Notes 939-1015 at article about Thomas, Earl of Lancaster

File:Thomas Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster.jpg
THOMAS 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

[939]

”Edward of Caernarfon and Thomas of Lancaster were apparently on very good terms before Edward’s accession. In 1305, Thomas was forced to apologise to Edward for being unable to come and attend him, as he was ill. Edward wrote back to say that he hoped to visit Thomas soon, “to see and to comfort you.” [5] This closeness continued after Edward became king of England in July 1307, a fact missed by many novelists, who assume that the two men were even then at loggerheads and that Thomas was always his cousin’s enemy. In fact, Thomas was in almost constant attendance on Edward for the first sixteen months or so of his reign, and he was one of only a handful of men, who included the king’s and Thomas’s first cousin the earl of Richmond, Hugh Despenser the Elder and his retainer Sir John Haudlo, who remained loyal to Edward II in the spring of 1308 when the majority of the barons were pressing for Piers Gaveston’s exile.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (1)
19 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

A PROOF OF THE THEN CLOSENESS BETWEEN EDWARD OF
CAERNARFON [ON THE TIME HE WROTE THE LETTER HIS
FATHER EDWARD I WAS STILL ALIVE, WHAT MADE HIM
HEIR TO THE THRONE] AND HIS FIRST COUSIN THOMAS
OF LANCASTER
SEE THIS LETTER EDWARD OF CAERNARFON WROTE TO THOMAS
IN 1305

‘”To the earl of Lancaster, greetings and dear affection. Very dear cousin, we hold you well excused that you have not come to us, and your illness weighs heavily on us, and if we can come to you we will do it gladly, to see and to comfort you. Very dear cousin, may our lord etc [have you in his keeping]. Given as above [in Windsor park, 22 September 1305].”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THREE LETTERS OF EDWARD OF CAERNARFON, 1305
18 AUGUST 2017

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2017/08/three-letters- from-edward-of-caernarfon.html

 

 

 

 

[940]

” At Warwick, Gaveston was condemned to death for violating the terms of the Ordinances, before an assembly of barons, including Warwick, Lancaster, Hereford and Arundel.[83] On 19 June, he was taken out on the road towards Kenilworth as far as Blacklow Hill, which was on the Earl of Lancaster’s land. Here, two Welshmen ran him through with a sword and beheaded him”

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/RETURN AND DEATH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall#Return_and_death

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA

PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall

[941]

”Unfortunately, relations between the two most powerful men in the country deteriorated very quickly once more, and Edward II made it clear what was really on his mind by declaring “When this wretched business is over, we will turn our hands to other matters. For I have not forgotten the wrong that was done to my brother Piers.” [1] He had never forgiven, and would never forgive, his cousin for Piers Gaveston’s murder……”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (3)
2 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

[942]

WIKIPEDIA
ORDINANCES OF 1311

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Ordinances_of_1311

DOCUMENTS IN ENGLISH HISTORY
THE ORDINANCES OF 1311

http://historyofengland.typepa d.com/documents_in_english_his t/2013/02/the-ordinances-of-13 11.html

[943]

”In June 1314, Thomas refused to accompany his cousin to Scotland for the Bannockburn campaign, and sent only four knights and four men-at-armsto fulfil his feudal obligations. Edward’s defeat to Robert Bruce put him at Thomas’s mercy, and for the next few years the men were joint rulers of England – or, Edward was king in name and Thomas in reality. ”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (1)
19 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

WIKIPEDIA
BATTLE OF BANNOCKBURN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Battle_of_Bannockburn

[944]

STRUGGLE BETWEEN THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND [AFTER THE
DEATH OF PIERS GAVESTON] THE THREE FAVOURITES OF
THE KING, ROGER DAMORY, HUGH AUDLEY AND WILLIAM MONTACUTE

”In the spring of 1317 came the abduction – or whatever it was – of Thomas of Lancaster’s wife Alice de Lacy from Canford in Dorset by household knights of John de Warenne, earl of Surrey. Rightly or wrongly, Thomas blamed Edward II and the three knights then high in the king’s favour, Roger DamoryHugh Audley and William Montacute. Whatever the truth of Thomas’s allegations, it seems clear that Damory, Audley and Montacute were doing their best to hinder any reconciliation between the king and the earl, and at a meeting of the king’s council at Clarendon in the spring of 1317, the three openly called Thomas a traitor. [3] Thomas sent letters to Edward to say that “he fears the deadly stratagems of certain persons who thrive under the protection of the royal court…they have already carried off the earl’s wife to his disgrace and shame.” [4] Thomas asked Edward to expel the earl of Surrey, Damory, Audley and Montacute from court, and demanded “such satisfaction as he can get for the wrong done to him.” He wrote to Edward to complain that his companions were “not suitable to stay beside you or in your service…but you have held them dearer than they ever were before…every day you give them of your substance, so that little or nothing remains to you.” [5] To be fair, he did have a point: Damory, Audley and Montacute had no intention of allowing Lancaster to reduce their vast influence over Edward and therefore counselled the king to remain hostile to his cousin and “intrigued against the earl as best they could.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (2)
25 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his_25.html

IRONICALLY, ROGER DAMORY AND HUGH AUDLEY LATER BECAME
REBELS AGAINST EDWARD II AND ADHERENTS OF THOMAS
OF LANCASTER, BECAUSE OF THE RISE OF THE AVARICIOUS
NEW FAVOURITE, HUGH DESPENSER THE YOUNGER

SEE

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE DESPENSER WAR OF 1321 (PART ONE)
11 MARCH 2007

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2007/03/despenser-war-of- 1321-part-one.html

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE RISE AND FALL OF A ROYAL FAVOURITE:
ROGER DAMORY (1)
24 JANUARY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/01/rise-and-fall-of- royal-favourite-roger.html

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE RISE AND FALL OF A ROYAL FAVOURITE:
ROGER DAMORY (2)
28 JANUARY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/01/rise-and-fall-of- royal-favourite-roger_28.html

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
FROM FAVOURITE TO REBEL: THE CAREER OF HUGH AUDLEY
4 NOVEMBER 2008

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2008/11/from-favourite-to -rebel-career-of-hugh.html

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
WILLIAM MONTACUTE, ANOTHER ROYAL FAVOURITE (1}
6 JANUARY 2011

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2011/01/william- montacute-another-royal.html

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
WILLIAM MONTACUTE, ANOTHER ROYAL FAVOURITE (2}
17 JANUARY 2011

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2011/01/william-montacute -another-royal_17.html

[945]

WIKIPEDIA
HUGH DESPENSER THE YOUNGER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hugh_Despenser_the_Younger

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDWARD II’S OTHER GREAT FAVOURITE, HUGH
DESPENSER THE YOUNGER
5 FEBRUARY 2008

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2006/02/edward-iis-other- great-favourite-hugh.html

[946]

”Thomas, who had taken part in Edward’s coronation ceremony, wanted Edward to keep his oath. In trying to hold the king to account, he lost his life. ”

NEW WORLDENCYCLOPEDIA
THOMAS PLANTAGENET, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

http://www.newworldencyclopedi a.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet ,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

THE MORTIMER HISTIORY SOCIETY
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE AND EXECUTION OF
THOMAS OF LANCASTER, A GUEST POST BY
STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://themortimersblog.wordp ress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-tr aitor-the-life-execution-of-th omas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post -by-stephen-spinks/

SEE ALSO

FOURTEENTHCENTURY FRIEND

FOURTEENTHCENTURYFRIEND.COM
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE AND EXECUTION OF
THOMAS OF LANCASTER
STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://fourteenthcenturyfiend .com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traito r-the-life-execution-of-thomas -of-lancaster/

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (3)
2 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE TRIAL AND EXECUTION OF THOMAS OF LANCASTER
26 OCTOBER 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/10/trial-and-executi on-of-thomas-of.html

LADY DESPENSER’S SCRIBERY
THE BATTLE OF BOROUGHBRIDGE AND ITS CONSEQUENCES

http://www.ladydespensersscrib ery.com/2008/03/16/the-battle- of-boroughbridge-and-its-conse quences/

[947]

Soon after Thomas’s death, miracles were reported at his tomb at Pontefract, and he became venerated as a martyr and saint.”

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER/LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster# Life

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

HISTORYTIMES HISTORY
THOMAS OF LANCASTER-AN UNLIKELY SAINT?
12 JANUARY 2012

http://historytimeshistory.blo gspot.nl/2012/01/thomas-of-lan caster-unlikely-saint.html

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

[948]

WIKIPEDIA
BANASTRE REBELLION

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Banastre_Rebellion

”After about a month, the rebellion was nearing an end. Lancaster must have had news of it, and commanded his deputy sheriff, Edmund Nevill, to take action in order to suppress it. The sources state that Nevill gathered the posse comitatus, but the common denominator of these men was rather their adherence to Lancaster, than their geographical origin. The earl’s men came in two groups: first the rebels encountered Adam de Hudleston, Walter le Vavasour and Richard le Waleys, and defeated them, but soon afterwards there was a clash with the main contingent, consisting of Nevill, John and Michael Harrington, William Dacre and others, and the rebels were routed.
……
……
” As for Banaster and Lea, they made it to a Chernock Richard, where they were betrayed by a Henry de Eufurlong, probably a tenant of Banaster. They were captured by William Holland and Thurstan de Norley, led away to Leyland moor, and beheaded.”

”This summary execution of the rebels is an event that would later receive the attention of the king’s justices. At the time, the urgent situation in combination with Lancaster’s strong position at court left the crown unable to react, but in 1323 the case came up for the King’s Bench. It was stated that ‘by the order of Thomas earl of Lancaster and Robert de Holand’ they were beheaded ‘feloniously and against the lord king’s peace’55 Lancaster had in this situation committed an offence not only towards the king, by circumventing his authority, but also against his own retainers, by denying them any clemency, or even due process of law.”

