Tag archieven: history

Encyclopaedia Britannica versus Astrid Essed about the superior claim of the House of York on the English throne/Encyclopaedia Britannica corrects a mistake [2015]

HISTORICAL FICTION

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_(film)

Richard II King of England.jpg

HISTORICAL IMAGE

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_of_England

KING RICHARD II, [SON OF THE BLACK PRINCE, THE FIRST

SON OF KING EDWARD III AND THEREFORE SUCCESSOR

OF KING EDWARD III], WHO DECLARED ROGER MORTIMER

HIS HEIR PRESUMPTIVE.

ROGER MORTIMER WAS THE SON OF RICHARD II’S FIRST

COUSIN PHILIPPA,

THE DAUGHTER OF THE SECOND SON OF KING EDWARD III,

LIONEL OF ANTWERP

AND THEREFORE NEXT IN LINE TO THE SUCCESSION TO

THE THRONE, AS LONG AS RICHARD II WAS CHILDLESS.

ROGER MORTIMER HAD TWO CHILDREN, EDMUND, 4TH EARL OF

MARCH AND ANNE MORTIMER, WHO MARRIED RICHARD CONISBURGH,

SON OF EDMUND OF LANGLEY, DUKE OF YORK [FOURTH SON

OF EDWARD III]

AFTER HIS DEATH, ROGER MORTIMER PASSED HIS HEIR

PRESUMPTIVE RIGHT TO HIS SON EDMUND, 5TH EARL

OF MARCH, WHO PASSED THIS RIGHT TO HIS NEPHEW

RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK,  SON OF HIS SISTER

ANNE MORTIMER.

WHEN RICHARD II WAS USURPED BY HIS COUSIN

HENRY BOLINGBROKE [LATER KING HENRY IV, SON OF JOHN

OF GAUNT, THE THIRD SON OF KING EDWARD III AND

THEREFORE WITH A LESSER RIGHT TO THE THRONE

THAN EDMUND MORTIMER],

EDMUND, THE SON OF THE LATE ROGER MORTIMER,

BEING THE RIGHTFUL SUCCESSOR, WAS OVERLOOKED.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_III_of_England

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lionel_of_Antwerp,_1st_Duke_of_Clarence

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippa,_5th_Countess_of_Ulster

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Mortimer,_4th_Earl_of_March

ROGER MORTIMER’S SON AND DAUGHTER, EDMUND AND

ANNE MORTIMER

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Mortimer,_5th_Earl_of_March

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anne_de_Mortimer

ANNE MORTIMER’S SON, RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK,

GRANDSON [FROM HIS MOTHER’S SIDE]

OF ROGER MORTIMER

HIS CLAIM TO THE THRONE WAS BASED ON HIS

MATERNAL SIDE AND SUPERIOR TO THE LANCASTERS,

WHO DESCENDED FROM THE THIRD SON OF EDWARD III,

WHILE RICHARD DESCENDED FROM THE SECOND SON

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_York

King Henry IV from NPG (2).jpg

KING HENRY IV, WHO USURPED THE THRONE OF RICHARD II AS

HENRY BOLINGBROKE, HIS COUSIN

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_IV_of_England

File:Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York.jpg

RICHARD OF YORK, CLAIMANT TO THE ENGLISH THRONE

AND ONE OF THE MAIN LEADERS OF THE WAR OF ROSES

[WAR BETWEEN THE HOUSES OF LANCASTER AND YORK,

BOTH DESCENDANTS OF KING EDWARD III]

[HISTORICAL IMAGE]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_York

King Henry V from NPG.jpg

KING HENRY V, SON OF KING HENRY IV

[HISTORICAL IMAGE]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_V_of_England

KING HENRY VI OF ENGLAND, SON OF KING HENRY V

[HISTORICAL IMAGE]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VI_of_England

MARGARET OF ANJOU, QUEEN OF ENGLAND

[HISTORICAL IMAGE]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_of_Anjou

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA VERSUS ASTRID ESSED ABOUT

THE SUPERIOR CLAIM OF THE HOUSE OF YORK ON THE THRONE/

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA CORRECTS A TEXT

WARS OF THE ROSES/ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA CORRECTS A TEXT

AND CHANGES ”USURPATION” IN ”OVERTHROWING” AFTER THE

ASTRID ESSED COMMENTS IN 2015!

READERS!

This you’ll love!

Encyclopaedia Britannica corrected a historical fault they made, due to some

comments from your author, Astrid Essed!

However:

Although they changed it, it would have been nice if they

had mentioned me. Astrid Essed as the person who pointed them on this fact…. 

READ!

As you know, I’ve written a number of articles and comments [and posted

from other authors] about the Wars of the Roses

https://www.astridessed.nl/?s=Wars+of+the+Roses

And writing those articles, I stumbled on Encyclopaedia Britannica, where

originally was written the following about a decisive episode

during the Wars of the Roses, that [in]famous Fight for the English throne

between the two Plantagenet branches of the Royal House,

the Lancasters and the Yorks.

Encyclopaedia Britannica wrote the following:

””House of York, younger branch of the house of Plantagenet<http://www.britann ica.com/EBchecked/topic/ 463365/house-of-Plantagenet> of England<http://www.britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/700965/Eng land>. In the 15th century, having usurped the throne from the house of Lancaster<http://www.britannic a.com/EBchecked/topic/328992/ house-of-Lancaster>, it provided three kings of England—Edward IV, Edward V<http://www.britannica.com/EB checked/topic/179763/Edward-V> , and Richard III—and, in turn defeated, passed on its claims to the Tudor dynasty.”

LETTER TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

In a Letter to the Encyclopaedia Britannica I made clear,

that the term ”usurpation” was wrong, since usurpation

means ””illegal seizure and occupation of a throne.” and it was no usurpation, since a long history preceded it and actually the House of

York, that took over the royal Power in 1461 after the

Battle of Towton, had a stronger claim 

than the House of Lancaster on the English throne,

descending from Lionel

of Antwerp, the second son of king Edward III, in the female

line, while

the Lancasters descended from John of Gaunt,

the third som of king Edward III, in the male line.

 I wrote about that to Encyclopaedia Britannica

”Although you call the overthrowing of the Act

of Accord an usurpation, to my opinion it is no

usurpation at all, since the Lancasters should not have to

be kings all along, due to the superior claim to the throne

of York, as the Lancaster usurpation of King Richard II.”

SEE FOR THE WHOLE LETTER IN WHICH I 

EMPHASIZED THE RIGHT OF FEMALES ON THE ENGLISH THRONE

[THE HOUSE OF YOURK HAD A SUPERIOR

RIGHT ON THE THRONE THROUGH FEMALE DESCENT] ON THE

THRONE]

https://www.astridessed.nl/the-wars-of-the-roseslancaster-and-yorkusurpation-and-the-right-to-the-throne-by-femalesletter-to-encyclopaedia-britannica/ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA ACKNOWLEDGED THEIRFAULT AND CHANGED TEXT FROM ”USURPATION”TO ”OVERTHROWING”!
And you know what!The Encyclopaedia Britannica acknowlegded theirfault and…..changed their textHere was their reaction on my Letter:

On Thursday, March 12, 2015 1:15 PM, ukcustomerservice <ukcustomerservice@britannica. co.uk> wrote:

Dear Astrid Essed,

Thank you for your e-mail.

Please see below the feedback from the Editorial Team regarding the feedback that you have given.

OK, we’ve made a couple of small changes to this article, based on the reader’s message. Here’s the description of the revision in the article history (http://www.britannica.com/top ic/653692/history):

“Changing ‘usurped’ to ‘overthrown’ to acknowledge the contention of the legitimacy of the York claim based on the ‘Mortimer Claim.’ Also mentioned the 14th century practice among the nobility of privileging heir-male claims over heir-general claims.”

House of York, younger branch of the house of Plantagenet of England. In the 15th century, having overthrown the house of Lancaster, it provided three kings of England—Edward IVEdward V, and Richard III—and, in turn defeated, passed on its claims to the Tudor dynasty.”

The revised article can be seen at http://www.britannica.com/E Bchecked/topic/653692/house-of -York.

Kind regards

Britannica Customer Service

If you can include any previous message history in your reply it will speed up the time it takes to reply.

We hope that this is of some help to you.  If you require further assistance with this, please do not hesitate to contact us on 0800 282433 or +44 207 500 7843 for customers outside the UK.

Encyclopædia Britannica (UK) Ltd
Registered in England and Wales: Number 3830890”

THAT WAS THEIR REACTION!

You can understand I was a little proud on that and see the

text about the House of York you can read now!

SEE TEXT ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA UNDER NOTE 1

[NOTE 1, A]

And as an extra Source, under Note 1, my whole Correspondence with the Encyclopaedia Britannica

[B]

ENJOY!

ASTRID ESSED

A

NOTE 1

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

HOUSE OF YORK

https://www.britannica.com/topic/house-of-York

house of York, younger branch of the house of Plantagenet of England. In the 15th century, having overthrown the house of Lancaster, it provided three kings of England—Edward IVEdward V, and Richard III—and, in turn defeated, passed on its claims to the Tudor dynasty.

The house was founded by King Edward III’s fifth son, Edmund of Langley (1341–1402), 1st Duke of York, but Edmund and his own son, Edward, 2nd Duke of York, had for the most part undistinguished careers. Edward, dying childless, passed on the dukedom to his nephew Richard (whose mother was a descendant of Edward III’s second surviving son, Lionel, Duke of Clarence). Richard, 3rd Duke of York (1411–60), was the initial Yorkist claimant to the crown, in opposition to the Lancastrian Henry VI. It may be said that his claim, when it was advanced, was rightly barred by prescription, the house of Lancaster having then occupied the throne for three generations, and that it was really owing to the misgovernment of Queen Margaret of Anjou and her favourites that it was advanced at all. Yet it was founded upon strict principles of lineal descent, for the 3rd Duke of York was descended from Lionel, Duke of Clarence, the second surviving son of Edward III, whereas the house of Lancaster came of John of Gaunt, a younger brother of Lionel. One thing that might possibly have been considered an element of weakness in Richard’s claim was that it was derived through females—an objection actually brought against it by Chief Justice John Fortescue (probably a reflection of the increasingly common practice among the English nobility of passing on their estates to a male heir). But apart from strict legality, Richard’s claim was probably supported in the popular view by the fact that he was descended from Edward III through his father no less than through his mother.

