ideas. [48]

That being said:
Yet I think, that Thomas, far more than Simon de Montfort,
had a personal power motive to wage war on his cousin Edward II.

Besides I don’t think, that Thomas of Lancaster was interested in more
reforms than greater power for the barons.

D

THOMAS OF LANCASTER, DESCENT AND FAMILY TIES [EXTENDED] (2)

Thomas of Lancaster [c 1278-1322], who became the great adversary of his cousin
King Edward II, was the eldest son of Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl
of Lancaster [49], who
was the second son of King Henry III [50], and brother of King Edward I. [51]
Thomas’ younger brother was Henry, [later the 3rd Earl of Lancaster] [52], ancestor
of the House of Lancaster.  [53]

SO:
He was the cousin of King Edward II, since his father [Edmund Crouchback] was
the brother of Edward II’s father, King Edward I.

Thomas’ mother was Blanche of Artois [54], daughter of Count
Robert I of Artois [55], who was the son of the French King Louis
VIII [56] and the brother of King Louis IX [also called ”Saint Louis”] [57]
Which made Blanche the niece of King Louis [IX]
”Saint Louis”

SO:
Thomas of Lancaster descended from both English and French royal
Houses, being the grandson of King Henry III and the greatgrandson
of the French King Louis VIII.

A good Medieval curriculum vitae!

But there was more to the story:

When his mother, Blanche of Artois, married his father,
Edmund Crouchback, she was a Dowager Queen, having been
married with King Henry I of Navarre. [58]
From that marriage, a daughter was born, Joan I of Navarre. [59]

And this Joan I of Navarre was the mother of Isabella of
France, the wife of King Edward II.

Thomas was, therefore, the cousin of King Edward II, and
the uncle of Queen Isabella of France!

E
THOMAS OF LANCASTER/PERSONAL LIFE

Thomas of Lancaster was married with Alice de Lacy [60], daughter
and heiress of Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln [61].
Jure uxoris [inheritance by the right of a wife] [62] Thomas had inherited in 1311 the lands of his father in law,
for which he paid homage to King Edward II [quite a story! See below] [63],
which made him rich and powerful, in combination with the lands he had
inherited from his father. [64]
The marriage is assumed to be unhappy [65] and they had no children together.
Although, Thomas fathered, llegitimately, two sons with another woman. [66]

Alice was abducted in 1317 by Richard de St Martin, a knight in the service
of John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey. [67]
This incident caused a feud between Lancaster and Surrey; Lancaster divorced his wife and seized two of Surrey’s castles in retaliation. King Edward then intervened, and the two Earls came to an
uneasy truce.[68]

F

POWER AND WEALTH

Because of his royal position and the inherited lands of his
father and father in law, Thomas was one of the richest and
most powerful men in England.
His annual income was a huge eleven thousand pounds. [69]

Of course it was easy for a that powerful man to raise
an army, when the time was ripe…..

SEE YOU SOON, FOR CHAPTER TWO

ASTRID ESSED

NOTES 1 – 250

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The Treaty of Leake/700 years anniversary of the Fake reconciliation of two royal enemies/Edward II and his cousin, Thomas of Lancaster

File:Thomas Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster.jpg
THOMAS 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

Thomas of Lancaster’s main possessions (Maddicott).

THOMAS OF LANCASTER’S MAIN POSSESSIONS

7626ba0b19e62826ef9090c93b10a11b.jpg

MURDER OF PIERS GAVESTON,
INTIMATE FRIEND ANS
[POSSIBLE] LOVER OF KING EDWARD II, UNDER THE DIRECT RESPONSIBILITY
OF THE EARLS OF LANCASTER, WARWICK, HEREFORD AND ARUNDEL
MURDER OF PIERS GAVESTON,
INTIMATE FRIEND ANS
[POSSIBLE] LOVER OF KING EDWARD II, UNDER THE DIRECT RESPONSIBILITY
OF THE EARLS OF LANCASTER, WARWICK, HEREFORD AND ARUNDEL
File:Pontefract Castle.JPG
PONTEFRACT CASTLE, THOMAS OF LANCASTER’S FAVOURITE
CASTLE [INHERITED FROM HIS FATHER IN LAW, HENRY DE LACY, 3TH EARL OF
LINCOLN, AT HIS DEATH IN 1311]
IN HIS FAVOURITE CASTLE HIS SOCALLED ”TRIAL” TOOK
PLACE AND NEAR HIS FAVOURITE CASTLE,  IRONICALLY,  HE WAS EXECUTED