LANCASHIRE IN THE REIGN OF EDWARD II
LANCASTER GENTRY, THOMAS OF LANCASTER
AND THE CROWN 1311-1322
GUNNAR A. WELLE

FACULTY OF HISTORY
UNIVERSITY OF OSLO
AUTUMN 2002

PAGE 72

https://www.duo.uio.no/ bitstream/handle/10852/23689/ 6891.pdf?sequence=1

[949]

”Lancaster’s most reliable and loyal retainer Sir Robert Holland deserted the earl in his hour of need, and instead crossed over to Edward’s side.”

THE MORTIMER HISTIORY SOCIETY
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE AND EXECUTION OF
THOMAS OF LANCASTER, A GUEST POST BY
STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://themortimersblog.wordp ress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-tr aitor-the-life-execution-of-th omas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post -by-stephen-spinks/

SEE ALSO

FOURTEENTHCENTURY FRIEND

FOURTEENTHCENTURYFRIEND.COM
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE AND EXECUTION OF
THOMAS OF LANCASTER
STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://fourteenthcenturyfiend .com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traito r-the-life-execution-of-thomas -of-lancaster/

”Robert Holland had previously been one of Lancaster’s most loyal aides but now the man had abandoned him and gone over to Edward.”

LADY DESPENSER’S SCRIBERY
THOMAS OF LANCASTER: PART 3: 1319-1322

http://www.ladydespensersscrib ery.com/2008/05/02/thomas-of-l ancaster-part-3-1319-1322/

LADY DESPENSER’S SCRIBERY
THE BATTLE OF BOROUGHBRIDGE AND ITS CONSEQUENCES

http://www.ladydespensersscrib ery.com/2008/03/16/the-battle- of-boroughbridge-and-its-conse quences/

” On 15 October 1328, Holland was captured at Boreham Wood in Essex by some of Lancaster’s adherents; they beheaded him, and sent the head to Lancaster’s brother Henry.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE AMATORY ADVENTURES OF JOHN DE WARENNE
5 APRIL 2007

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2007/04/amatory-adventure s-of-john-de-warenne.html

[950]

”The man who read out the above charges against Despenser was Sir William Trussell, who had fled the country after the battle of Boroughbridge and returned with Mortimer and Isabella.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE CHARGES AGAINST HUGH DESPENSER THE YOUNGER, NOVEMBER
1326
19 APRIL 2009

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2009/04/charges-against-h ugh-despenser-younger.html

WIKIPEDIA
WILLIAM TRUSSELL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ William_Trussell

[951]

”He found it difficult to keep friends and allies – especially among his neighbours in the north and the bishops.”

LADY DESPENSER’S SCRIBERY
THOMAS OF LANCASTER: PART 3 1319-1322

http://www.ladydespensersscrib ery.com/2008/05/02/thomas-of-l ancaster-part-3-1319-1322/

[952]

UNTILL THE INVASION OF ISABELLA AND MORTIMER IN 1326,
THOMAS’ YOUNGER BROTHER HENRY WAS THE EARL OF
LEICESTER:
HE PARTLY SUCCESSFULLY HAD PETITIONED
FOR HIS BROTHER THOMAS’ LANDS AND TITLES [FORFEITED AFTER
HIS EXECUTION IN 1322] AND WAS INVESTED IN 1324 AS
EARL OF LEICESTER
AFTER THE INVASION OF ISABELLA AND MORTIMER, HENRY
WAS RESTORED AS EARL OF LANCASTER

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY, 3RD EARL OF LANCASTER/PETITION FOR SUCCESSION
AND INHERITANCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry,_3rd_Earl_of_Lancaster#P etition_for_succession_and_inh eritance

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY, 3RD EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry,_3rd_Earl_of_Lancaster

”Meanwhile, Edward now heard that Henry of Leicester – Thomas of Lancaster’s brother – had also now defected to Isabella. His loyalty had been in doubt anyway, but his desertion was still an enormous problem as Henry, like his brother – had large numbers of men and they were now committed to the enemy cause instead of his own.”

LADY DESPENSER’S SCRIBERY
THE FLIGHT AND CAPTURE OF HUGH DESPENSER
AND EDWARD II 1326

http://www.ladydespensersscrib ery.com/2008/06/01/the-flight- and-capture-of-hugh-despenser- and-edward-ii-1326/

[953]

”On the Queen’s return to England in September 1326 with Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, Henry joined her party against King Edward II, which led to a general desertion of the king’s cause and overturned the power of Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester, and his namesake son Hugh the younger Despenser.”

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY, 3RD EARL OF LANCASTER/REVENGE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry,_3rd_Earl_of_Lancaster#R evenge

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY, 3RD EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry,_3rd_Earl_of_Lancaster

”Meanwhile, Edward now heard that Henry of Leicester – Thomas of Lancaster’s brother – had also now defected to Isabella. His loyalty had been in doubt anyway, but his desertion was still an enormous problem as Henry, like his brother – had large numbers of men and they were now committed to the enemy cause instead of his own.”

LADY DESPENSER’S SCRIBERY
THE FLIGHT AND CAPTURE OF HUGH DESPENSER
AND EDWARD II 1326

http://www.ladydespensersscrib ery.com/2008/06/01/the-flight- and-capture-of-hugh-despenser- and-edward-ii-1326/

[954]

”On the Queen’s return to England in September 1326 with Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, Henry joined her party against King Edward II, which led to a general desertion of the king’s cause and overturned the power of Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester, and his namesake son Hugh the younger Despenser.”

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY, 3RD EARL OF LANCASTER/REVENGE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry,_3rd_Earl_of_Lancaster#R evenge

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY, 3RD EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry,_3rd_Earl_of_Lancaster

”Meanwhile, Edward now heard that Henry of Leicester – Thomas of Lancaster’s brother – had also now defected to Isabella. His loyalty had been in doubt anyway, but his desertion was still an enormous problem as Henry, like his brother – had large numbers of men and they were now committed to the enemy cause instead of his own.”

LADY DESPENSER’S SCRIBERY
THE FLIGHT AND CAPTURE OF HUGH DESPENSER
AND EDWARD II 1326

http://www.ladydespensersscrib ery.com/2008/06/01/the-flight- and-capture-of-hugh-despenser- and-edward-ii-1326/

[955]

Thomas of Lancaster’s younger brother
Henry wrote to the Pope in 1327.
Archbishop William Melton of York
wrote the letter on behalf of
Henry of Lancaster,  requesting the Pope to inquire
into the canonization of the popular ”Saint”

SEE:

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 26

[956]

”With someone like Sir Robert Holland, Thomas of Lancaster’s close ally who also abandoned him in 1321/22 and was murdered by some of Thomas’s former adherents in 1328, you can see that Henry must still have been angry with Holland for his betrayal, as he took his killers under his protection.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE MURDER OF SIR ROGER BELERS
14 SEPTEMBER 2012

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2012/09/the- murder-of-sir-roger-belers. html

ACCORDING SOME SOURCES, HENRY HIMSELF
ORCHESTRATED THE MURDER OF SIR ROBERT
HOLLAND OR AT LEAST CONDONED IT

”Lancaster may have played by Mortimer’s hands by, at least condoning,
if not organised himself, the murder of Robert Holland, whose decisive
betrayal of Thomas of Lancaster in 1322 had been never forgiven by
the more embittered Lancastrian followers.”

THE TYRANNY AND FALLOF EDWARD II 1321-1326
NATALIE FRYDE
PAGE 218

ABOUT THE TREASON OF SIR ROBERT HOLLAND:

”Lancaster’s most reliable and loyal retainer Sir Robert Holland deserted the earl in his hour of need, and instead crossed over to Edward’s side. ”

THE MORTIMER HISTIORY SOCIETY
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE AND EXECUTION OF
THOMAS OF LANCASTER, A GUEST POST BY
STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://themortimersblog.wordp ress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-tr aitor-the-life-execution-of-th omas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post -by-stephen-spinks/

SEE ALSO

FOURTEENTHCENTURY FRIEND

FOURTEENTHCENTURYFRIEND.COM
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE AND EXECUTION OF
THOMAS OF LANCASTER
STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://fourteenthcenturyfiend .com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traito r-the-life-execution-of-thomas -of-lancaster/

”He now seemed unstoppable and Lancaster began to suffer the first desertions, including his steward Robert de Holand.

LADY DESPENSER’S SCRIBERY
THE BATTLE OF BOROUGHBRIDGE AND
ITS CONSEQUENCES

http://www. ladydespensersscribery.com/ 2008/03/16/the-battle-of- boroughbridge-and-its- consequences/

[957]

”Whatever some of Thomas’s contemporaries may have thought of him – the extremely pro-Lancastrian Brut called him the ‘gentle earl’, for example – it’s hard to find a modern historian with a good word to say about him, and hard, for me at least, to find much sympathy for a man who did his utmost to thwart his cousin Edward II at every turn.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (3)
2 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

[958]

”Although a coarse, selfish and violent man, without any of the attributes of a statesman, Lancaster won a great reputation for patriotism; and his memory was long cherished, especially in the north of England, as that of a defender of popular liberties.”

LUMINARIUM ENCYCLOPEDIA
THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER
(c. 1277-1322)

http://www.luminarium.org/ency clopedia/thomasoflancaster.htm

FOR THE RECORD:

LUMINARIUM MADE A MISTAKE, WRITING

while he was related to the royal house of France both through his mother, Blanche, a granddaughter of Louis VIII, and his step-sister, Jeanne, Queen of Navarre, the wife of Philip IV.”

Jeanne, Queen of Navarre, was NOT the step-sister of Thomas of Lancaster,
but his halfsister, since Blanche of Artois was the mother of Thomas of
Lancaster, but also Jeanne of Navarre’ s mother, who was a child from
her first marriage with King Henri I of Navarre

See also

WIKIPEDIA
BLANCHE OF ARTOIS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Blanche_of_Artois

[959]

”His opposition to royal power derived more from personal ambition than from a desire for reform.”