After seeking for many years to correct the weakness of Henry VI’s government, Richard first took up arms and at length claimed the crown in Parliament as his right. The Lords, or those who did not purposely stay away from the House, admitted that his claim was unimpeachable but suggested as a compromise that Henry should retain the crown for life and that Richard and his heirs succeed after his death. This was accepted by Richard, and an act to that effect received Henry’s own assent. But the act was repudiated by Margaret of Anjou and her followers, and Richard was slain at Wakefield fighting against them. In little more than two months, however, his son was proclaimed king at London by the title of

Edward IV, and the bloody victory in the Battle of Towton immediately after drove his enemies into exile and paved the way for his coronation.

After his recovery of the throne in 1471, Edward IV had little more to fear from the rivalry of the house of Lancaster. But the seeds of distrust had already been sown among the members of his own family, and in 1478 his brother Clarence was put to death—secretly, indeed, within the Tower of London, but still by his authority and that of Parliament—as a traitor. In 1483 Edward himself died; and his eldest son, Edward V, after a nominal reign of two months and a half, was put aside by his uncle, the Duke of Gloucester, who became Richard III, and then, it is said, caused him and his brother Richard, Duke of York, to be murdered. But in little more than two years Richard was slain at Bosworth Field by the Tudor Earl of Richmond, who, being proclaimed king as Henry VII, shortly afterwards fulfilled his pledge to marry the eldest daughter of Edward IV and so unite the houses of York and Lancaster.

Here the dynastic history of the house of York ends, for its claims were henceforth merged in those of the house of Tudor.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Jeff Wallenfeldt.
END OF NOTE 1

B

MY CORRESPONDENCE IN EMAIL WITH THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

ADDED

MY LAST REACTION ABOUT THE CHANGES OF ENCYCLOPAEDIA 

BRITANNICA

THE WARS OF THE ROSES/THE HOUSE OF YORK/

REACTION ON ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA’S CHANGES IN

THEIR ARTICLE AFTER MY COMMENTS

ASTRID ESSED

13 MARCH 2015

NOW:

CORRESPONDENCE WITH ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA ON

EMAILOn Thursday, March 12, 2015 1:15 PM, ukcustomerservice <ukcustomerservice@britannica. co.uk> wrote:

Dear Astrid Essed,

Thank you for your e-mail.

Please see below the feedback from the Editorial Team regarding the feedback that you have given.

OK, we’ve made a couple of small changes to this article, based on the reader’s message. Here’s the description of the revision in the article history (http://www.britannica.com/top ic/653692/history):

“Changing ‘usurped’ to ‘overthrown’ to acknowledge the contention of the legitimacy of the York claim based on the ‘Mortimer Claim.’ Also mentioned the 14th century practice among the nobility of privileging heir-male claims over heir-general claims.”

House of York, younger branch of the house of Plantagenet of England. In the 15th century, having overthrown the house of Lancaster, it provided three kings of England—Edward IVEdward V, and Richard III—and, in turn defeated, passed on its claims to the Tudor dynasty.”

The revised article can be seen at http://www.britannica.com/E Bchecked/topic/653692/house-of -York.

Kind regards

Britannica Customer Service

If you can include any previous message history in your reply it will speed up the time it takes to reply.

We hope that this is of some help to you.  If you require further assistance with this, please do not hesitate to contact us on 0800 282433 or +44 207 500 7843 for customers outside the UK.

Encyclopædia Britannica (UK) Ltd
Registered in England and Wales: Number 3830890

______________________________ __
From: Astrid Essed [astridessed@yahoo.com]
Sent: 25 February 2015 04:38
To: ukcustomerservice
Subject: Re: (ESSED, Astrid) Britannica [AM]

TO BRITANNICA CUSTOMER SERVICE

Dear Sir/Madam,

You’re welcome.
I passed this feedback to you with great pleasure.
Thanks very much for your reaction and the trouble you
have taken to pass my feedback to your
Editorial Team.

To make things easier I send you the letter to Encyclopaedia
Britannica as posted on my website, as a later comment
on the same subject

See

THE WARS OF THE ROSES/LANCASTER AND YORK/
USURPATION AND THE RIGHT TO THE THRONE BY
FEMALES/LETTER TO ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

http://www.astridessed.nl/the- wars-of-the-roseslancaster-and -yorkusurpation-and-the-right- to-the-throne-by-femalesletter -to-encyclopaedia-britannica/

Later comment:

THE WARS OF THE ROSES/LANCASTER AND YORK/
USURPATION AND THE RIGHT TO THE THRONE THROUGH
FEMALES

http://www.astridessed.nl/the- wars-of-the-roseslancaster-and -yorkusurpation-and-the-right- to-the-throne-through-females- 2/

See also the page ”Wars of Roses” on my website

http://www.astridessed.nl/?s=W ars+of+the+Roses

I am looking forward to the reaction of your Editorial Team

Kind greetings

Astrid Essed

Amsterdam 
The Netherlands

On Tuesday, February 24, 2015 1:15 PM, ukcustomerservice <ukcustomerservice@britannica. co.uk> wrote:

Dear Ms Essed,

Thank you for your e-mail.

We have passed your comprehensive feedback on to our Editorial Team for review.  Thank you for taking the time to review this content and provide all of this feedback.  When they have reviewed your comments we will let you know their response.

Kind regards

Britannica Customer Service

If you can include any previous message history in your reply it will speed up the time it takes to reply.

We hope that this is of some help to you.  If you require further assistance with this, please do not hesitate to contact us on 0800 282433 or +44 207 500 7843 for customers outside the UK.

Encyclopædia Britannica (UK) Ltd
Registered in England and Wales: Number 3830890

______________________________ __
From: Astrid Essed [astridessed@yahoo.com<mailto: astridessed@yahoo.com>]
Sent: 16 February 2015 22:19
To: enquiries – General Enquiries at Britannica.co.uk
Subject: Comments on your Page about the House of York

TO THE EDITORS OF ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA
YOUR ARTICLE ABOUT THE HOUSE OF YORK
SOME COMMENTS

Dear Editors,

At first I want to express my great admiration for your
large scale History Page about ther various periods
of human history,

http://www.britannica.com/topi c-browse/History

I especially paid attention on your contributions
to the English Late Medieval History and visited
your page about the Hundred Years War between England
and France  with pleasure, learning much of your
information

http://www.britannica.com/topi c-browse/History/Middle-Ages/ Hundred-Years-War

THE WARS OF THE ROSES
YOUR PAGE OF THE HOUSE OF YORK
COMMENTS

A historian myself, I wrote some articles about the
Wars of the Roses [1]
See some of my articles  below.

Regarding your excellent contributions,  I have  read
your page about the House of York with
much interest.

See

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA, HOUSE OF YORK

http://www.britannica.com/EBch ecked/topic/653692/house-of- York

However I want to make some comments on your contribution,
referring to your remarks about the ”usurpation” of the House of
Lancaster by the House of York, as the ”weakness” of the
claim to the throne by Richard, Duke of York, being derived by
females.

But first, the usurpation:

FIRST:

USURPATION OF THE THRONE OF THE HOUSE OF
LANCASTER BY THE HOUSE OF YORK

In your comment you wrote

”House of York, younger branch of the house of Plantagenet<http://www.britann ica.com/EBchecked/topic/ 463365/house-of-Plantagenet> of England<http://www.britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/700965/Eng land>. In the 15th century, having usurped the throne from the house of Lancaster<http://www.britannic a.com/EBchecked/topic/328992/ house-of-Lancaster>, it provided three kings of England—Edward IV, Edward V<http://www.britannica.com/EB checked/topic/179763/Edward-V> , and Richard III—and, in turn defeated, passed on its claims to the Tudor dynasty.” [2]

I think you are wrong here, since, according to my opinion,
there was no  ”usurpation” here, in the classic meaning of the
definition.
To go to the definition of ”usurpation”:

”illegal seizure and occupation of a throne.” [3]

I will not go extensively  into your remark that the House
of York ”passed on its claims to the Tudor dynasty”, which is wrong.
Because, although there was a certain [not Tudor,
but Beaufort/Lancaster] claim to the English throne [4], the
House of York had a far stronger claim to the throne.
I refer to that later.
And smart Henry Tudor [who became King Henry
VII and was undoubtedly aware of that stronger York claim]
claimed the throne as ”right of conquest”,not
by ”right of inheritance”,  after
his victory in the Battle of Bosworth, where he defeated
the Yorkist King Richard III. [5]
And as a ”right of conquest” the legality of Henry’s kingship
was considered generally. [6]

No, the main point I want to focus here is your remark
”’House of York, younger branch of the house of Plantagenet<http://www.britann ica.com/EBchecked/topic/ 463365/house-of-Plantagenet> of England<http://www.britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/700965/Eng land>. In the 15th century, having usurped the throne from the house of Lancaster<http://www.britannic a.com/EBchecked/topic/328992/ house-of-Lancaster>”  [7]

USURPATION
THE ACT OF ACCORD

I said it before
According the definition, usurpation is
”illegal seizure and occupation of a throne.”

That means not only deposing a King
(which was almost a deadly sin in the Middle
Ages), but also through someone
who had none or lesser right to the throne.

In this case, at first there was no deposal of
the throne at all, since there was ”the Act of Accord”
and later, when King Edward IV ascended the
throne, the deposal of King Henry VI  was not as ”illegal”
as it seemed, because of two factors:
The stronger claim of the House of York to the throne,
[the Mortimer claim to the throne],
as the fact, that the House of Lancaster itself rose into power
by usurpation.
But first the Act of Accord

I referred to the fact, that there was no deposal at all
at first, mentioning the Act of Accord in 1460. [8].
that  included, that King Henry VI remained King of England,
but that Richard, Duke of York and his heirs would
succeed Henry, thus desinheriting Henry´s son, Edward of Westminster. [9]

Of course one can put  questions by disinheriting the
Kings´s son, but that’s another story.
The Act of Accord was a legal document, as a
result of negociations between the Duke of York and
the Parliament.(10), after his come back from Ireland
and (indeed) seemed to have tried  to seize the throne.[11]

Admitted, that [the deal of the Duke of York with the Parliament] was power play, since the party
of the Duke of York was on the winning hand in the
Wars of the Roses at that moment, but the Act of Accord
did not come ´´out of the blue´´ either.

ACT OF ACCORD
WHAT HAPPENED BEFORE

Susan Higginbotham, historical fictional writer of
Margaret Anjou, mentions the Act of Accord as
´´York, after all, had bullied her husband (Henry VI, my remark)
into disinheriting his own son in favor of York´´ (12)
and it is her right to see it like that, but I have another vision,
because I take the whole history, which preceeded the Accord Act.
into consideration.