manuscript-images-medieval-castles

Edward was twice jeered by Lancaster’s garrison at Pontefract in 1317 & 1320 as he passed from north to south 
EDWARD II WAS TWICE JEERED BY THOMAS OF LANCASTER
AND HIS HOUSEHOLD, IN AT PONTEFRACT IN 1317 AND 1320, WHEN HE
PASSED FROM NORTH TO SOUTH…..
File:Edmund Crouchback Arms.svg
PLANTAGENET
COAT OF ARMS OF EDMUND CROUCHBACK [SON OF
KING HENRY III, BROTHER OF KING EDWARD I AND
FATHER OF THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER], THOMAS,
EARL OF LANCASTER AND HIS SUCCESSORS
King Edward II met Thomas Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster, at Leake and together they “signed” the Treaty

 


KING EDWARD AND HIS REBEL COUSIN, THOMAS OF LANCASTER,
WHO SIGNED THE TREATY OF LEAKE

 

THE TREATY OF LEAKE/700 YEARS ANNIVERSARY OF THE
FAKE RECONCILIATION BETWEEN TWO
ROYAL ENEMIES/EDWARD II AND HIS COUSIN, THOMAS OF LANCASTER
9 AUGUST 1318- 9 AUGUST 2018
700 YEARS ANNIVERSARY OF THE TREATY OF LEAKE!
Dear Readers,
Here is your Companion at the travelling to Medieval Times again
and this time she is EXTRA thrilled!
Because she is writing this TODAY, 9 AUGUST 2018,
when it is exactly 700 YEARS AGO, when  King Edward II and his royal cousin
and enemy rival to  Power, Thomas of Lancaster
 [about whom I wrote a sort of mini book
[HAHAHA] [1] signed the Treaty of Leake [2], at Leake, a village
in Nottinghamshire with the meaning
of ending up  their enmities.
QUOD NON!

 

 

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Thomas of Lancaster, rebel cousin of King Edward II/From warlord to Saint

File:Thomas Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster.jpg
THOMAS 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

Thomas of Lancaster’s main possessions (Maddicott).

THOMAS OF LANCASTER’S MAIN POSSESSIONS

7626ba0b19e62826ef9090c93b10a11b.jpg

MURDER OF PIERS GAVESTON,
INTIMATE FRIEND ANS
[POSSIBLE] LOVER OF KING EDWARD II, UNDER THE DIRECT RESPONSIBILITY
OF THE EARLS OF LANCASTER, WARWICK, HEREFORD AND ARUNDEL
MURDER OF PIERS GAVESTON,
INTIMATE FRIEND ANS
[POSSIBLE] LOVER OF KING EDWARD II, UNDER THE DIRECT RESPONSIBILITY
OF THE EARLS OF LANCASTER, WARWICK, HEREFORD AND ARUNDEL
File:Pontefract Castle.JPG
PONTEFRACT CASTLE, THOMAS OF LANCASTER’S FAVOURITE
CASTLE [INHERITED FROM HIS FATHER IN LAW, HENRY DE LACY, 3TH EARL OF
LINCOLN, AT HIS DEATH IN 1311]
IN HIS FAVOURITE CASTLE HIS SOCALLED ”TRIAL” TOOK
PLACE AND NEAR HIS FAVOURITE CASTLE,  IRONICALLY,  HE WAS EXECUTED

manuscript-images-medieval-castles

Edward was twice jeered by Lancaster’s garrison at Pontefract in 1317 & 1320 as he passed from north to south 
EDWARD II WAS TWICE JEERED BY THOMAS OF LANCASTER
AND HIS HOUSEHOLD, IN AT PONTEFRACT IN 1317 AND 1320, WHEN HE
PASSED FROM NORTH TO SOUTH…..
Image result for thomas 2nd earl of lancaster
THE EXECUTION OF THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