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

https://www.britannica.com/bio graphy/Thomas-2nd-Earl-of-Lanc aster

[960]

ENGLISH MONARCHS
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER
(c. 1278-22 MARCH 1322)

http://www.englishmonarchs.co. uk/plantagenet_74.html

[961]

Despite his seemingly high ideals about the poor and oppressed, fair patronage and justice, records show that Thomas was actually as vicious, ruthless and corrupt as those he opposed. He was well known for ignoring the matter of the law, especially when he wanted to take land and manors and his harshness as a landlord was also legendary.”

LADY DESPENSER’S SCRIBERY
THOMAS OF LANCASTER: PART 3: 1319-1322

http://www.ladydespensersscrib ery.com/2008/05/02/thomas-of-l ancaster-part-3-1319-1322/

[962]

In short, he had no aptitude for government and once he was in a position to enact reform, the earl quickly found he did not understand nor was capable of achieving what he had long since demanded. Shouting about the Ordinances was one thing, but once he had them, enacting change was too arduous for him.”

THE MORTIMER HISTIORY SOCIETY
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE AND EXECUTION OF
THOMAS OF LANCASTER, A GUEST POST BY
STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://themortimersblog.wordp ress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-tr aitor-the-life-execution-of-th omas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post -by-stephen-spinks/

SEE ALSO

FOURTEENTHCENTURY FRIEND

FOURTEENTHCENTURYFRIEND.COM
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE AND EXECUTION OF
THOMAS OF LANCASTER
STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://fourteenthcenturyfiend .com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traito r-the-life-execution-of-thomas -of-lancaster/

[963]

”No less significant is the fact that they were all part of the earl’s affinity. This is ample proof of Lancaster’s lacking ability to understand the needs and wishes of his retainers, and to respond accordingly. Whether it was due to a lack of insight into local affairs, or simply pure
obstinacy, Lancaster had driven his retainers to a point where they felt their lord could give them no redress for their complaints, and the only solution was rebellion.

LANCASHIRE IN THE REIGN OF EDWARD II
LANCASTER GENTRY, THOMAS OF LANCASTER
AND THE CROWN 1311-1322
GUNNAR A. WELLE

FACULTY OF HISTORY
UNIVERSITY OF OSLO
AUTUMN 2002

PAGES 73 AND 74

https://www.duo.uio.no/bitstream/handle/10852/23689/6891.pdf?sequence=1

FAVOURITISM OF SIR ROBERT HOLLAND

” Did the gentry of this particular county enjoy virtual self-government under the king, or did they take advantage of the patronage of the most powerful magnate in the realm? The answer seems to be neither. Lancaster was too aloof, too involved elsewhere to maintain anything but the most superficial relationship with anyone but his most powerful, or most trusted Lancashire retainers, yet his avarice and jealousy did not allow him to leave the county to its own devices.5 What the men of Lancashire got instead was Robert Holland installed as a second-in-command, receiving powers and gifts unmatched by any other of Lancaster’s retainers. The problem with Holland was not necessarily one of personality; his acquisitiveness was simply a result of the landhunger shared by all of his class, in an age where landed wealth was the measure of a man’s worth. Rather, the problem was that the powers he received far exceeded his rank. His powers might have been those of an earl, but his beginnings were those of a simple knight, and his acquisitions were perceived by his neighbours as little more than simple theft.”

LANCASHIRE IN THE REIGN OF EDWARD II
LANCASTER GENTRY, THOMAS OF LANCASTER
AND THE CROWN 1311-1322
GUNNAR A. WELLE

FACULTY OF HISTORY
UNIVERSITY OF OSLO
AUTUMN 2002

PAGE 86

https://www.duo.uio.no/bitstream/handle/10852/23689/6891.pdf?sequence=1

[964]

To be fair, Lancaster did his best to implement the Ordinances in full, purging the royal household and local government of men thought to be bad for the running of the country (in other words hostile to Lancaster), and he also attempted to get the country’s finances back into shape by limiting spending. ”

LADY DESPENSER’S SCRIBERY
THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER., Pt 2 1314-1318

http://www. ladydespensersscribery.com/ 2008/04/20/thomas-earl-of- lancaster-pt-2/

[965]

Edward II certainly had his faults as a king and many of Lancaster’s Ordinances were indeed worthy suggestions for much needed reform.”

LADY DESPENSER’S SCRIBERY
THOMAS OF LANCASTER, PART 3: 1319-1322

http://www.ladydespensersscrib ery.com/2008/05/02/thomas-of-l ancaster-part-3-1319-1322/

[966]

””……
His instinct, however, was to uphold the law and, notwithstanding his faults, he can not be accused of pure self-interest. He saw himself as answerable to Parliament, which, unlike Edward, he did not ignore or manipulate.”

…….
…….
”As an admirer of De Montford, Thomas would have subscribed to the principles that had developed subsequent to his Parliament of 1265, that all classes should be represented there, that all taxes except “those sanctioned by custom” must be approved by Parliament and that the “common man” was also entitled to protection, security and justice……….
……
…..
”Edward had vowed to “maintain the laws and rightful customs which the community of the realm shall have chosen,” as well as to “maintain peace and do justice” and Thomas had heard this promise. This development of the law was a shared responsibility—through their representatives, the “community of the realm”[14] would have a say in framing these laws for the common good. Thomas Plantagenet did his best to hold the king accountable to his oath. He can be said to have made a valuable contribution to the development of constraints on kingly power. In time, these constraints would result in full-blown democratic government.”

NEW WORLD ENCYCLOPEDIA
THOMAS PLANTAGENET, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

http://www.newworldencyclopedi a.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet ,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

[967]

”In fact, Thomas thereafter took little part in government, preferring to stay at his favourite residence of Pontefract, where Edward and his council were forced to communicate and negotiate with him as though he were an independent potentate, or another king.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (1)
19 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

”Edward asked his household and friends for advice about his cousin: “You see how the earl of Lancaster has not come to parliament. You see how he scorns to obey our commands. How does it seem to you?”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (2)
25 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his_25.html

”Thomas of Lancaster failed to attend the parliament of January 1320, which also took place in York.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (3)
2 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

”Thomas also refused to attend the Westminster parliament of October 1320.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (3)
2 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

” In short, he had no aptitude for government and once he was in a position to enact reform, the earl quickly found he did not understand nor was capable of achieving what he had long since demanded. ……
…….
” The rest of Lancaster’s peers baulked at his arrogance, preferring to keep loyal to Edward who was after all their natural king. For many, there was no other choice. Lancaster retired to his estates and there loomed like a angry shadow in the north striking out whenever he felt the need to provoke.”

THE MORTIMER HISTIORY SOCIETY
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE AND EXECUTION OF
THOMAS OF LANCASTER, A GUEST POST BY
STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://themortimersblog.wordp ress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-tr aitor-the-life-execution-of-th omas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post -by-stephen-spinks/

SEE ALSO

FOURTEENTHCENTURY FRIEND

FOURTEENTHCENTURYFRIEND.COM
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE AND EXECUTION OF
THOMAS OF LANCASTER
STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://fourteenthcenturyfiend .com/2017/03/22/a-royal- traitor-the-life-execution-of- thomas-of-lancaster/

”From that point Lancaster was rarely seen at Westminster, preferring to govern from his own lands instead.”
……
……
”Lancaster’s self-imposed absence from court during these years did him no favours, especially when he also refused to attend the council of Ordainers at Clarendon in 1317.”

LADY DESPENSER’S SCRIBERY
THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER
PART TWO 1314-1318

http://www. ladydespensersscribery.com/ 2008/04/20/thomas-earl-of- lancaster-pt-2/

[968]

I find this first one, sent to his first cousin Thomas, earl of Lancaster on 22 September 1305, extremely poignant given that they later became deadly enemies and loathed each other. Edward never forgave Thomas for having Piers Gaveston killed in 1312, and in March 1322 had him executed.

””To the earl of Lancaster, greetings and dear affection. Very dear cousin, we hold you well excused that you have not come to us, and your illness weighs heavily on us, and if we can come to you we will do it gladly, to see and to comfort you. Very dear cousin, may our lord etc [have you in his keeping]. Given as above [in Windsor park, 22 September 1305].”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THREE LETTERS FROM EDWARD OF CAERNARFON,
1305
18 AUGUST 2017

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2017/08/three-letters-fro m-edward-of-caernarfon.html

”Furious and bereft as Edward II certainly was, he kept his feelings under wraps in public and wrote courteously to Thomas’s closest adherent Sir Robert Holland on 20 November 1311, just weeks after Piers Gaveston’s departure: “We are very joyous and pleased about the good news we have heard concerning the improvement in our dear cousin and faithful subject Thomas, earl of Lancaster, and that he will soon be able to ride in comfort. And we send you word and dearly pray that, as soon as he is comfortable and able to ride without hurt to his body, you should ask him to be so good as to hasten to us at our parliament.” [11] Thomas does seem to have been prone to illness, such as the occasion in 1305 when he was unable to travel to Edward, though what this was remains a mystery, and to judge by Edward’s letter it sounds as though it may have been some kind of physical disability.

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (1)
19 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

Thomas’s infrequent visits to the county from which his family took its name can be explained by a variety of factors. The earl’s earlier years were marked by deep involvement in national affairs, keeping him in London, Westminster and York for long periods at a time. As he grew older, he developed a growing preference for the castle of Pontefract, perhaps because of ill health.”