Since King Henry VI’s uncle, Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester,
died in 1447, Richard, Duke of York, was heir presumptive
to the then childless King Henry VI. [13]
But from various reasons, King Henry VI, and his wife,
Queen Margaret of Anjou [14] favourited the party
of the Duke’s adversary, Edmund Beaufort, 1st Duke
of Somerset [who was of the Lancaster Swynford line] [15]
and sent Richard as Lieutenant to Ireland,
obviously in a sort of exile.[16]
Tensions grew high in the 50ths between York and
the Duke of Somerset [with the Queen as his ally],
the King got mental ill and in 1453 became father, which
ended York’s position as heir presumptive, but due
to the mental illness of the King, he became Protector
of the Realm twice.
Enmity between York and Somerset [and Margaret of
Anjou] rose farther and probably they wanted York
to be arrested, so he and his allies armed themselves.
A military confrontation was enevitable and broke out between York [with
his brother in law and his nephew, Warwick the Kingmaker as
allies] and the King [actually the Queen and Somerset],
which was the start of the Wars of the Roses.
After several bloody battles, in 1459, the Coventry Parliament
[probably instigated by Margaret of Anjou] attainted York and his allies [declared them to ”traitors” without trial] and forfeited their lives and
estates [17], which left York [according to my opinion]
no choice than first flee to Ireland and later
trying to seize the throne, resulting in the Act of Accord.

I don’t think either York, however ambitious, was after the
throne, before 1460.
He had enough opportunities to have taken the throne before
that [especially when the King was in his power after the
First Battle of St Albans in 1455], but he never made an attempt
untill he was pushed to the edge by the attainder of 1459. [18]

THE ACT OF ACCORD
AFTERMATH
BLOODY WAR, WAKEFIELD

When the Act of Accord had been accepted by the Lancastrian party,
probably King Henry should have remained King till his death, but
the bloody battles intensified.
Understandably, Margaret of Anjou was furious about her son’s disinheritance
and refused to accept it.
She went to Scotland, asking Mary of Guelders, the Queen Regent,
military support against the Yorkist party[19]  and the military
confrontations went on.
In her absence,  the Battle of Wakefield took place,where the Duke
of York [higly probable] died in battle and his son Edmund Earl of
Rutland, as the Dukes brother in law, the 5th Earl of Salisbury
[the father of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, the ”Kingmaker],
were executed after the battle. [20]
Unlike popular belief, Margaret of Anjou was not present at Wakefield, so
she couldn’t have ordered their executions. [21]
She returned to England and defeated Warwick in the 2nd Battle
of St Albans [22], where she was responsible for the
executions following. [23]
However, she spared the life of John Neville, brother of
the Earl of Warwick, probably since the brother
of her commander  the 3rd Duke of Somerset
[son to the late 2nd Duke of Somerset, enemy of Richard of York]
was a captive in Yorkist hands. [24]

But relieved as she might have been to get rid of the Duke of York,
she had a more formidable military adversary in his son and heir
Edward, now Duke of York, who defeated the Lancastrian forces in
the bloody and decisive Battle of Towton. [25]

THE ACT OF ACCORD/AFTERMATH
THE DUKE OF YORK’S SON AND HEIR’S
ASCENDANCY TO THE THRONE
KING EDWARD IV

Edward of York was not like his father, who had a loyalty
to the throne till he was pushed to the extremes.
Probably hardened by the loss of his father and brother at
Wakefield [where Warwick also lost his father and brother
Edward’s maternal uncle and cousin],as by an attitude
of machiavellistic politics,  he was not inclined
to hold on to the Act of accord, remaining Henry VI King of England.
In fact, since his mental instability, as the reality of
Edward’s victories, he wouldn’t have ruled anyway.
He was imprisoned in the Tower.

At march 1461, Edward was declared King of England, fulfilling
his father’s wishes for his sons.

USURPATION OR NOT?
THE CLAIMS TO THE THRONE OF THE HOUSE
OF YORK

Although you call the overthrowing of the Act
of Accord an usurpation, to my opinion it is no
usurpation at all, since the Lancasters should not have to
be kings all along, due to the superior claim to the throne
of York, as the Lancaster usurpation of King Richard II. [26]

The claims to the throne first.

Richard, Duke of York had superior claims to the throne.
He was the grandson of Edmund of Langley, the fourth son
of King Edward III, but that was not his superior claim, since
the House of Lancaster [The ”King Henry’s” as the Beauforts}
descended from John of Gaunt, the third son of King Edward III.
But it was his mother” side, that gave him the superior claim.[27]

York’s maternal grandfather, Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March,
was the materrnal grandson of Lionel of Antwerp, the SECOND son
of King Edward III and that gave him a greater claim than that of the Lancaster.
See the Family Tree

King Edward III

Lionel of Antwerp [second son to Edward III]

Philippa P lantagenet [Lionel’s daughter], married Edmund Mortimer, 3rd
3th Earl of March

Roger, 4th Earl of March [Philippa Plantagenet’s son]

Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March [son to Roger]

Anne Mortimer [daughter to Roger], maried Richard Conisburtgh
[son of Edmund of Langley, first Duke of York]

Richard, Duke of York [son to Anne Mortimer, descendant of
Lionel of Antwerp, second son of Edward II]

Isabel Plantagenet [daughter to Anne Mortimer and sister to
Richard, Duke of York] [28]

MORTIMERS CLAIM TO THE THRONE

But there was more, which asserted the superior York claims.
Since King Richard II was childless, he appointed as his heir
presumptive, Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March
  [Richard of York’s maternal grandfather].
Roger was the son of Richard II’s cousin Philippa
[Richard II and Philippa were the children of two brothers,
The Black Prince and Lionel of Antwerp, the first and second son
of King Edward III]. [29]

Roger Mortimer never became King, since he died a year before Richard II, but
his heir presumptive right passed to his son, Edmund, 5th Earl of March,
who was the maternal uncle of Richard of York. [30]

However, since Henry Bolingbroke usurped the throne from Richard II, Edmund,
only a boy, was overlooked, so also his superior right to the throne. [31]
However, when Edmund Mortimer [brother to Richard the Duke’s mother,
Anne Mortimer]died childless, York not only inherited his lands and estates,
as his titles, but also his heir presumptive right.

After the death of King Henry VI’s uncle, Humphrey,
Duke of Gloucester, [brother of his father Henry V],York became heir
presumptive till the birth of Henry’s son in 1453, Edward of
Westminster. [32]

WHO WERE THE REAL USURPERS?
LANCASTER USURPATION OF RICHARD II

I have shown above, that it was Henry IV, founder of the House
of Lancaster, who usurped not only the
throne of England by deposing the rightful King Richard II [33],
but also overlooked the rightful heir presumptive, Edmund  Mortimer.
When the right to the throne was justly followed, not King Henry IV,
but Edmund Mortimer had ascended the throne and was probably
succeeded by his nephew Richard, Duke of York.

Therefore it is [with all respect] utter nonsense to speak of
an ”usurpation of the throne” by Edward, son of Richard of York,
in 1461.
The only usurpators were the Lancasters.

Amitted, due to the military succesful reign of King Henry V [34],
the usurpation was forgotten, but that didn’t make it undone.
Therefore it were the Mortimers and their descendant
Richard of York, who should have been Kings from the beginning.

I think that was the reason, that York was ousted of power
and sent to Ireland in the late 40s.
And probably the reason, Margaret of Anjou didn’t trust him. [35]

SECOND:

THE ”WEAKNESS” OF THE CLAIM OF
RICHARD OF YORK, SINCE IT WAS DERIVED
FROM FEMALES?

You justly confirmed the superior claim of York
to the House of Lancaster, as you correctly state,
that was the reign of Henry VI succesful, the claim
was never advanced at all.
I also think, that the only reason York advanced his
claim was the unsuccesful rule of Henry VI,
due to his mental problems, his corrupt advisors,
as the great losses in the Hundred Years War.

But I disagree with you on the point, that the weakness
in the claim of York was, that it was derived from females.

Because although men had the first rights to the throne,
there was no Salic Law in England, that exclude women from
the throne, nor from claims to the throne, which passed
through their descendants.

For example Queen Maud [mother to the later
King Henry II and daughter to King Henry I, who was the
son to William the Conqueror] was declared heiress to
the throne by her father after the death of his only son. [36]
Granted, the Norman barons didn’t accept her after the death
of her father and civil war burst out [37], but were women excluded,
her father should not have declare his daughter heiress.

But moreover, claiming rights to the throne from female line
is done in English history at several occasions and was
considered legally and valid.

FOUR IMPORTANT HISTORICAL OCCASIONS
BY WHICH MEN CLAIMED OR INHERITED THE THRONE
FROM FEMALE LINE

There are at least four important occasions by which men
claimed the throne from female descent.

First:
Stephen of Blois, cousin to Queen Maud [daughter
of King Henry I and heiress to the throne], who claimed
the right to the throne through female line [being a maternal
grandson to William the Conqueror]

The first was in the time of Queen Maud [called also
”Empress Maud because of her earlier marriage with
the Holy Roman Emperor].
Her right to the English throne was challenged by her
cousin, Stephen of Blois, who claimed the throne
through his grandfather, William the Conqueror, who
was his maternal grandfather. [38]
He had men enough, prepared to support his maternal
claim, took the throne, drove his cousin Mathilda and her husband Henry
of Anjou out of the country and a yearlong military struggle, the
anarchy, started. [39]
Eventually, after the death of Stephen’s son and heir,
a deal was made, that Stephen would rule, but had to recognise
Maud’s son, Henry of Anjou, as his heir. [40]

Second:
Henry of Anjou [King Henry II], son to Queen Maud, who inherited the throne through his mother.

After Stephen’s death, Henry of Anjou would become King Henry
II [41], father to Richard Lion Heart [Richard I] (42) and John, King
of England [John Lackland] [43]
Henry II was the founder of the Plantagenet Dynasty. [44]

So here are two men who claimed or inherited their throne
from females.
Stephen of Blois, claiming the throne as a grandson of
William the Conqueror from his mother’s side as
King Henry II, who inherited the throne from his mother’s
side.
No ”weakness” here.

Third
King Edward III, who claimed the French throne through
his mother, Isabella of France
Resulting in the Hundred Years War with France, being the
maternal grandson of the French King Philip IV.