Thomas, Earl of Lancaster

THE EXECUTION OF THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER
File:Edmund Crouchback Arms.svg
PLANTAGENET
COAT OF ARMS OF EDMUND CROUCHBACK [SON OF
KING HENRY III, BROTHER OF KING EDWARD I AND
FATHER OF THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER], THOMAS,
EARL OF LANCASTER AND HIS SUCCESSORS
VENERATION CULTUS OF THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER
”SAINT THOMAS” [THOMAS THE MARTYR]
PICTURE BELOW:

DEVOTIONAL PANEL OF THOMAS OF LANCASTER, PICTURING

HIS BEHEADING OUTSIDE OF PONTEFRACT CASTLE
A DEVOTIONAL PANEL WAS A RELIGIOUS OBJECT, SOLD
ON PILGRIMAGE TO COMMEMORATE AND VENERATE
SAINTS AND MARTYRS

A photo of a small dark silver religious panel depicting the beheading of a medieval man

The beheading of the Earl is portrayed within the panel© MOLA / Andy Chopping
Image result for henry 3rd earl of lancaster
HENRY, 3TH EARL OF LANCASTER, BROTHER OF THOMAS,
2ND EARL OF LANCASTER, ANCESTOR OF
THE HOUSE OF LANCASTER
HE DIDN’T PARTICIPATE
IN HIS BROTHER’S REBELLIONS, BUT JOINED THE INVASION
OF ISABELLA OF FRANCE [ESTRANGED WIFE OF EDWARD II]
AND HER [POSSIBLE] LOVER ROGER MORTIMER, AGAINST
HIS COUSIN EDWARD II, WHICH LED TO A GENERAL UPRISING’
AGAINST EDWARD II AND THE DESPENSERS
HENRY WAS ONE OF THE ”JUDGES” OF HUGH DESPENSER, THE
ELDER, 1ST EARL OF WINCHESTER IN 1326, WHO HAD BEEN ONE
OF THE ”JUDGES” IN THE MOCK TRIAL AGAINST HENRY”
S OWN BROTHER THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER
AND WAS CO RESPONSIBLE FOR THOMAS’  EXECUTION IN 1322
HUGH DESPENSER THE ELDER ALSO GOT A MOCK TRIAL, WHICH WAS
A PARODY OF THE TRIAL OF THOMAS OF LANCASTER…
.

 

 

 

 

THOMAS OF LANCASTER, REBEL COUSIN OF KING EDWARD II

/FROM WARLORD TO SAINT

INTRODUCTION:

Readers,
This is a fascinating story about
Thomas of Lancaster and the persons
and events that played an important part in his
life in a very turbulent time.
But like
all fascinating stories, it is not told
in two minutes. It is a real longread.
My advice to my you:
READ IT LIKE A BOOK!
Don’t read all chapters at one time,
because you will be overwhelmed, unless
you are totally fascinated.

Or when you are pressed with time, with time, read the Epilogue,

which gives my final opinion about Thomas of Lancaster and a
summary of this fascinating story….

To understand the political situation
in the early fourteenth century, especially
chapter one, four and five are important.
Chapters six describes the outbreak of the
war between Thomas and his cousin
the King, the chapters seven and eight the
dramatic end.
Chapters nine and ten, what happened
thereafter.

And I end with the Epilogue, giving my final opinion
about the life and activitities of Thomas of Lancaster.
Read all the Chapters with care and attention and you
will enter the Medieval world…..

 

 

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