LANCASHIRE IN THE REIGN OF EDWARD II
LANCASTER GENTRY, THOMAS OF LANCASTER
AND THE CROWN 1311-1322
GUNNAR A. WELLE

FACULTY OF HISTORY
UNIVERSITY OF OSLO
AUTUMN 2002

PAGE 44

https://www.duo.uio.no/bitstre am/handle/10852/23689/6891.pdf ?sequence=1

”In fact, Thomas thereafter took little part in government, preferring to stay at his favourite residence of Pontefract, where Edward and his council were forced to communicate and negotiate with him as though he were an independent potentate, or another king. [14] Why Thomas behaved like this is a mystery; perhaps his illness or physical disability prevented him taking a more active role. ”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (1)
19 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

[969]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
TITLES, FORMS AND ADDRESS, NAMES, LETTERS…..
15 JUNE 2007

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2007/06/titles-forms-of-address-names-letters.html

[970]

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/RETURN
AND DEATH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Cornwall#Return_and_death

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Cornwall

[971]

TO GET AN IMPRESSION OF THE POWER OF THOMAS
OF LANCASTER:
SEE ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE LINK
THE MAP OF ENGLAND AND THE EXTENT OF THE POSSESSIONS
OF LANCASTER

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER/TITLES AND LANDS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster# Titles_and_lands

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

[972]

””When this wretched business is over, we will turn our hands to other matters. For I have not forgotten the wrong that was done to my brother Piers.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE SIEGE OF BERWICK AND THE CHAPTER
OF MYTON
18 MAY 2009

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2009/05/siege-of-berwick- and-chapter-of-myton.html

[973]

Although relations between the two most powerful men in the country, the king and the earl of Lancaster, had been, prior to the siege, outwardly amicable, Edward proved what was really on his mind by ominously announcing “When this wretched business is over, we will turn our hands to other matters. For I have not forgotten the wrong that was done to my brother Piers.”
”This threat to avenge Piers Gaveston’s death was clearly aimed at Lancaster, and may have been a reason for his departure from Berwick”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE SIEGE OF BERWICK AND THE CHAPTER
OF MYTON
18 MAY 2009

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2009/05/siege-of-berwick- and-chapter-of-myton.html

[974]

”In the spring of 1317 came the abduction – or whatever it was – of Thomas of Lancaster’s wife Alice de Lacy from Canford in Dorset by household knights of John de Warenne, earl of Surrey. Rightly or wrongly, Thomas blamed Edward II and the three knights then high in the king’s favour, Roger DamoryHugh Audley and William Montacute. Whatever the truth of Thomas’s allegations, it seems clear that Damory, Audley and Montacute were doing their best to hinder any reconciliation between the king and the earl, and at a meeting of the king’s council at Clarendon in the spring of 1317, the three openly called Thomas a traitor. ”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (2)
25 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his_25.html

[975]

”The road through Pontefract was now clear, but instead of doing the sensible thing and ignoring Thomas, Edward took it into his head, despite his promise a few days earlier not to take action against his cousin, to command his men to take up arms and attack him. Apparently one of Edward’s friends – most likely Roger Damory – had persuaded him, in his own selfish interests, that the earl posed a threat to Edward and that he should attack him first. Fortunately for the stability of his kingdom, Edward, who was incapable of distinguishing between good and bad advice and who tended to believe and act on whatever the last person had told him, informed the earl of Pembroke beforehand what he was intending to do. He said “I have been told that the earl of Lancaster is lying in ambush, and is diligently preparing to catch us all by surprise.” [16] Pembroke fortunately still retained some influence over the king and managed to convince Edward that this was not in fact the case……”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (2)
25 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his_25.html

[976]

”He refused to meet Edward unless Damory, Audley, Montacute and the earl of Surrey left court, and Edward refused once again to send them away.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (2)
25 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his_25.html

ADDITION:

The Earl of Surrey was John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey,
first his ally in the Piers Gaveston affair [Warenne had been
one of the besiegers of Castle Scarbourough, where Piers
Gaveston was staying after his return from his
third exile] and later his enemy, with
with whom he had a serious feud because of Warenne’s
possible part in the abduction of Thomas” wife, Alice
de Lacy

SEE

WIKIPEDIA
JOHN DE WARENNE, 7TH EARL OF SURREY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John_de_Warenne,_7th_Earl_of_S urrey

”His marriage to Alice de Lacy was not successful. They had no children together, while he fathered, illegitimately, with another woman, two sons. In 1317 she was abducted from her manor at CanfordDorset by Richard de St Martin, a knight in the service of John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey. This incident caused a feud between Lancaster and Surrey”

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER/LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster# Life

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

[977]

To be fair, Lancaster did his best to implement the Ordinances in full, purging the royal household and local government of men thought to be bad for the running of the country (in other words hostile to Lancaster), and he also attempted to get the country’s finances back into shape by limiting spending. ”

LADY DESPENSER’S SCRIBERY
THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER., Pt 2 1314-1318

http://www. ladydespensersscribery.com/ 2008/04/20/thomas-earl-of- lancaster-pt-2/

[978]

”Edward and Thomas met in York in the summer of 1316 and had a furious row, apparently over Edward’s ongoing reluctance to accept the Ordinances, to which Thomas – who saw himself as a second Simon de Montfort – was devoted.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (1)
19 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

[979]

Although a coarse, selfish and violent man, without any of the attributes of a statesman, Lancaster won a great reputation for patriotism……..”

LUMINARIUM ENCYCLOPEDIA
THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER
(1277-1322)

http://www.luminarium.org/ency clopedia/thomasoflancaster.htm

FOR THE RECORD:

LUMINARIUM MADE A MISTAKE, WRITING

while he was related to the royal house of France both through his mother, Blanche, a granddaughter of Louis VIII, and his step-sister, Jeanne, Queen of Navarre, the wife of Philip IV.”

Jeanne, Queen of Navarre, was NOT the step-sister of Thomas of Lancaster,
but his halfsister, since Blanche of Artois was the mother of Thomas of
Lancaster, but also Jeanne of Navarre’ s mother, who was a child from
her first marriage with King Henri I of Navarre

See also

WIKIPEDIA
BLANCHE OF ARTOIS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Blanche_of_Artois

[980]

” The rest of Lancaster’s peers baulked at his arrogance, preferring to keep loyal to Edward who was after all their natural king. For many, there was no other choice. Lancaster retired to his estates and there loomed like a angry shadow in the north striking out whenever he felt the need to provoke.”

THE MORTIMER HISTIORY SOCIETY
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE AND EXECUTION OF
THOMAS OF LANCASTER, A GUEST POST BY
STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://themortimersblog.wordp ress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-tr aitor-the-life-execution-of-th omas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post -by-stephen-spinks/

SEE ALSO

FOURTEENTHCENTURY FRIEND

FOURTEENTHCENTURYFRIEND.COM
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE AND EXECUTION OF
THOMAS OF LANCASTER
STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://fourteenthcenturyfiend .com/2017/03/22/a-royal- traitor-the-life-execution-of- thomas-of-lancaster/

[981]

”He lost credibility, and after the death of the earl of Warwick the year previously, those around him quickly began to see Lancaster for what he was; a bully, who was motivated by self-interest and a seeming desire for power.”

THE MORTIMER HISTIORY SOCIETY
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE AND EXECUTION OF
THOMAS OF LANCASTER, A GUEST POST BY
STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://themortimersblog.wordp ress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-tr aitor-the-life-execution-of-th omas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post -by-stephen-spinks/

SEE ALSO

FOURTEENTHCENTURY FRIEND

FOURTEENTHCENTURYFRIEND.COM
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE AND EXECUTION OF
THOMAS OF LANCASTER
STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://fourteenthcenturyfiend .com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traito r-the-life-execution-of-thomas -of-lancaster/

[982]

”No less significant is the fact that they were all part of the earl’s affinity. This is ample proof of Lancaster’s lacking ability to understand the needs and wishes of his retainers, and to respond accordingly. Whether it was due to a lack of insight into local affairs, or simply pure
obstinacy, Lancaster had driven his retainers to a point where they felt their lord could give them no redress for their complaints, and the only solution was rebellion.

LANCASHIRE IN THE REIGN OF EDWARD II
LANCASTER GENTRY, THOMAS OF LANCASTER
AND THE CROWN 1311-1322
GUNNAR A. WELLE

FACULTY OF HISTORY
UNIVERSITY OF OSLO
AUTUMN 2002

PAGES 73 AND 74

https://www.duo.uio.no/bitstre am/handle/10852/23689/6891.pdf ?sequence=1

” Did the gentry of this particular county enjoy virtual self-government under the king, or did they take advantage of the patronage of the most powerful magnate in the realm? The answer seems to be neither. Lancaster was too aloof, too involved elsewhere to maintain anything but the most superficial relationship with anyone but his most powerful, or most trusted Lancashire retainers, yet his avarice and jealousy did not allow him to leave the county to its own devices.

LANCASHIRE IN THE REIGN OF EDWARD II
LANCASTER GENTRY, THOMAS OF LANCASTER
AND THE CROWN 1311-1322
GUNNAR A. WELLE

FACULTY OF HISTORY
UNIVERSITY OF OSLO
AUTUMN 2002

PAGE 86

https://www.duo.uio.no/bitstre am/handle/10852/23689/6891.pdf ?sequence=1

[983]

”Hugh Despenser the Elder, Earl of Winchester. Born 1261/2. A loyal royal servant all his life, and the only English nobleman who was faithful to Edward II from beginning to end.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE ENGLISH EARLS IN THE REIGN OF EDWARD II
22 APRIL 2006

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2006/04/english-earls-in- reign-of-edward-ii.html

[984]

”He found it difficult to keep friends and allies
…….
…….”

LADY DESPENSER’S SCRIBERY
THOMAS OF LANCASTER
PART THREE-1319-22

http://www.ladydespensersscrib ery.com/2008/05/02/thomas-of-l ancaster-part-3-1319-1322/

[985]

WIKIPEDIA
WILLIAM TRUSSELL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ William_Trussell

”Withdraw, you traitor, tyrant, renegade; go to take your own justice, traitor, evil man, criminal!
[Retrees vous traitour, tyrant, Reneye, si ales vostre iuys prendre, traitour, malueys, et atteyntmalueys or malveis… ..”

…….
…..