Perhaps most famous is the claim to the French throne,
laid by King Edward III [45], through is mother, Queen
Isabella of France (46), who was the daughter of the French
King, Philip IV (47)
That made Edward III the maternal grandson to a French King.
When the last son of King Philip IV, named Charles IV (48),
died in 1328 without a male heir, the question was
Who is going to be the new King!
His sister Isabella, mother of Edward III, claimed the throne
for her son, but problem was, that since 1316 the Salic
Law was introduced in France (which excluded women as
heirs to the throne). (49)
This was no coincidence, but due to an adultery scandal,
involving the wives of Charles IV and his brother Louis X (50),
The Tour de Nesle Affair (51), questioning the paternity
of the sons of the King.
This was particularly urgent after the death of Louis X, since
the legitimacy of his daughter Joan was in question, (52)
due to her mother´s alleged adultery. (53)

Anyway, Isabella´s claim to the throne for Edward III was
rejected, since she, being a woman, was excluded from the
rights to the throne and couldn´t transmit a right what she
didn´t possess. (54)
But that was the French Law.
Point I want to make is, that claiming through a female
was quite strong in England, which didn´t know the Salic
Law.
Eventually Edward III would claim the French throne
anyway [55], which was one of the causes of the
Hundred Year´s war with France.
And that´s my second point I want to state.
Since no one in England questioned Edward´s claim
through a female and the nobles wholeheartedly supported
him in the war with France, female claims were neither
unusual nor ´´weak´´.

FOURTH
LANCASTER CLAIM TO THE THRONE THROUGH
FEMALE LINE/THE QUESTION EDMUND CROUCHBACK

Since Henry Bolingbroke usurped the throne of Richard II in
1399, becoming King Henry IV, a Lancaster right to the throne
was of the greatest importance, that was superior
to  that of Richard II, son of the first son of Edward III
as the Mortimer right to the throne [descendants of
Lionel of Antwerp, second son of Edward III.
So Henry IV was clever enough not to base his claim on his
fathers side, since John of Gaunt [his father] was the third son
of Edward III.
In stead of that, he based it on the side of his mother, Blanche,
of Lancaster [56], who was the great granddaughter of Edmund Crouchback.[57]
And Edmund Crouchback was the son of King Henry III [58] and the
younger brother of King Edward I. [59]
One could say?
So what about the claim.
Well, here it is.
According to Henry IV [Lancastrian views], this Edmund Crouchback was
not the second son of Henry III, but his first son in stead of Edward I,
but disinherited because of his bodily deformity [a twisted back]

You see the consequences?
That makes King Edward I, II, III and Richard II a sort of usurpers
and the rights to the throne of Richard II as the Mortimers claim
null and void, since Edward III would be an usurper king.
However, it’s a pity for Henry IV and the other Lancasters, who
claimed the Crouchback case, that there is no proof
whatsoever, that Edward I was not the first son of
King Henry III.
So its pure Lancastrian propaganda. [60]

I mentioned this ”Edmund Crouchback claim” as the fourth
historfical example of men, who based their claims on females
or inherited the throne by females.

A proof, that deriving a right to the throne from females,
as has done by Richard, Duke of York, was not ”weak”
at all, but has proven valid and generally accepted through
English history.

EPILOGUE

To my opinion, the deposing of King Henry VI by Edward of York,
son of Richard, Duke of York, was no usurpation, since
The Duke of York [who passed the right to the throne to his
eldest son, Edward] had a superior right to the throne than King Henry VI,
[called the Mortimer claim]
being the descendant of Lionel of Antwerp, second son
of Edward III, while Henry was the descendant of the third son
of Edward III, John of Gaunt.
In fact, after the death of King Richard II, the Dukes uncle,
Edmund Mortimer, who was heir presumptive to Richard II
should have become King of England.
So by deposing Henry VI, Edward of York took his rightful
place on the throne.

The reason why Edmund Mortimer didn’t become King was
lain in the usurpation of Henry IV [grandfather to Henry VI] of
the throne of Richard II, which was not only illegitimate,
but also overlooking the superior Mortimer claim of Edmund
Mortimer.

You also remarked the ”weak point” of the Mortimer claim
[York’s right to the throne] his deriving from females.
I’ve shown you four historical examples, by which claims
to the throne [or even inheritance] by females were made,
the most famous Edward III claim to the French throne by
his mother, Queen Isabella [wife to Edward II]
I think I have stated clearly, that the female right is
valid and not weak.

I wrote this letter out of appreciation with your work.
Thank you for reading it.

Much succes with your wortful historical research.

Kind greetings

Astrid Essed

Amsterdam 
The Netherlands

NOTES

[1]

ENGLISH HISTORY/THE WARS OF THE ROSES/
MARGARET OF ANJOU, TWO MAJOR PLAYERS
ASTRID ESSED

http://www.astridessed.nl/engl ish-historythe-wars-of-the- rosesmargaret-of-anjou-and- richard-duke-of-york-two-major -players/

THE WARS OF THE ROSES/
RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK, THE CLAIMS TO THE THRONE
OF LANCASTER AND YORK
ASTRID ESSED

http://www.astridessed.nl/the- wars-of-the-rosesrichard-duke- of-yorkthe-claims-to-the-thron e-of-lancaster-and-york/

THE WARS OF THE ROSES/
CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES/A TRAVEL TO THE PAST
ASTRID ESSED

http://www.astridessed.nl/the- wars-of-the-rosescauses-of-the -wars-of-the-rosesa-travel-to- the-past/

THE WARS OF THE ROSES/MARGARET OF ANJOU/SHE WOLF
OR NOT/COMMENTS ON THE ARTICLE OF MR GARETH RUSELL
ABOUT MARGARET OF ANJOU
ASTRID ESSED

http://www.astridessed.nl/the- wars-of-the-rosesmargaret-of-a njoushe-wolf-or-notcomments-on -the-article-of-mr-gareth-ruse ll-about-margaret-of-anjou/

[2]

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA, HOUSE OF YORK

http://www.britannica.com/EBch ecked/topic/653692/house-of- York

[3]

”illegal seizure and occupation of a throne.”

DICTIONARY.COM<http://dictiona ry.com/>
USURPATION

http://dictionary.reference.co m/browse/usurpation

[4]

”Henry’s main claim to the English throne derived from his mother through the House of Beaufort<http://en.wikipedia.o rg/wiki/House_of_Beaufort>. Henry’s mother, Lady Margaret Beaufort, was a great-granddaughter of John of Gaunt<http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/John_of_Gaunt,_1st_Duke_o f_Lancaster>, Duke of Lancaster, fourth son of Edward III<http://en.wikipedia.org/wi ki/Edward_III_of_England>, and his third wife Katherine Swynford<http://en.wikipedia.o rg/wiki/Katherine_Swynford>. Katherine was Gaunt’s mistress for about 25 years; when they married in 1396, they already had four children, including Henry’s great-grandfather John Beaufort<http://en.wikipedia.o rg/wiki/John_Beaufort,_1st_Ear l_of_Somerset>.”

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY VII OF ENGLAND
ANCESTRY AND EARLY LIFE

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H enry_VII_of_England#Ancestry_a nd_early_life

SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
HENRY VII OF ENGLAND

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H enry_VII_of_England

The Swynford branch of the Lancaster line [the children of John of Gaunt,
son to Edward III and his mistress Kathryn Swynford], called the
”Beauforts”, were legitimised first by King Richard II and later by
King Henry IV [as legitimate son of John of Gaunt, the halfbrother of
the Beauforts], on condition that they should not claim the throne.

YOUTUBE.COM<http://youtube.com />
CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES
MARK GOACHER

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=d2QgaRbIjzQ

”The family is descended from John Beaufort<http://en.wikipedia.o rg/wiki/John_Beaufort> (1371-1410), John of Gaunt’s son by his then-mistress Katherine Swynford<http://en.wikipedia.o rg/wiki/Katherine_Swynford>. Gaunt married Swynford in 1396, and their children were legitimized by Richard II<http://en.wikipedia.org/wik i/Richard_II_of_England> and Pope Boniface IX<http://en.wikipedia.org/wik i/Pope_Boniface_IX>. They had three other children, also Beaufort: Henry, Thomas, and Joan.[1]<http://en.wikipedia.o rg/wiki/House_of_Beaufort#cite _note-FOOTNOTEChisholm1911-1>
The Beauforts were a powerful and wealthy family from the start, and rose to greater power after their (half-)brother and uncle became King Henry IV<http://en.wikipedia.org/wik i/Henry_IV_of_England> in 1399. However, in 1406, Henry IV<http://en.wikipedia.org/wik i/Henry_IV_of_England> decided that although the Beauforts were legitimate, their genetic line could not be used to make any claim to the throne.”

WIKIPEDIA
HOUSE OF BEAUFORT
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H ouse_of_Beaufort

[5]

WIKIPEDIA
BATTLE OF BOSWORTH

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B attle_of_Bosworth_Field

[6]

”So Henry VII didn’t claim the throne through right of inheritance: he claimed it through the right of conquest, not through any of his own royal lineage.”

WOMEN’S HISTORY
LEGITIMATE ENOUGH HERITAGE?
TUDOR’S CLAIM TO THE THRONE [1485]

http://womenshistory.about.com /od/medbritishwomen/ss/Birth- Controversies-and-the-Wars-of- the-Roses_2.htm

” Henry VII acknowledged the necessity of marrying Elizabeth of York to ensure the stability of his rule and weaken the claims of other surviving members of the House of York<http://en.wikipedia.org/w iki/House_of_York>, but he ruled in his own right and claimed the throne by right of conquest and not by his marriage to the heir of the House of York.”

WIKIPEDIA
ELIZABETH OF YORK
WIFE OF THE KING

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E lizabeth_of_York#Wife_of_the_k ing

SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ELIZABETH OF YORK

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E lizabeth_of_York

” It was truly through the defeat of Richard and the ‘right of conquest’ that Henry claimed the throne.”

TUDOR HISTORY
HENRY VII

http://tudorhistory.org/henry7 /

[7]

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA
HOUSE OF YORK

http://www.britannica.com/EBch ecked/topic/653692/house-of- York

[8]

WIKIPEDIA
THE ACT OF ACCORD

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A ct_of_Accord

THE FULL TEXT OF THE ACT OF ACCORD

http://books.google.co.uk/book s?id=X_4UAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA104&dq= inauthor:%22John+Silvester+ Davies%22&output=html_text

BRITAIN EXPRESS
THE ACT OF ACCORD

http://www.britainexpress.com/ History/medieval/act-accord.ht m

HISTORY OF WAR
ACT OF ACCORD, 25 OCTOBER 1460

http://www.historyofwar.org/ar ticles/treaty_act_accord.html

[9]

WIKIPEDIA
THE ACT OF ACCORD

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A ct_of_Accord

BRITAIN EXPRESS
THE ACT OF ACCORD

http://www.britainexpress.com/ History/medieval/act-accord.ht m

HISTORY OF WAR
ACT OF ACCORD, 25 OCTOBER 1460

http://www.historyofwar.org/ar ticles/treaty_act_accord.html

[10]

WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK
THE WEEL OF FORTUNE

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R ichard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_Yo rk#The_wheel_of_fortune_.28145 9.E2.80.931460.29

SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R ichard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_Yo rk

[11]

WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK
THE WEEL OF FORTUNE

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R ichard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_Yo rk#The_wheel_of_fortune_.28145 9.E2.80.931460.29

SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R ichard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_Yo rk

[12]

”Margaret undoubtedly rejoiced over York’s death—York, after all, had bullied her husband into disinheriting his own son in favor of York, and Margaret had every reason to fear for her husband’s future in a government controlled by York—but she did not have what to her might well have been the pleasure of seeing her enemy fall.”