”The man who read out the above charges against Despenser was Sir William Trussell, who had fled the country after the battle of Boroughbridge and returned with Mortimer and Isabella.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE CHARGES AGAINST HUGH DESPENSER THE YOUNGER,
NOVEMBER 1326
19 APRIL 2009

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2009/04/charges- against-hugh-despenser- younger.html

[986]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE MURDER OF SIR ROBERT HOLLAND
8 SEPTEMBER 2017

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2017/09/the- murder-of-sir-robert-holland. html

” On 15 October 1328, Holland was captured at Boreham Wood in Essex by some of Lancaster’s adherents; they beheaded him, and sent the head to Lancaster’s brother Henry.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE AMATORY ADVENTURES OF JOHN DE WARENNE
5 APRIL 2007

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2007/04/amatory-adventure s-of-john-de-warenne.html

[987]

”The Banastre Rebellion was an uprising in Lancashire, England in 1315 against the Earl of Lancaster and his supporters. It took place in 1315 when a group of disaffected knights decided to revenge themselves on the Earl of Lancaster by attacking his chief retainer and their rival, Sir Robert de Holland. ”

WIKIPEDIA
BANASTRE REBELLION

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Banastre_Rebellion

”There might not even be any reason to decide whether the rebellion was directed at Holland or Lancaster. Maddicott has shown how the two were partners in crime when it came to acquisition of property. On several occasions Lancaster arranged transfers to his favourite of land to which he had doubtful claim. This was done in an effort to prevent or obstruct suits to be brought against him. Ploys like this might have been used in Lancashire as well. The lord and his associate seem to have had in common a character of covetousness and avarice”

PAGE 68

”What they all had in common was that they perceived a challenge to their position in the community in the shape of Robert Holland, a challenge so strong that they were willing to risk their lives to fight it.”

PAGE 72

LANCASHIRE IN THE REIGN OF EDWARD II
LANCASTER GENTRY, THOMAS OF LANCASTER
AND THE CROWN 1311-1322
GUNNAR A. WELLE

FACULTY OF HISTORY
UNIVERSITY OF OSLO
AUTUMN 2002

https://www.duo.uio.no/ bitstream/handle/10852/23689/ 6891.pdf?sequence=1

”The northerners had a certain autonomy through their own retinues, but Holland owed everything to the earl. He was not only Lancaster’s most trusted servant, but probably also a close personal friend”

PAGE 77

LANCASHIRE IN THE REIGN OF EDWARD II
LANCASTER GENTRY, THOMAS OF LANCASTER
AND THE CROWN 1311-1322
GUNNAR A. WELLE

FACULTY OF HISTORY
UNIVERSITY OF OSLO
AUTUMN 2002

https://www.duo.uio.no/ bitstream/handle/10852/23689/ 6891.pdf?sequence=1

[988]

”Lancaster’s most reliable and loyal retainer Sir Robert Holland deserted the earl in his hour of need, and instead crossed over to Edward’s side.”

THE MORTIMER HISTIORY SOCIETY
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE AND EXECUTION OF
THOMAS OF LANCASTER, A GUEST POST BY
STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://themortimersblog.wordp ress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-tr aitor-the-life-execution-of-th omas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post -by-stephen-spinks/

SEE ALSO

FOURTEENTHCENTURY FRIEND

FOURTEENTHCENTURYFRIEND.COM
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE AND EXECUTION OF
THOMAS OF LANCASTER
STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://fourteenthcenturyfiend .com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traito r-the-life-execution-of-thomas -of-lancaster/

”Robert Holland had previously been one of Lancaster’s most loyal aides but now the man had abandoned him and gone over to Edward.”

LADY DESPENSER’S SCRIBERY
THOMAS OF LANCASTER: PART 3: 1319-1322

http://www.ladydespensersscrib ery.com/2008/05/02/thomas-of-l ancaster-part-3-1319-1322/

”He now seemed unstoppable and Lancaster began to suffer the first desertions, including his steward Robert de Holand. ”

LADY DESPENSER’S SCRIBERY
THE BATTLE OF BOROUGHBRIDGE AND ITS CONSEQUENCES

http://www.ladydespensersscrib ery.com/2008/03/16/the-battle- of-boroughbridge-and-its-conse quences/

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE MURDER OF SIR ROBERT HOLLAND
8 SEPTEMBER 2017

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2017/09/the- murder-of-sir-robert-holland. html

”It is of course Holland’s desertion that is of greatest interest here, and deserves special notice. The northerners had a certain autonomy through their own retinues, but Holland owed everything to the earl”
He was not only Lancaster’s most trusted servant, but probably also a close personal friend.72 By turning the forces he had gathered for Lancaster over to the king, he probably determined the outcome of the battle.

PAGE 77

LANCASHIRE IN THE REIGN OF EDWARD II
LANCASTER GENTRY, THOMAS OF LANCASTER
AND THE CROWN 1311-1322
GUNNAR A. WELLE

FACULTY OF HISTORY
UNIVERSITY OF OSLO
AUTUMN 2002

https://www.duo.uio.no/ bitstream/handle/10852/23689/ 6891.pdf?sequence=1

[989]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE MURDER OF SIR ROBERT HOLLAND
8 SEPTEMBER 2017

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2017/09/the- murder-of-sir-robert-holland. html

”Lancaster may have played by Mortimer’s hands by, at least condoning,
if not organised himself, the murder of Robert Holland, whose decisive
betrayal of Thomas of Lancaster in 1322 had been never forgiven by
the more embittered Lancastrian followers.”

THE TYRANNY AND FALLOF EDWARD II 1321-1326
NATALIE FRYDE
PAGE 218

””With someone like Sir Robert Holland, Thomas of Lancaster’s close ally who also abandoned him in 1321/22 and was murdered by some of Thomas’s former adherents in 1328, you can see that Henry must still have been angry with Holland for his betrayal, as he took his killers under his protection.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE MURDER OF SIR ROGER BELERS
14 SEPTEMBER 2012

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2012/09/the-murder-of-sir -roger-belers.html

[990]

”Whatever some of Thomas’s contemporaries may have thought of him – the extremely pro-Lancastrian Brut called him the ‘gentle earl’, for example – it’s hard to find a modern historian with a good word to say about him, and hard, for me at least, to find much sympathy for a man who did his utmost to thwart his cousin Edward II at every turn.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP WITH
EDWARD II (3}
2 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

[991]

Although a coarse, selfish and violent man, without any of the attributes of a statesman, Lancaster won a great reputation for patriotism……..”

LUMINARIUM ENCYCLOPEDIA
THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER
(1277-1322)

http://www.luminarium.org/ency clopedia/thomasoflancaster.htm

FOR THE RECORD:

LUMINARIUM MADE A MISTAKE, WRITING

while he was related to the royal house of France both through his mother, Blanche, a granddaughter of Louis VIII, and his step-sister, Jeanne, Queen of Navarre, the wife of Philip IV.”

Jeanne, Queen of Navarre, was NOT the step-sister of Thomas of Lancaster,
but his halfsister, since Blanche of Artois was the mother of Thomas of
Lancaster, but also Jeanne of Navarre’ s mother, who was a child from
her first marriage with King Henri I of Navarre

See also

WIKIPEDIA
BLANCHE OF ARTOIS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Blanche_of_Artois

[992]

””His opposition to royal power derived more from personal ambition than from a desire for reform.”

ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

https://www.britannica.com/bio graphy/Thomas-2nd-Earl-of-Lanc aster

[993]

He can be said to have made a valuable contribution to the development of constraints on kingly power. In time, these constraints would result in full-blown democratic government.”

NEW WORLD ENCYCLOPEDIA
THOMAS PLANTAGENET, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

http://www.newworldencyclopedi a.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet ,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

[994]

”Yet Thomas made a valuable contribution to the development of constraints on kingly power and to defending the rights of parliament to supervise and to limit royal power. In time, these constraints would result in full-blown democratic governme nt.”

NEW WORLD ENCYCLOPEDIA
THOMAS PLANTAGENET, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

http://www.newworldencyclopedi a.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet ,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

[995]

The nature of government under the Angevin monarchs was ill-defined and uncertain. John’s predecessors had ruled using the principle of vis et voluntas, or “force and will”, taking executive and sometimes arbitrary decisions, often justified on the basis that a king was above the law.[81] Both Henry II and Richard had argued that kings possessed a quality of “divine majesty“; John continued this trend and claimed an “almost imperial status” for himself as ruler.[81]
WIKIPEDIA
JOHN, KING OF ENGLAND/KINGSHIP AND ROYAL ADMINISTRATION

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John,_King_of_England#Kingship _and_royal_administration

ORIGINAL SOURCE
JOHN, KING OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John,_King_of_England

WIKIPEDIA
JOHN, KING OF ENGLAND/TENSIONS AND DISCONTENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John,_King_of_England#Tensions _and_discontent

WIKIPEDIA
JOHN, KING OF ENGLAND/PRE WAR TENSIONS AND MAGNA
CHARTA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John,_King_of_England#Pre-war_ tensions_and_Magna_Carta

WIKIPEDIA
JOHN, KING OF ENGLAND/WAR WITH THE BARONS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John,_King_of_England#War_with _the_barons

ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
JOHN, KING OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John,_King_of_England

[996]

The Oxford Parliament (1258), also known as the “Mad Parliament” and the “First English Parliament”, assembled during the reign of Henry III of England. It was established by Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester. The parlour or prolocutor (Speaker) was Peter de Montfort under the direction of Simon de Montfort. Simon de Montfort led the Parliament and the entire country of England for 18 months, from 1264 until his death at the Battle of Evesham.”

WIKIPEDIA
OXFORD PARLIAMENT (1258)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxford_Parliament_(1258)

WIKIPEDIA
PROVISIONS OF OXFORD

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Provisions_of_Oxford

Montfort used his victory to set up a government based on the provisions first established at Oxford in 1258. Henry retained the title and authority of King, but all decisions and approval now rested with his council, led by Montfort and subject to consultation with parliament.”

WIKIPEDIA
SIMON DE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER/RULE AND
PARLIAMENTARY REFORM

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Simon_de_Montfort,_6th_Earl_of _Leicester#Rule_and_parliament ary_reform

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
SIMON DE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Simon_de_Montfort,_6th_Earl_of _Leicester

WIKIPEDIA
SIMON DE MONTFORT’S PARLIAMENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Simon_de_Montfort%27s_Parliame nt

NEW WORLD ENCYCLOPEDIA
SIMON DE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Simon_de_Montfort,_6th_Earl_of_Leicester

”The most outstanding English personality of his day, Simon is remembered as an early advocate of a limited monarchy, ruling through elected councillors and responsible officials, and of parliaments including county knights and burgesses as well as the great nobles.”

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA
SIMON DE MONTFORT, EARL OF LEICESTER

https://www.britannica.com/bio graphy/Simon-de-Montfort-earl- of-Leicester

WIKIPEDIA
BURGESS (TITLE)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Burgess_(title)

WIKIPEDIA
KNIGHTS OF THE SHIRE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Knights_of_the_Shire

WIKIPEDIA
SIMON DE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER/FALL FROM
POWER AND DEATH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Simon_de_Montfort,_6th_Earl_of _Leicester#Fall_from_power_and _death

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
SIMON DE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Simon_de_Montfort,_6th_Earl_of _Leicester

[997]

”He “based his policies on a strict adherence to the ordinances and an appeal to the work of Simon de Montfort”

NEW WORLD ENCYCLOPEDIA
THOMAS PLANTAGENET, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

[998]


SEE IN THE FOLLOWING WIKIPEDIA ON THE RIGHT SIDE

SuccessorNone, title forfeit

WIKIPEDIA
SIMON DE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Simon_de_Montfort,_6th_Earl_ of_Leicester

The title of Earl of Lancaster was created in the Peerage of England in 1267, merging in the crown in 1399. It was succeeded by the Duke of Lancaster. The title was created when Henry III of England created the Earldom of Lancaster—from which the house was named—for his second son Edmund Crouchback in 1267”

” Edmund had already been created Earl of Leicester in 1265 and was granted the lands and privileges of Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, after de Montfort’s death and attainder at the end of the Second Barons’ War.”

WIKIPEDIA
EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earl_of_Lancaster

[999]

”The title of Earl of Lancaster was created in the Peerage of England in 1267, merging in the crown in 1399. It was succeeded by the Duke of Lancaster. The title was created when Henry III of England created the Earldom of Lancaster—from which the house was named—for his second son Edmund Crouchback in 1267”

” Edmund had already been created Earl of Leicester in 1265 and was granted the lands and privileges of Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, after de Montfort’s death and attainder at the end of the Second Barons’ War.”

WIKIPEDIA
EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earl_of_Lancaster

[1000]

”He “based his policies on a strict adherence to the ordinances and an appeal to the work of Simon de Montfort”

NEW WORLD ENCYCLOPEDIA
THOMAS PLANTAGENET, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

http://www. newworldencyclopedia.org/ entry/Thomas_Plantagenet,_2nd_ Earl_of_Lancaster

[1001]

WIKIPEDIA
SIMON DE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER/FALL FROM POWER
AND DEATH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simon_de_Montfort,_6th_Earl_of_Leicester#Fall_from_power_and_death

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA

SIMON DE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simon_de_Montfort,_6th_Earl_of_Leicester

[1002]

”Thomas became venerated as a martyr and saint within a few months of his death. Hagiographies were written about him, and Edward III wrote three times to the Pope requesting his canonization. He was never canonized, though rumors to that effect arose in the 1390s, when his cult experienced something of a revival.”

NEW WORLD ENCYCLOPEDIA
THOMAS PLANTAGENET, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

http://www.newworldencyclopedi a.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet ,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

”After Edward II’s downfall in 1327, a campaign to canonise Thomas of Lancaster began in earnest…..
……
”Although Thomas was never actually canonised, his hat and belt preserved at Pontefract were used as remedies in childbirth and for headaches as late as the Reformation…..”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

”In the years that followed his death, Simon de Montfort’s grave was frequently visited by pilgrims. There was an attempt to canonize him; this was not carried out however, due to opposition by the English monarchy at the time”

NEW WORLD ENCYCLOPEDIA
SIMON DE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER

http://www.newworldencyclopedi a.org/entry/Simon_de_Montfort, _6th_Earl_of_Leicester

[1003]

”Today, de Montfort is mainly remembered for calling the first directly elected parliament and is regarded as one of the fathers of modern democracy.”

NEW WORLD ENCYCLOPEDIA
SIMON DE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER

http://www.newworldencyclopedi a.org/entry/Simon_de_Montfort, _6th_Earl_of_Leicester

”Today, Montfort is mostly remembered as one of the fathers of representative government

WIKIPEDIA
SIMON DE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER/LEGACY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Simon_de_Montfort,_6th_Earl_of _Leicester#Legacy

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA

SIMON DE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Simon_de_Montfort,_6th_Earl_of _Leicester

” In 1965 a memorial stone was laid on the site of the former altar by Speaker of the House of Commons Sir Harry Hylton-Foster and Archbishop of Canterbury Michael Ramsey. The inscription reads:
Here were buried the remains of
SIMON DE MONTFORT, EARL OF LEICESTER
pioneer of representative government who was
killed in the Battle of Evesham on August 4 1265.
This stone brought from his birthplace the
Castle of Montfort-l’Amaury in France
was erected to commemorate the seven hundredth
anniversary of his death.
Unveiled by the Speaker of the House of Commons
and dedicated by
His Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury
on the 18th day of July 1965.”

NEW WORLD ENCYCLOPEDIA
SIMON DE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER

http://www.newworldencyclopedi a.org/entry/Simon_de_Montfort, _6th_Earl_of_Leicester

[1004]

WIKIPEDIA

SIMON DE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER/FALL FROM
POWER AND DEATH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Simon_de_Montfort,_6th_Earl_of _Leicester#Fall_from_power_and _death

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA

SIMON DE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Simon_de_Montfort,_6th_Earl_of _Leicester

[1005]

WIKIPEDIA
OXFORD PARLIAMENT (1258)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Oxford_Parliament_(1258)

NATIONAL ARCHIVES
THE MAD PARLIAMENT, 1258 [SAME AS THE OXFORD PARLIAMENT]

http://www.nationalarchives.go v.uk/education/resources/magna -carta/the-mad-parliament/

THIS IS THE SECOND PARLIAMENT, HELD BY SIMON DE MONTFORT

Simon de Montfort’s Parliament was an English parliament held from 20 January 1265 until mid-March the same year, instigated by Simon de Montfort, a baronial rebel leader.”

WIKIPEDIA
SIMON DE MONTFORT’S PARLIAMENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Simon_de_Montfort%27s_Parliame nt

[1006]

”Civil war broke out almost immediately, with the royalists again able to confine the reformist army in London. In early May 1264, Simon marched out to give battle to the King and scored a spectacular triumph at the Battle of Lewes on 14 May 1264, capturing the King, Lord Edward, and Richard of Cornwall, Henry’s brother and the titular King of Germany.”

WIKIPEDIA
SIMON DE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER/WAR AGAINST
THE KING

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Simon_de_Montfort,_6th_Earl_of _Leicester#War_against_the_Kin g

WIKIPEDIA
SIMON DE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER/RULE AND PARLIAMENTARY REFORM

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Simon_de_Montfort,_6th_Earl_of _Leicester#Rule_and_parliament ary_reform

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
SIMON DE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Simon_de_Montfort,_6th_Earl_of _Leicester

[1007]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE GREAT FAMINE 1315 TO 1317
28 JANUARY 2009

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2009/01/great-famine-1315 -to-1317.html

[1008]

WIKIPEDIA
GUY DE BEAUCHAMP, 10TH EARL OF WARWICK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Guy_de_Beauchamp,_10th_Earl_of _Warwick

[1009]

YOUTUBE.COM
BRITAIN’S BLOODIEST DYNASTY: THE PLANTAGENETS/2 OF 4/HATRED
[ABOUT HENRY III, HIS REIGN AND SIMON DE MONTFORT]

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=rvJLzLCiujI

[1010]

”Montfort used his victory to set up a government based on the provisions first established at Oxford in 1258. Henry retained the title and authority of King, but all decisions and approval now rested with his council, led by Montfort and subject to consultation with parliament.”

WIKIPEDIA
SIMON DE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER/RULE AND
PARLIAMENTARY REFORM

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Simon_de_Montfort,_6th_Earl_of _Leicester#Rule_and_parliament ary_reform

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
SIMON DE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Simon_de_Montfort,_6th_Earl_of _Leicester

[1011]

DOCUMENTS IN ENGLISH HISTORY
THE ORDINANCES OF 1311

http://historyofengland.typepa d.com/documents_in_english_his t/2013/02/the-ordinances-of- 1311.html

WIKIPEDIA
ORDINANCES OF 1311

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Ordinances_of_1311

A VERY INTESTING AND STRIKING DOCUMENTARY ON YOUTUBE.COM
, ALTHOUGH
DAN JONES MADE AN ERROR BY STATING THAT ISABELLA’S
CHILDREN WERE TAKEN FROM HER IN 1324

SEE

LADY DESPENSER’S SCRIBERY
A CRITIQUE OF CHANNEL 5’S BRITAIN’S BLOODIEST
DYNASTY, EPISODE 3, EDWARD II

http://www.ladydespensersscrib ery.com/2014/12/16/a-critique- of-channel-5s-britains-bloodie st-dynasty-episode-3-edward-ii /

YOUTUBE.COM
BRITAIN’S BLOODIEST DYNASTY
REVENGE-PART 3 OF 4
[ABOUT EDWARD II, HIS REIGN AND THOMAS OF LANCASTER]

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=iYBZVSShBIE

[1012]

”As Lord of Leicester, he expelled the small Jewish community from Leicester in 1231, banishing them “in my time or in the time of any of my heirs to the end of the world”

WIKIPEDIA
SIMON DE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER/EARLY LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Simon_de_Montfort,_6th_Earl_of _Leicester#Early_life

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
SIMON DE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Simon_de_Montfort,_6th_Earl_of _Leicester

”Lancaster was one of the Lords Ordainers who demanded the banishment of Gaveston and the establishment of a baronial oligarchy. His private army helped separate the King and Gaveston, and Lancaster was one of the “judges” who convicted Gaveston and saw him executed.”