MYTHS ABOUT MARGARET OF ANJOU
SUSAN HIGGINBOTHAM

http://www.susanhigginbotham.c om/subpages/margaretmyths.html

[13]

”The death of Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, in 1447 left York next in line for succession to the throne, and the Beauforts had him sent—virtually banished—to Ireland<http://www.britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/293754/Ire land> as lord lieutenant.”

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA
RICHARD, 3RD DUKE OF YORK

http://www.britannica.com/EBch ecked/topic/653703/Richard- 3rd-duke-of-York

[14]

WIKIPEDIA
MARGARET OF ANJOU

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M argaret_of_Anjou

[15]

Kings favouritism of the Somerset and Suffolk party [which
was the ”peace” party to France, more open for
negociations] against the Gloucester [the Kings uncle
Humphrey  Duke of Gloucester] and York party
[the war party to France]

YOUTUBE.COM<http://youtube.com />
CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES
MARK GOACHER

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=d2QgaRbIjzQ

[16]

”His attitude toward the Council’s surrender of Maine<http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Maine_(province_of_France )>, in return for an extension of the truce with France and a French bride for Henry, must have contributed to his appointment on 30 July as Lieutenant of Ireland<http://en.wikipedia.or g/wiki/Lord_Lieutenant_of_Irel and>. In some ways it was a logical appointment, as Richard was also Earl of Ulster<http://en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Earl_of_Ulster> and had considerable estates in Ireland, but it was also a convenient way of removing him from both England and France.”

WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD DUKE OF YORK
IRELAND

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R ichard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_Yo rk#Ireland_.281445.E2.80.93145 0.29

SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R ichard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_Yo rk

[17]

”In December 1459 York, Warwick and Salisbury had suffered attainder<http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Attainder>. Their lives were forfeit, and their lands reverted to the king; their heirs would not inherit.”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R ichard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_Yo rk#The_wheel_of_fortune_.28145 9.E2.80.931460.29

SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R ichard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_Yo rk

”On this day in 1459 the ‘Wars of the Roses’ between the houses of Lancaster and York took on an increased ferocity. Parliament had not met for three and a half years, since March 1456, when it had been dissolved following the resignation of Richard, duke of York, as Protector and the nominal resumption of authority by the mentally-unstable Henry VI. That summer the seat of government was effectively removed to Coventry, in the Lancastrian heart-lands, and the chief offices of state were allotted to intimates of the queen, Margaret of Anjou.”
ON THIS DAY, 20 NOVEMBER 1459, THE ”PARLIAMENT OF DEVILS
ASSEMBLES AT COVENTRY
HISTORY OF PARLIAMENT ONLINE
http://www.historyofparliament online.org/periods/medieval/ day-20-november-1459- parliament-devils-assembles- coventry

WIKIPEDIA
PARLIAMENT OF DEVILS

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P arliament_of_Devils

[18]

”In December 1459 York, Warwick and Salisbury had suffered attainder<http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Attainder>. Their lives were forfeit, and their lands reverted to the king; their heirs would not inherit.”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R ichard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_Yo rk#The_wheel_of_fortune_.28145 9.E2.80.931460.29

SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R ichard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_Yo rk

”On this day in 1459 the ‘Wars of the Roses’ between the houses of Lancaster and York took on an increased ferocity. Parliament had not met for three and a half years, since March 1456, when it had been dissolved following the resignation of Richard, duke of York, as Protector and the nominal resumption of authority by the mentally-unstable Henry VI. That summer the seat of government was effectively removed to Coventry, in the Lancastrian heart-lands, and the chief offices of state were allotted to intimates of the queen, Margaret of Anjou.”
ON THIS DAY, 20 NOVEMBER 1459, THE ”PARLIAMENT OF DEVILS
ASSEMBLES AT COVENTRY
HISTORY OF PARLIAMENT ONLINE
http://www.historyofparliament online.org/periods/medieval/ day-20-november-1459- parliament-devils-assembles- coventry

WIKIPEDIA
PARLIAMENT OF DEVILS

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P arliament_of_Devils

[19]

WIKIPEDIA
MARGARET OF ANJOU
MILITARY CAMPAIGNS

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M argaret_of_Anjou#Military_camp aigns

SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
MARGARET OF ANJOU

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M argaret_of_Anjou#The_Wars_of_t he_Roses

”While Mary was still mourning the death of King James II<http://en.wikipedia.org/wik i/James_II_of_Scotland>, the Lancastrian Queen Margaret of Anjou<http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Margaret_of_Anjou> fled north across the border seeking refuge from the Yorkists. Mary sympathetically aided Margaret and took Edward of Westminster<http://en.wikipedi a.org/wiki/Edward_of_Westminst er> into her household to keep them out of Yorkist hands.
Mary’s dealings with Margaret were mainly to provide aid to the deposed queen. Mary gave a number of Scottish troops to help Margaret and the Lancastrian cause”

WIKIPEDIA
MARY OF GUELDERS
REGENCY

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M ary_of_Guelders#Regency

SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
MARY OF GUELDERS

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M ary_of_Guelders

[20]

WIKIPEDIA
BATTLE OF WAKEFIELD
CASUALTIES

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B attle_of_Wakefield#Casualties

WIKIPEDIA
BATTLE OF WAKEFIELD

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B attle_of_Wakefield

[21]

”While she was attempting to raise further support for the Lancastrian cause in Scotland,[15]<http://en.wikipe dia.org/wiki/Margaret_of_ Anjou#cite_note-15> her principal commander, Henry Beaufort, 3rd Duke of Somerset<http://en.wikipedia.o rg/wiki/Henry_Beaufort,_3rd_Du ke_of_Somerset>,[16]<http://en .wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_ of_Anjou#cite_note-16> gained a major victory for her at the Battle of Wakefield<http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Battle_of_Wakefield> on 30 December 1460 by defeating the combined armies of the Duke of York and the Earl of Salisbury. Both men were beheaded and their heads displayed on the gates of the city of York. As Margaret was in Scotland at the time the battle had taken place, it was impossible that she issued the orders for their executions despite popular belief to the contrary.”

WIKIPEDIA
MARGARET OF ANJOU
MILITARY CAMPAIGNS

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M argaret_of_Anjou#Military_camp aigns

WIKIPEDIA
MARGARET OF ANJOU

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M argaret_of_Anjou#The_Wars_of_t he_Roses

[22]

WIKIPEDIA
SECOND BATTLE OF ST ALBANS

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S econd_Battle_of_St_Albans

[23]

”Two knights (Lord Bonville<http://en.wikipedia.o rg/wiki/William_Bonville,_1st_ Baron_Bonville> and Sir Thomas Kyriell<http://en.wikipedia.or g/wiki/Thomas_Kyriell>, a veteran leader of the Hundred Years War<http://en.wikipedia.org/wi ki/Hundred_Years_War>) had sworn to let him come to no harm, and remained with him throughout. The next morning Margaret asked her son, the seven-year-old Edward of Westminster, how, not whether, the two knights were to die. Edward, thus prompted, sent them to be beheaded.[6]<http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Second_Battle_of_ St_Albans#cite_note-8>”

WIKIPEDIA
SECOND BATTLE OF ST ALBANS
AFTERMATH

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S econd_Battle_of_St_Albans#Afte rmath

SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
SECOND BATTLE OF ST ALBANS

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S econd_Battle_of_St_Albans

[24]

”John Neville had been captured but was spared execution, as the Duke of Somerset feared that his own younger brother who was in Yorkist hands might be executed in reprisal”

WIKIPEDIA
SECOND BATTLE OF ST ALBANS
AFTERMATH

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S econd_Battle_of_St_Albans#Afte rmath

SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
SECOND BATTLE OF ST ALBANS

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S econd_Battle_of_St_Albans

[25]

WIKIPEDIA
BATTLE OF TOWTON

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B attle_of_Towton

[26]

WARFARE HISTORY BLOG
PRELUDE TO THE WARS OF THE ROSES,
USURPATION,REBELLION AND MEDIEVAL
WARFARE  1387-1403

http://warfarehistorian.blogsp ot.nl/2012/10/prelude-to-wars- of-roses-usurpation.html

”Their son Henry<http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Henry_IV_of_England> usurped the throne in 1399, creating one of the factions in the Wars of the Roses<http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Wars_of_the_Roses>.”

WIKIPEDIA
HOUSE OF LANCASTER

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H ouse_of_Lancaster

[27]

YOUTUBE.COM<http://youtube.com />
CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES
MARK GOACHER

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=d2QgaRbIjzQ

”Though Parliament conceded that Richard had the better claim to the throne, they were unwilling to depose him outright. A compromise was reached, and that compromise was the Act of Accord.”

BRITAIN EXPRESS
THE ACT OF ACCORD

http://www.britainexpress.com/ History/medieval/act-accord.ht m

THE WARS OF THE ROSES/RICHARD, DUKE OF
YORK/THE CLAIMS TO THE THRONE OF LANCASTER
AND YORK
ASTRID ESSED

http://www.astridessed.nl/the- wars-of-the-rosesrichard-duke- of-yorkthe-claims-to-the-thron e-of-lancaster-and-york/

[28]

THE WARS OF THE ROSES/RICHARD, DUKE OF
YORK/THE CLAIMS TO THE THRONE OF LANCASTER
AND YORK
ASTRID ESSED

http://www.astridessed.nl/the- wars-of-the-rosesrichard-duke- of-yorkthe-claims-to-the-thron e-of-lancaster-and-york/

[29]

” During her own lifetime, Philippa was the heir presumptive<http://en.wikipedi a.org/wiki/Heir_presumptive> to her first cousin Richard II<http://en.wikipedia.org/wik i/Richard_II_of_England>; she would have been displaced in the succession by any legitimate children of the king. Richard remained childless, so after her death, her position as first in line for the throne passed to her son, Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March<http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Roger_Mortimer,_4th_Earl_ of_March>. He was killed at the Battle of Kells in Ireland in 1398, making his six-year-old son, Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March<http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Edmund_Mortimer,_5th_Earl _of_March>, Richard’s heir presumptive.”

WIKIPEDIA
PHILIPPA, 5TH COUNTESS OF ULSTER

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P hilippa,_5th_Countess_of_Ulste r

[30]

” During her own lifetime, Philippa was the heir presumptive<http://en.wikipedi a.org/wiki/Heir_presumptive> to her first cousin Richard II<http://en.wikipedia.org/wik i/Richard_II_of_England>; she would have been displaced in the succession by any legitimate children of the king. Richard remained childless, so after her death, her position as first in line for the throne passed to her son, Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March<http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Roger_Mortimer,_4th_Earl_ of_March>. He was killed at the Battle of Kells in Ireland in 1398, making his six-year-old son, Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March<http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Edmund_Mortimer,_5th_Earl _of_March>, Richard’s heir presumptive.”

WIKIPEDIA
PHILIPPA, 5TH COUNTESS OF ULSTER

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P hilippa,_5th_Countess_of_Ulste r

[31]

” A great-grandson of King Edward III of England<http://en.wikipedia.or g/wiki/Edward_III_of_England>, he was heir presumptive<http://en.wikipedi a.org/wiki/Heir_presumptive> to King Richard II of England<http://en.wikipedia.or g/wiki/Richard_II_of_England>, his cousin once removed, when Richard II was deposed in favour of Henry IV<http://en.wikipedia.org/wik i/Henry_IV_of_England>. Edmund Mortimer’s claim to the crown was the basis of rebellions and plots against Henry IV and his son Henry V<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki /Henry_V_of_England>, and was later taken up by theHouse of York<http://en.wikipedia.org/w iki/House_of_York> in the Wars of the Roses<http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Wars_of_the_Roses>, though Mortimer himself was a important and loyal vassal of Henry V and Henry VI”

WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND MORTIMER, 5TH EARL OF MARCH

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E dmund_Mortimer,_5th_Earl_of_Ma rch

[32]

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD OF WESTMINSTER, PRINCE OF WALES

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E dward_of_Westminster,_Prince_o f_Wales

[33]

WARFARE HISTORY BLOG
PRELUDE TO THE WARS OF THE ROSES,
USURPATION,REBELLION AND MEDIEVAL
WARFARE  1387-1403

http://warfarehistorian.blogsp ot.nl/2012/10/prelude-to-wars- of-roses-usurpation.html

”Their son Henry<http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Henry_IV_of_England> usurped the throne in 1399, creating one of the factions in the Wars of the Roses<http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Wars_of_the_Roses>.”

WIKIPEDIA
HOUSE OF LANCASTER

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H ouse_of_Lancaster

[34]

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY V OF ENGLAND
CAMPAIGN

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H enry_V_of_England#1415_campaig n

SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY V OF ENGLAND

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H enry_V_of_England

[35]

WIKIPEDIA
MARGARET OF ANJOU
ENMITY BETWEEN MARGARET AND THE DUKE OF YORK

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M argaret_of_Anjou#Enmity_betwee n_Margaret_and_the_Duke_of_ York

SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
MARGARET OF ANJOU

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M argaret_of_Anjou

[36]

”Meanwhile, Matilda’s younger brother, William Adelin<http://en.wikipedia.org /wiki/William_Adelin>, died in the White Ship<http://en.wikipedia.org/w iki/White_Ship> disaster of 1120, leaving England facing a potential succession crisis. On Henry V’s death, Matilda was recalled to Normandy<http://en.wikipedia.o rg/wiki/Duchy_of_Normandy> by her father, who arranged for her to marry Geoffrey of Anjou<http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Geoffrey_Plantagenet,_Cou nt_of_Anjou> to form an alliance to protect his southern borders. Henry I had no further children and nominated Matilda as his heir, making his court swear an oath<http://en.wikipedia.org/w iki/Oath> of loyalty to her and her successors, but the decision was not popular in the Anglo-Norman<http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Anglo-Norman> court.”

WIKIPEDIA
EMPRESS MATHILDA

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E mpress_Matilda

[37]

WIKIPEDIA
THE ANARCHY

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T he_Anarchy

[38]

WIKIPEDIA
STEPHEN, KING OF ENGLAND

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S tephen,_King_of_England

BIOGRAPHY
STEPHEN OF BLOIS

http://www.biography.com/peopl e/stephen-of-blois-9493736

”Adela of Normandy also known as Adela of Blois and Adela of England (c. 1067[1]<http://en.wikipedia.or g/wiki/Adela_of_Normandy#cite_ note-Women_and_Gender-1> – 8 March 1137), and Saint Adela in Roman Catholicism,[2]<http://en.wiki pedia.org/wiki/Adela_of_Norman dy#cite_note-catholic.org-2> was, by marriage, Countess of Blois<http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Blois>, Chartres<http://en.wikipedia.o rg/wiki/Chartres>, and Meaux<http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Meaux>. She was a daughter ofWilliam the Conqueror<http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/William_I_of_England> and Matilda of Flanders<http://en.wikipedia.o rg/wiki/Matilda_of_Flanders>. She was also the mother of Stephen, King of England<http://en.wikipedia.or g/wiki/Stephen_of_England> and Henry of Blois<http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Henry_of_Blois>, Bishop of Winchester<http://en.wikipedia .org/wiki/Bishop_of_Winchester >.”

WIKIPEDIA
ADELA OF NORMANDY

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A dela_of_Normandy

[39]

WIKIPEDIA
THE ANARCHY

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T he_Anarchy

[40]

”The Treaty of Wallingford, also known as the Treaty of Winchester or the Treaty of Westminster, was an agreement reached in England<http://en.wikipedia.or g/wiki/England> the summer of 1153. It effectively ended a civil war known as the Anarchy<http://en.wikipedia.or g/wiki/The_Anarchy> (1135–54), caused by a dispute between Empress Matilda<http://en.wikipedia.or g/wiki/Empress_Matilda> and her cousin King Stephen of England<http://en.wikipedia.or g/wiki/Stephen_of_England> over the English crown. The Treaty of Wallingford allowed Stephen to keep the throne until his death (which was to come in October 1154), but forced Stephen to recognise Matilda’s son Henry of Anjou (also called Henry FitzEmpress), who later became Henry II<http://en.wikipedia.org/wik i/Henry_II_of_England>, as his heir.”

TREATY OF WALLINGFORD, ALSO KNOWN
AS THE TREATY OF WINCHESTER

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T reaty_of_Wallingford

[41]

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY II OF ENGLAND

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H enry_II_of_England

[42]

WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD I OF ENGLAND

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R ichard_I_of_England

(43)

WIKIPEDIA
JOHN, KING OF ENGLAND

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J ohn,_King_of_England

[44]

WIKIPEDIA
HOUSE OF PLANTAGENET

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H ouse_of_Plantagenet

(45)

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD III OF ENGLAND

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E dward_III_of_England

(46)

WIKIPEDIA
ISABELLA OF FRANCE

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/I sabella_of_France

(47)

WIKIPEDIA
PHILIP IV OF FRANCE

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P hilip_IV_of_France

(48)

WIKIPEDIA
CHARLES IV OF FRANCE

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C harles_IV_of_France

(49)

´´ In 1316, a principle was established denying women succession to the French throne.´´

SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
HUNDRED YEAR´S WAR

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H undred_Years%27_War

(50)

WIKIPEDIA
LOUIS X OF FRANCE

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L ouis_X_of_France

(51)

WIKIPEDIA
TOUR DE NESLE AFFAIR

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T our_de_Nesle_Affair

(52)

´´Louis’ second wife Clementia was pregnant at the time of his death, leaving the succession in doubt. A son would have primacy over Louis’ daughter, Joan<http://en.wikipedia.org/w iki/Joan_II_of_Navarre>.[32]<h ttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lo uis_X_of_France#cite_note-32> A daughter, however, would have a weaker claim to the throne, and would need to compete with Joan’s own claims – although suspicions hung over Joan’s parentage following the scandal in 1314´´

WIKIPEDIA
LOUIS X OF FRANCE

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L ouis_X_of_France

(53)

WIKIPEDIA
TOUR DE NESLE AFFAIR

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T our_de_Nesle_Affair

(54)

´´The French rejected the claim, maintaining that Isabella could not transmit a right which she did not possess.´´

WIKIPEDIA
HUNDRED YEAR´S WAR

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H undred_Years%27_War

(55)

´´ For about nine years (1328-1337), the English had accepted the Valois succession to the French throne. But the interference of the French king, Philip VI, in Edward III’s war against Scotland, led Edward III to reassert his claim to the French throne.
Several overwhelming English victories in the war—especially at Crecy<http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Battle_of_Cr%C3%A9cy>, Poitiers<http://en.wikipedia.o rg/wiki/Battle_of_Poitiers>, and Agincourt<http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Battle_of_Agincourt>— raised the prospects of an ultimate English triumph. However, the greater resources of the French monarchy precluded a complete conquest. Starting in 1429, decisive French victories at Patay<http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Battle_of_Patay>, Formigny<http://en.wikipedia.o rg/wiki/Battle_of_Formigny>, and Castillon<http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Battle_of_Castillon> concluded the war in favor of France, with England permanently losing most of its major possessions on the continent.´´

WIKIPEDIA
HUNDRED YEAR´S WAR

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H undred_Years%27_War

[56]

WIKIPEDIA
BLANCHE OF LANCASTER

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B lanche_of_Lancaster

[57]

WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND CROUCHBACK

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E dmund_Crouchback

[58]

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY III OF ENGLAND

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H enry_III_of_England

[59]

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD I OF ENGLAND

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E dward_I_of_England

[60]

LANCASTER ”EDMUND CROUCHBACK”
CLAIM TO THE THRONE

YOUTUBE.COM<http://youtube.com />
CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES
MARK GOACHER

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=d2QgaRbIjzQ

Reacties uitgeschakeld voor Encyclopaedia Britannica versus Astrid Essed about the superior claim of the House of York on the English throne/Encyclopaedia Britannica corrects a mistake [2015]

Opgeslagen onder Divers

First Speech of king Charles III as a Monarch/Tribute to his mother Queen Elizabeth II

King Charles IIIIMAGE SOURCE,GETTY IMAGES

At the moment the Queen died, the throne passed immediately and without ceremony to the heir, Charles, the former Prince of Wales.