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER/LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster# Life

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA

THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

(1013)

WIKIPEDIA
ORDINANCES OF 1311

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Ordinances_of_1311

DOCUMENTS IN ENGLISH HISTORY
THE ORDINANCES OF 1311

http://historyofengland.typepa d.com/documents_in_english_his t/2013/02/the-ordinances-of- 1311.html

TEXT (WITH COMMENTS-NOT COMPLETE, BUT GIVES A GOOD IMPRESSION OF
THE INTENTIONS)

SEE ARTICLE 20 ABOUT THE EXILE OF PIERS GAVESTON, DEMANDED
BY THE LORDS ORDAINERS

´´Whereas, through bad and deceitful counsel, our lord the king and all his men have everywhere been dishonoured and his crown in many ways has been debased and ruined, while his lands of Gascony, Ireland, and Scotland are on the point of being lost unless God improves the situation, and his realm of England has been brought to the verge of rebellion through prises and [other] oppressive and destructive measures—which facts are known and proved—our lord the king of his free will has granted to the prelates, earls, and barons, and to the other good men of his realm, that certain persons should be elected to ordain and determine the condition of his household and of his realm, as appears more fully in the commission issued by our lord the king in this connection.

´´Therefore we, Robert, by the grace of God archbishop of Canterbury and primate of all England, and the bishops, earls, and barons elected by virtue of the said commission, do ordain for the honour of God and Holy Church and of the king and his realm in the manner following:–1. In the first place it is ordained that Holy Church shall have all its liberties as heretofore and as it should have them.
2. Item, it is ordained that the king’s peace shall be firmly kept throughout the entire kingdom; so that everyone may safely go, come, and remain according to the law and custom of the realm.

3. Item, it is ordained that, in order to acquit the king’s debts, to relieve his estate, and the more honourably to maintain it, no gift of land, rent, liberty, escheat, wardship, marriage, or office shall be made to any of the said Ordainers during their [tenure of] power under the said ordinance, or to any other person, without the counsel and assent of the said Ordainers or the majority of them—or of six of them at least—but that all sources of profit shall be improved for the benefit of the king until his estate is properly relieved and some other ordinance may be made for the honour and profit of the king.