FIRST SPEECH OF KING CHARLES III AS A MONARCH/A TRIBUTE

TO HIS MOTHER QUEEN ELIZABETH II

KING CHARLES III DELIVERS HIS FIRST SPEECH AS MONARCH

https://www.townandcountrymag.com/society/tradition/a41122583/king-charles-iii-first-speech-transcript/

King Charles III has officially delivered his first speech as British monarch. In an address recorded in the Blue Drawing Room at Buckingham Palace earlier this afternoon, Charles spoke of his beloved mother, who he said always saw the best in people, and promised his lifelong service.

“I shall endeavor to serve you with loyalty, respect, and love,” he said.

Here, read King Charles

Here, read King Charles III’s first speech in full:

I speak to you today with feelings of profound sorrow. Throughout her life, Her Majesty The Queen – my beloved Mother – was an inspiration and example to me and to all my family, and we owe her the most heartfelt debt any family can owe to their mother; for her love, affection, guidance, understanding and example. Queen Elizabeth was a life well lived; a promise with destiny kept and she is mourned most deeply in her passing. That promise of lifelong service I renew to you all today.

Alongside the personal grief that all my family are feeling, we also share with so many of you in the United Kingdom, in all the countries where The Queen was Head of State, in the Commonwealth and across the world, a deep sense of gratitude for the more than seventy years in which my Mother, as Queen, served the people of so many nations.

In 1947, on her twenty-first birthday, she pledged in a broadcast from Cape Town to the Commonwealth to devote her life, whether it be short or long, to the service of her peoples. That was more than a promise: it was a profound personal commitment which defined her whole life. She made sacrifices for duty. Her dedication and devotion as Sovereign never wavered, through times of change and progress, through times of joy and celebration, and through times of sadness and loss. In her life of service we saw that abiding love of tradition, together with that fearless embrace of progress, which make us great as Nations. The affection, admiration and respect she inspired became the hallmark of her reign. And, as every member of my family can testify, she combined these qualities with warmth, humour and an unerring ability always to see the best in people.

I pay tribute to my Mother’s memory and I honour her life of service. I know that her death brings great sadness to so many of you and I share that sense of loss, beyond measure, with you all. When The Queen came to the throne, Britain and the world were still coping with the privations and aftermath of the Second World War, and still living by the conventions of earlier times. In the course of the last seventy years we have seen our society become one of many cultures and many faiths. The institutions of the State have changed in turn. But, through all changes and challenges, our nation and the wider family of Realms – of whose talents, traditions and achievements I am so inexpressibly proud – have prospered and flourished. Our values have remained, and must remain, constant.

The role and the duties of Monarchy also remain, as does the Sovereign’s particular relationship and responsibility towards the Church of England – the Church in which my own faith is so deeply rooted. In that faith, and the values it inspires, I have been brought up to cherish a sense of duty to others, and to hold in the greatest respect the precious traditions, freedoms and responsibilities of our unique history and our system of parliamentary government. As The Queen herself did with such unswerving devotion, I too now solemnly pledge myself, throughout the remaining time God grants me, to uphold the Constitutional principles at the heart of our nation. And wherever you may live in the United Kingdom, or in the Realms and territories across the world, and whatever may be your background or beliefs, I shall endeavour to serve you with loyalty, respect and love, as I have throughout my life.

My life will of course change as I take up my new responsibilities. It will no longer be possible for me to give so much of my time and energies to the charities and issues for which I care so deeply. But I know this important work will go on in the trusted hands of others. This is also a time of change for my family. I count on the loving help of my darling wife, Camilla. In recognition of her own loyal public service since our marriage seventeen years ago, she becomes my Queen Consort. I know she will bring to the demands of her new role the steadfast devotion to duty on which I have come to rely so much.

As my Heir, William now assumes the Scottish titles which have meant so much to me. He succeeds me as Duke of Cornwall and takes on the responsibilities for the Duchy of Cornwall which I have undertaken for more than five decades. Today, I am proud to create him Prince of Wales, Tywysog Cymru, the country whose title I have been so greatly privileged to bear during so much of my life and duty. With Catherine beside him, our new Prince and Princess of Wales will, I know, continue to inspire and lead our national conversations, helping to bring the marginal to the centre ground where vital help can be given. I want also to express my love for Harry and Meghan as they continue to build their lives overseas.

In a little over a week’s time we will come together as a nation, as a Commonwealth and indeed a global community, to lay my beloved mother to rest. In our sorrow, let us remember and draw strength from the light of her example. On behalf of all my family, I can only offer the most sincere and heartfelt thanks for your condolences and support. They mean more to me than I can ever possibly express.

And to my darling Mama, as you begin your last great journey to join my dear late Papa, I want simply to say this: thank you. Thank you for your love and devotion to our family and to the family of nations you have served so diligently all these years. May “flights of Angels sing thee to thy rest”..

Reacties uitgeschakeld voor First Speech of king Charles III as a Monarch/Tribute to his mother Queen Elizabeth II

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My Condolences on the death of Queen Elizabeth II/End of an Era

https://www.royal.uk/search?tags%5B0%5D=Buckingham%20Palace
https://www.royal.uk/search?tags%5B0%5D=Buckingham%20Palace

CONDOLENCES

Hereby I express my condolences to the British Royal Family with

the loss of their mother, grandmother and greatgrandmother.

Queen Elizabeth was a very remarkable and steadfast Queen, who, although

born in 1926 and a Daughter of her Time, was quite capable to meet the

challenges of the Modern Times, with all the changes, made from her

coronation as a Queen in 1952 untill 2022.

I find it extraordinary, that She was capable to function as a Queen 

to the bitter end, despite of all the bitter moments she had to face in

her long life, next to the many moments of happiness.

I think in her last years she especially took joy in her greatgrandchildren,

a Blessing not everyone sees in her/his life.

Much respect for her Dignity and Grace.

From Empress Maud [William the Conqueror’s granddaughter]

to Queen Elizabeth.

All respect for the English Power Ladies, who were Queens by Right.

Wishing King Charles III much wisdom, power, dignity and special

attention for the vulnerable people in England and the World.

I repeat the beautiful words king Charles III spoke in

his Speech and Tribute to his Mother:

And flights of angels sing thee to thy rest!”

[Shakespeare’s Hamlet, Act 5, Scene 2, best friend

Horatio on the death of Hamlet]

ASTRID ESSED

AMSTERDAM

THE NETHERLANDS

Reacties uitgeschakeld voor My Condolences on the death of Queen Elizabeth II/End of an Era

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22 MARCH 1322/22 MARCH 2022/Execution of Thomas of Lancaster, rebel cousin of king Edward II/Warlord,Reformer,Saint

File:Thomas Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster.jpg

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet,_2nd_Earl_of_LancasterTHOMAS 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

Thomas of Lancaster’s main possessions (Maddicott).THOMAS OF LANCASTER’S MAIN POSSESSIONShttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

7626ba0b19e62826ef9090c93b10a11b.jpg

MURDER OF PIERS GAVESTON,INTIMATE FRIEND ANS[POSSIBLE] LOVER OF KING EDWARD II, UNDER THE DIRECT RESPONSIBILITYOF THE EARLS OF LANCASTER, WARWICK, HEREFORD AND ARUNDELMURDER OF PIERS GAVESTON,INTIMATE FRIEND ANS[POSSIBLE] LOVER OF KING EDWARD II, UNDER THE DIRECT RESPONSIBILITYOF THE EARLS OF LANCASTER, WARWICK, HEREFORD AND ARUNDELhttps://themortimersblog.wordpress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traitor-the-life-execution-of-thomas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post-by-stephen-spinks/

File:Pontefract Castle.JPG

PONTEFRACT CASTLE, THOMAS OF LANCASTER’S FAVOURITECASTLE [INHERITED FROM HIS FATHER IN LAW, HENRY DE LACY, 3TH EARL OFLINCOLN, AT HIS DEATH IN 1311]IN HIS FAVOURITE CASTLE HIS SOCALLED ”TRIAL” TOOKPLACE AND NEAR HIS FAVOURITE CASTLE,  IRONICALLY,  HE WAS EXECUTEDhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontefract_Castle#Historyhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontefract_Castle

manuscript-images-medieval-castles
Edward was twice jeered by Lancaster’s garrison at Pontefract in 1317 & 1320 as he passed from north to south 

EDWARD II WAS TWICE JEERED BY THOMAS OF LANCASTERAND HIS HOUSEHOLD, IN AT PONTEFRACT IN 1317 AND 1320, WHEN HEPASSED FROM NORTH TO SOUTH…..https://themortimersblog.wordpress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traitor-the-life-execution-of-thomas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post-by-stephen-spinks/

Image result for thomas 2nd earl of lancaster

THE EXECUTION OF THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTERhttp://www.luminarium.org/encyclopedia/thomasoflancaster.htm

Thomas, Earl of Lancaster

THE EXECUTION OF THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTERhttp://www.englishmonarchs.co.uk/plantagenet_74.html

File:Edmund Crouchback Arms.svg

PLANTAGENETCOAT OF ARMS OF EDMUND CROUCHBACK [SON OFKING HENRY III, BROTHER OF KING EDWARD I ANDFATHER OF THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER], THOMAS,EARL OF LANCASTER AND HIS SUCCESSORShttp://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet,_2nd_Earl_of_LancasterVENERATION CULTUS OF THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER”SAINT THOMAS” [THOMAS THE MARTYR]PICTURE BELOW:

DEVOTIONAL PANEL OF THOMAS OF LANCASTER, PICTURINGHIS BEHEADING OUTSIDE OF PONTEFRACT CASTLEA DEVOTIONAL PANEL WAS A RELIGIOUS OBJECT, SOLDON PILGRIMAGE TO COMMEMORATE AND VENERATESAINTS AND MARTYRShttp://www.culture24.org.uk/history-and-heritage/archaeology/art522182-devotional-panel-of-beheaded-rebel-14th-century-martyr-surfaces-on-shore-of-river-thames

A photo of a small dark silver religious panel depicting the beheading of a medieval man