4. Item, it is ordained that the customs of the kingdom shall be received and kept by men of the kingdom itself, and not by aliens ; and that the issues and profits of the same customs, together with all other issues and profits pertaining to the kingdom from any source whatsoever, shall in their entirety come to the king’s exchequer and be paid by the treasurer and the chamberlain for maintaining the king’s household and [to be spent] in other ways for his benefit ; so that the king may live of his own without taking prises other than those anciently due and accustomed. And all others shall cease.
An interesting clause. Firstly the echoes of the disputes of Henry IIIrd’s reign still rumble on – Gaveston himself was a Gascon. Secondly, under Edward I the kings wardrobe had become more and more central to the royal finances, bypassing the exchequer. As far as the barons were concerned, this gave the king far too much freedom of action. So here they are saying this must stop – everything goes through the Exchequer, so parliament can control and check it.
And finally the phrase ‘live of his own’ is mighty interesting; it will take a remarkably long time for your average baron to accept that taxation is now part of the weft and warp of government finances; the days of William the Conqueror, where the king owned half the country and could govern without financial assistance were gone for ever.
6. Item; it is ordained- that the Great Charter shall be observed in all its particulars ; so that, if there is any point in the said charter that is doubtful or obscure, it shall be interpreted by the said Ordainers and other men whom they may see fit to call upon for that purpose….
7. And besides, since the crown has been so abased and ruined by numerous grants, we ordain that all grants made to the damage of the king and the impoverishment of the crown since the commission was given to us . . . shall be annulled; and we do annul them entirely, so that they shall not be given back to the same persons without the common assent [of the baronage] in parliament…
9. Whereas the king, on account of the many perils that he and his kingdom may incur, ought not to undertake an act of war against any one, or to go out of the kingdom, without the common assent of his baronage, we ordain that henceforth the king shall neither go out of the kingdom nor undertake an act of war against any one without the common assent of his baronage, and that in parliament. . .
So here’s the point about the role of parliament – far broader than it has been before.
10. And whereas it is feared that the people of the land will rebel on account of the prises and divers oppressions recently established…we ordain that henceforth all prises shall be abolished except the ancient and lawful prises due to the king and to others who are lawfully entitled to them. And if any prises are taken contrary to the ordinance aforesaid by any one whomsoever, no matter of what condition he may be—that is to say, if any one, under colour of purveyance for the use of our lord the king or of someone else, takes grain, wares, merchandise, or other goods against the will of those to whom they belong, and does not immediately .give in return money to the true value [of the goods], unless he thereof has respite by the free will of the seller according to the provision in the Great Charter regarding prises taken by constables of castles and their bailiffs, saving the accustomed prises aforesaid—notwithstanding any commission that may be [issued], pursuit with hue and cry shall be raised against him and he shall be taken to the nearest jail of the king, and the common law shall be enforced against him as against a robber or thief, should he be convicted of sail [wrong-doing].
11. Also, [whereas] new customs have been levied and the old [customs] have been increased upon wool, cloth, wines, avoirdupois, and other things—whereby [our] merchants come more rarely and bring fewer goods into the country, while alien merchants reside longer than they used to, and by such residence things become dearer than they used to be, to the damage of the king and his people—we ordain that all manner of customs and maltotes levied since the coronation of King Edward, son of King Henry, are to be entirely removed and utterly abolished forever, notwithstanding the charter which the said King Edward granted to alien merchants because –it was issued contrary to the Great Charter and contrary to the liberty of the city of London and without the assent of the baronage. . . .
13  And whereas the king, as aforesaid, has been badly advised and guided by evil councillors, we ordain that all the evil councillors shall be put out and utterly removed, so that neither they nor other such persons shall be near him or shall be retained in any office under the king; and that other persons who are fit shall be put in their places. And the same shall be done in the case of domestics, officials, and other men in the king’s household who are not fit.
The barons would soon present a further ordinance to the king, removing a number of specific household officials.
14  And whereas many evils have been incurred through [the employment of] such councillors and such ministers, we ordain that the king shall appoint the chancellor, the chief justices of both benches, the treasurer, the chancellor and the chief baron of the exchequer, the steward of the household, the keeper of the wardrobe, the comptroller and a fit clerk to keep the privy seal, a chief keeper of the forests on this side of Trent and one on the other side of Trent, also an escheator on this side of Trent and one on the other side, as well as the king’s chief clerk of the common bench, by  the counsel and assent of the baronage, and that in parliament. And if by some chance it happens that there is need to appoint any of the said ministers before parliament meets, then the king shall make such appointments by the good counsel [of those] whom he shall have near him up to the time of the parliament. And so let it be done henceforth with regard to such ministers whenever there is need.
15  Item, we ordain that the chief wardens of ports and of castles on the sea shall be appointed and installed in the aforesaid manner, and that such wardens are to be of the land itself.
16  And whereas the lands of Gascony, Ireland, and Scotland are in peril of being lost through default of good ministers, we ordain that worthy and fit ministers to keep ward in the said lands shall be named according—to the form set forth in the article before the last [preceding]
17  Moreover, we ordain that sheriffs shall henceforth be appointed by the chancellor, the treasurer, and others of the council who are present; and if the chancellor is not present, let them be appointed by the treasurer, the barons of the exchequer, and the justices of the bench. And such men are to be named and installed as are fit and worthy, and as have lands and tenements through which they may be held responsible for their actions to the king or to the people. And only such persons shall be appointed, and they shall have their commissions under the great seal. . . .
20   Because it is known, and by examination by the prelates, earls and barons, knights and other good people of the kingdom found, that Piers Gavaston has acted badly towards and has badly advised our lord the king and has incited him to do wrong in divers and deceptive ways; in taking possession of for himself all the king’s treasure and sending it out of the kingdom; in drawing to himself royal power and royal dignity, as in making alliances on oath with people to live and die with him against all men, and this by the treasure he acquires from day to day; in lording it over the estate of the king and of the crown, to the ruin of the king and of the people; and especially in estranging the heart of the king from his lieges; in despising their counsels, not allowing good officers to carry out the law of the land; in removing good officers, appointing those of his own gang, as well aliens as others, who at his will and command offend against right and the law of the land; in taking the king’s lands, tenements and bailiwicks to himself and his heirs; and has Caused the king to give lands and tenements of his crown to divers people to the great loss and diminution of the estate of the king and of his crown, and this as well since the ordinance that the king granted to the ordainers to act for the profit of himself and his people as before against the ordinance of the ordainers ; and in maintaining robbers and murderers and getting for them the king’s charter of his peace, in emboldening wrongdoers to do worse, and in taking the king into a land where there is war without the common assent of his baronage to the danger of his person and the ruin of the kingdom, and in causing blank charters under the great seal of the king to be sealed to the deceit and disinheritance of the king and of his crown, and against his homage; and feloniously, falsely and traitorously has done the aforesaid things to the great dishonour and loss of the king and disinheriting of the crown and to the ruin of his people in many ways:  And in addition to this we having regard to what was done by the most noble king, the father of the present king, by whose adjudgment the aforesaid Piers abjured the realm of England and whose will it was that our lord the king, his son, should abjure forever his company, and that since by the common assent of all the realm and of the king and of the same prelates, earls and barons it was heretofore adjudged that he should leave the said realm, and he did leave it, and that his return was never by common assent, but only by the assent of some individuals who agreed to it on condition of his behaving well after his return: and now his bad conduct is established beyond doubt, for which conduct and for the great wickednesses aforementioned and for the many others that could befall our lord the king and his people, and in order to foster good understanding between the king and his people and avoid many kinds of discords and dangers, We ordain, by virtue of the commission our lord the king granted us, that Piers Gavaston as the evident enemy of the king and of his people be completely exiled as well from the kingdom of England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales as from the ‘whole lordship of our lord the king overseas as well as on this side, forever without ever returning; and that he leave the kingdom of England and all the aforesaid lands and absolutely all the lordship of our lord the king between now and the feast of All Saints next to come; and we assign to him as port in the way aforesaid Dover and nowhere else for crossing and leaving. And if the said Piers stays in the kingdom of England or anywhere else in the lordship of our lord the king beyond the said day that has been given him for leaving and crossing as is aforesaid, then let there be done with him as would be done with the enemy of the king and of the kingdom and of his people. And let all those who from now on contravene this ordinance with regard to the said exile or the penalty that follows, be dealt with accordingly, if they are convicted of it.
21   Also we ordain that Amerigo and those of the company of Frescobaldi come to the accounting in the way that was ordained and published, notwithstanding the account they say they have rendered, within the fortnight after next Michaelmas and in the meantime let there be arrested all the persons and all the goods of members of the company of Frescobaldi that can be found in the power of the king of England, and that all the lands of the said Amerigo be seized into the hand of the king whereso-ever they are in the said power of the king. And if the said Amerigo does not come within the day assigned, because the aforesaid ordinance has been infringed by him and by his non-appearance he renders himself culpable and suspect we ordain that he be banished from the power of the king and from now on be deemed an enemy and it be done with him as would be done with an enemy of the king and of the kingdom, if he be found anywhere in the power of the king as well overseas as on this side.
22   Also because sir Henry de Beaumont has received from our lord the king to the loss ,and dishonour of the king, since the time of the ordinance of the ordainers to which the king agreed, the kingdom of Man and other lands, rents, liberties and bailiwicks and has caused lands and tenements liberties and bailiwicks to be given to others contrary to this ordinance, and because he has badly advised the king contrary to his oath, We ordain that he be removed from the king’s counsel for ever and that he come no more near the king anywhere — unless it be at the common summons of parliament or in war if the king wishes to have him — save by common assent of the archbishop, bishops, earls and barons and that in full parliament; and all the other lands that he holds within the kingdom of England be taken into the hand of the king of England and held until the king has received from the issues of these lands the value of all the yield that the said sir Henry has had from the lands received co4rary to the said ordinance, and if the said sir Henry in any point contravenes these ordinances let him be disinherited forever of all the lands that he has in England of the king’s gift.
Because it is found by examination by the prelates, earls and barons that the lady de Vescy has caused the king to give to sir Henry de Beaumont, her brother, and to others, lands, liberties and bailiwicks to the loss and dishonour of the king and the evident disinheritance of the crown and also caused to be sent out letters under the urge’ against the law and the intention of the king, We ordain that she go to her house — and that within the fortnight after next Michaelmas — without ever returning to the court to stay there, and that for all these aforesaid things and because it is understood that Bamburgh castle belongs to the crown, we also ordain that this castle be retaken from her into the hand of the king and that it be no more given to her or to another except at the king’s pleasure.24 And whereas the people feel much aggrieved because of divers debts demanded of them for the king’s use by summons from the exchequer, of which debts, being actually paid, the people have various acquittances . . . ; we ordain that henceforth in the account of every sheriff, or other minister of the king who is answerable at the ex-chequer, such tallies, writs, and franchises as are allowable in the account shall be allowed. . . . And if the treasurer and the barons of the exchequer do not act in the manner aforesaid, the plaintiffs shall enjoy [the right of] recovery through petition in parliament.
25  Whereas ordinary merchants and many others of the people are allowed to bring pleas of debt and trespass in the exchequer, through the fact that they are received by the ministers of the said court more favourably than they should be—whereby accounts and other concerns of the king are greatly delayed and, in addition, a large number of people are aggrieved—we ordain that henceforth no pleas shall be held in the said court of the exchequer except pleas touching the king and his ministers : [namely] those answerable at the exchequer by reason of their offices, the ministers of the court  itself, and their subordinates and servants who most of the time are with them in those places where the exchequer may be. And if anybody s received by the said court with permission to plead in the manner aforesaid, those impleaded shall have their [right to] recovery in parliament.
26  Item, whereas the people feel much aggrieved because stewards and marshals hold many pleas that do not pertain to their offices and also because they will not receive attorneys for defendants as well as for plaintiffs, we ordain that henceforth they shall receive attorneys for defendants as well as for plaintiffs, and that they shall hold no pleas of freehold, debt, covenant, or contract, nor any common plea touching men of the people—saving [to their jurisdiction] only trespasses of the household itself other trespasses committed within the verge [i.e. the area distinguished by the king’s presence and thereby set apart from common law], and contracts and covenants which anyone of the king’s household may make with another of the same household within the household itself and not elsewhere. . . .
28  Whereas the people feel much aggrieved because men are emboldened to kill and rob by the fact that the king, through evil counsel, so lightly grants them his peace against the provisions of the law; we ordain that henceforth no felon or fugitive shall be protected or defended in any sort of felony by the king’s charter granting his peace, except only in case the king can give grace according to his oath, and that by process of law and the custom of the realm. And if any charter is henceforth made and granted to any one in any other manner, it shall be of no avail and shall be held as null. And no recognized malefactor against the crown and the peace of the land is to be aided or maintained by any one
29  Whereas in the king’s court persons find their cases delayed because a party alleges that in the king’s absence answer should not be made to demands, and [whereas] also many persons wrongfully suffer injuries from the king’s ministers, with regard to which injuries one can secure recovery only in common parliament; we ordain that the king shall hold a parliament once a year, or twice if need be, and that in a convenient place. And [we ordain] that in those parliaments pleas which are delayed in the said manner, and pleas wherein the justices are of different opinions shall be recorded and settled. And likewise those bills which are brought to parliament shall be settled as heretofore in accordance with law and right.
30  Whereas all the people suffer greatly in many ways whenever a change of money is made in the kingdom, we ordain that, when there  is need and the king wishes to make a change, he shall do so by the common counsel of his baronage, and that in parliament
31  Item, we ordain that all statutes which were made in amendment of the law and for the benefit of the people by the ancestors of our lord the king shall be kept and maintained as heretofore in accordance with law and right, provided that they are not contrary to the Great Charter or to the Forest Charter or to the ordinances by us made. And if any statute is made contrary to what has been said, it shall be held as null and as utterly void
32  Whereas, to the great injury of the people, the law of the land and common right have often been delayed by letters issued under the king’s privy seal, we ordain that henceforth neither the law of the land nor common right shall be delayed or disturbed by letters under the said seal. And if, through such letters issued under the privy seal contrary the right or to the law of the land, anything is done in any session of the court of our lord the king, it shall be of no avail and shall be held as null.
33  Whereas many of the people other than those known to be merchants feel much aggrieved and injured by the Statute of Merchants made at Acton Burnell, we ordain that hereafter this statute shall hold  only as between merchant and merchant and with regard to dealing made between them. . .
38  Item, we ordain that the Great Charter of Liberties and the Forest Charter issued by King Henry, son of King John, shall be observed in all their particulars, and that points in the said charters of liberties which are doubtful shall be explained in the next parliament after this by the advice of the baronage, the justices, and other persons learned in the law. And this is to be done because we are unable to attend to the matter during our term [of office].
39  Item, we ordain that the chancellor, the Treasurer, the chief  justices of both benches, the chancellor of the exchequer, the treasurer of the wardrobe, the steward of the king’ household, and all justices, sheriffs, escheators, constables, investigators for any cause whatsoever, and all other bailiffs and ministers of the king, whenever they receive their offices and bailiwicks, shall be sworn to keep and observe all the ordinances made by the prelates, earls, and barons for that purpose elected and assigned—[to maintain] every one of those [ordinances] without contravening them in any particular.
40  Item, we ordain that in each parliament one bishop, two earls, and two barons shall be assigned to hear and determine all plaints of those wishing to complain of the king’s ministers, whichever they may be, who have contravened the ordinances aforesaid. And if the said bishop, earls, and barons cannot all attend, or are prevented from hearing and determining the said plaints, then two or three of them shall do so. And those who are found to have contravened the said ordinances, in the interest of the king and in the interest of the plaintiffs, shall be punished at the discretion of the persons thus assigned.
41  Item, we ordain that the aforesaid ordinances are to be maintained and observed in all their particulars, and that our lord the king shall cause them to be issued under his great seal and sent into every county of England, to be published, held, and strictly kept as well within franchises as without. . . .
These ordinances, having been shown to us and published on Monday next before the feast of St. Michael just past, we agree to, accept, and confirm. And we will and grant, for us and our heirs, that all and several of the said ordinances, made according to the form of our letters aforesaid, shall be published throughout our entire realm, henceforth to be strictly maintained and observed. In testimony whereof we have caused these our letters patent to be drawn up. Given at London, October 5, in the fifth year of our reign.´´

(1014)

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE KING´S GENEROSITY
6 AUGUST 2008

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2008/08/kings- generosity.html

(1015)

´´On 14 July 1322, five men – the mayor of London, three justices of the court of Common Pleas and the chief baron of the exchequer – condemned Roger Mortimer and his uncle Mortimer of Chirk to death.  Eight days later, Edward II commuted their sentence to life imprisonment, which would prove in 1326 to have been one of the worst mistakes he ever made. ´´

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
WAS EDWARD II PLANNING TO EXECUTE ROGER
MORTIMER IN 1323
13 FEBRUARY 2013

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2013/02/was-edward-ii- planning-to-execute-roger.html

Reacties uitgeschakeld voor Notes 939-1015 at article about Thomas, Earl of Lancaster

Filed under Divers

Comments are closed.