The beheading of the Earl is portrayed within the panel© MOLA / Andy Chopping

22 MARCH 1322-22 MARCH 2022/THE EXECUTION OF THOMAS OFLANCASTER, REBEL COUSIN OF KING EDWARD II/WARLORD/REFORMER/SAINT
READERS
Today I want to travel with you to 14th century England again, for it’s aspecial Day!Because it is exactly 700 years ago, that Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, Leicesterand Derby, was executed for treason on the orders of his first cousin, king Edward II [the son of the better known Edward I ”Hammer of the Scots [1]and the father of king Edward III, who started the Hundred Years War betweenEngland and France, the war in which Jeanne d’Arc played her role asheroine of freedom [2]And painful for Thomas:He was executed in his own castle of Pontefract [quite sadistic….] [3]I think a role played too the fact, that Edward II wanted revenge allthose years for Earl Thomas summarily executing [with some othercomrades in evil] his favourite, Piers Gaveston [4]
Thomas of Lancaster was a very interesting man, whom I described beforein an extended article [nearly a book!] [5]He was about the Power, fought against his cousin king Edward IV for years,after an initial good and friendly contact [it is not known, why king Edward IIand his cousin Thomas fell out, but suddenly it happened, in november 1308 [6]and then the things went worse and worse.But although he did horrible things [like summarily executing Piers Gaveston,a favourite and close friend of Edward II], he was interesting, not onlybecause he held power for years against his cousin the king [from 1314-1318,when he signed a peace treaty with his cousin the King, the Treaty of Leake,which did not last very long…..[7],.No, he did moreWith Simon de Montfort [8] he laid the groundwork for the later Parliament,as driving power behind the Ordinances [9], which tried to limit the absolute Powerof the King.
And can you imagine:
This man, this warlord, who eventually rose in open rebellion againsthis cousin and king [10]  and was all but a Saint, was venerated as Saintafter his death, first as an outlet for those who opposed the king and hislater favourites the Despensers [11], but later as a real Saint [12], although he wasnever canonized. [13]
EARL THOMAS’ BROTHER, EARL HENRY [LATER THE 3RD EARLOF LANCASTER]
By the way, his brother, Earl Henry, who later inherited his titles [Thomasof Lancaster had only two illegitimate sons, his marriage was childless and bythe way, unhappy], is a very interesting person too and one of my favourites!For a nobleman, he was a real familyman, who rather stayed with his familythen playing powerpolitics.
He was clever too:Because most of the the period that his brother Thomas and king Edward II had their fight for power, he stayed in France [where he had possessions] and when his brother Thomas openly rebelled against Edward II, he did not participate and rather stayed in France, as to prevent that he had to make the painful choice between joining his brother in rebellion and treason or to stay loyal to the king and abandon his brother. [14]That must have been very painful for Earl Henry, but in the period after his brother Thomas’ execution, when his cousin king Edward II ruled with his favourites the Despensers [who were the driving forces behind the executionof Thomas of Lancaster, who rebelled against the king partly for lust ofpower and partly to destroy the Despenser influence on the king] [15], EarlHenry operated very carefully at Court and eventually played a majorrole in the fall of the Despensers, which also resulted in the abdicationand death of Edward II [16]Because his clever and careful manoevres during the Edward II/Despenserreign I called him the ”Mystery Man” [17]
By the way, by Earl Henry’s granddaughter Blanche of Lancaster [the daughterof his son Henry of Grosmont, later DUKE of Lancaster], he wasthe greatgrandfather of the later king Henry IV [who, by what nowpeople would call a ”coup” usurped the throne from the lawful kingRichard II, who was his first cousin, both grandsons of king Edward III][18]
And by Henry’s daughter Maud of Lancaster [19] he was one of the ancestorsof the present British monarchy [his daughter Maud of Lancaster wasthe mother in law of Lionel of Antwerp, the second son of Edward III andthe maternal  greatgreatgrandfather of Richard, Duke of York, who wasthe paternal grandfather of Elisabeth of York, who was the wife of Henry VII, and mother of king Henry VIII and via one of her daughters, thegreatgrandmother of Maria Stuart, from who all subsequent British kings andQueens descended] [20]
THOMAS OF LANCASTER, AGAIN
But it is about Earl Thomas of Lancaster today!And because it is 700 years after his execution, hereby the ExecutionChapter
And to honour a man, who, with all his faults and atrocities, was oneof the groundworkers for the later English parliament, althoughhe, of course, supported the Ordinances [21] in order to servethe interest of the high nobility, and of course his own

ASTRID ESSED
NOTES
NOTES 1 T/M 13

NOTES 14 T/M 21

THOMAS OF LANCASTER, REBEL COUSIN OF KING EDWARD II/FROM WARLORD TO SAINTCHAPTER EIGHT

THE END

The travel
Revenge of the King
Reception
Trial
The others
Last passage

””Now the king of Heaven give us mercy, for the earthly king has forsaken us!”

The long battle between Thomas and his cousin King Edward II
was over.
The way to the grisly end was about to begin:

An end, which was not about to bring the King and the
[in january returned] Despensers much joy, but
would cast a shadow on their lives and reign.

After the devastating end of the Battle of Boroughbridge,
resulting in the horrible death of the Earl of Hereford [452],
companion till the last of Thomas of Lancaster [and
by the way, the brother in law of Edward II] , Thomas
of Lancaster found himself prisoner of the King.

The humiliation could begin…….

THE TRAVEL

Thomas was taken by water via York to Pontefract Castle.
That was an intent torment and humiliation, since
Pontefract Castle was his favourite residence.
[His constable had surrendered to the King without a fight]
That must have been very bitter for Thomas.

He was forced to wear garments of the striped cloth which the squires of his household wore, an intentional humiliation of a man of high birth and rank. [453]

But that was not enough:

On the way to York, a crowd of people threw snowballs at him, called him a traitor, and shouted “Now shall you have the reward that long time you have deserved!” [454]
Interesting though that there must have been among them people,
who later revered him……

At the meantime other adherents of Thomas of Lancaster were
taken prisoner, who would share his fate, as the story will show.

REVENGE OF THE KING

The King had tried to make it as humiliating as possible
for his cousin and long time adversary Thomas.
He ”received” his cousin at his own favourite Castle
of Pontefract,
accompanied by his favourites the Despensers, who
must have thought, that it was their moment of joy.
Quod non [Latin for: that is not the case] [455] as will
the story reveal later [See Chapter 10, Aftermath]

But although sad for Thomas, the satisfaction the King’
undoubtedly felt, now his powerful cousin was
at his mercy, is in a way understandable.

It was not only the 10 year long resistance of Thomas,
complete with jeering at the King [in 1317 and 1320],
and blocking his way with armed guards [456], probably
the King’s most important feeling was revenge for the death of
Piers Gaveston, since Thomas was one of the responsibles
for his [Gaveston’s] murder [457], a cruel and illegal act against a man,
who was vain, avaricious and insulting [to the Lords] [458],
but further didn’t do the Lords any wrong.

And Edward II had made no secret of his need for revenge!
During the siege of Berwick in 1319 [459] in which Thomas had
cooperated with Edward [460], he [Edward] made clear what was on his mind by declaring “When this wretched business is over, we will turn our hands to other matters. For I have not forgotten the wrong that was done to my brother Piers.” [461]
That threat was obviously aimed at Thomas, who
left Berwick later [and right he was!]. [462]

And as I have said before, when it came to revenge, Edward II
was true to his word.

RECEPTION

On 21 march, Thomas of Lancaster arrived at his
Castle of Pontefract.
And what was to be expected, the Despensers couldn’t resist
to show their satisfaction in humiliating Lancaster.
Thomas was ”contemptuously insulted……to his face with
malicious and arrogant words” by the king and the recently returned Despensers” [463]
Nice reception in your own castle……

TRIAL

Now rumour had  it that Thomas of Lancaster had built a tower in which to hold the king captive for the rest of his life.
And, surprise, surprise……
In that very [supposed for imprisonment of the King] tower
Thomas was kept prisoner….. [464]
The day after Thomas’ arrival, 22 march 1322, his ”trial” took place.
I say ”trial” because it didn’t deserve the name at the least.

It was a mock trial, that took place in the hall of
Lancaster’s own castle [how bitter…..] and the outcome was a foregone conclusion.
Thomas was not allowed to speak in his own defence as his crimes were deemed ‘notorious’ [465]

According to sources he was said to have exclaimed:
” “This is a powerful court, and great in authority, where no answer is heard nor any excuse admitted,” [466]
And right he was!
The fact that Thomas didn’t grant Piers Gaveston a fair trial too
[yet apart from the fact that he had no right to give him
a trial anyway], doesn’t excuse his ”judges” to do the same with him.

And there were ”judges”, who undoubtedly would later
regret their own injustice…………

See Chapter 10 ”Aftermath”

”Judges”:

The composition of those  socalled ”judges” was a laughing
stock anyway, were it not so grave an affair, since they
consisted of either his enemies, or staunch adherents of
the King [or a combination of those two]

The ”judges” were:

Thomas’ first cousin, King Edward II

The Despensers [father and son]

The Earl of Pembroke  [Thomas’
first cousin once removed.
Originally one of the besiegers of Piers
Gaveston in 1312, now he was a staunch adherer of the King,
since he was against his will, forced to break his word
against Piers Gaveston, who was in his custody
and in Pembroke’s absence abducted by the 10th Earl
of Warwick, which lead to Gaveston’s execution.
His presence at this mock trial was a pity, I have mentioned
him several times as a man of honour, who repeatedly
tried to reconcile Edward II and Thomas of Lancaster,
but perhaps he
was forced to become part of this show trial] [467]

The Earl of Kent [halfbrother of King Edward II, and
first cousin to Thomas of Lancaster] [468]

The Earl of Richmond [first cousin to King Edward II
and Thomas of Lancaster] [469]

The Earl of Arundel [choose the King’s side
after the murder of Gaveston, whom he had executed
after a mock trial together with Thomas of Lancaster, the 10th Earl
of Warwick and the Earl of Hereford,
who died at the Battle of Boroughbridge] [470]

The Earl of Surrey , [originally one of
the besiegers of Piers Gaveston in 1312 and
later a mortal enemy of Thomas.
Under his responsibility Thomas’ estranged wife Alice de
Lacy was abducted, which lead to a private war between
Surrey and Thomas] [471]

The [Scottish] Earls of Atholl and Angus, who had once
served in the retinue of Thomas of Lancaster. [472]

The royal justice Robert Malberthorpe, who spoke out
the charges against him. [473]

Striking is, that three of the ”judges” [Edward II, the Earl of Kent,
the Earl of Richmond] were first cousins of Thomas of Lancaster
[474] and one, the Earl of Pembroke, his first cousin removed.
[475]

NICE FAMILY……..

Charges:

Thomas was charged [of course] for treason, as he and other Contrariants had invited several of Robert Bruce’s liegemen to England in 1322 to ride with them against their king. [476]

But that was not all:

The list of charges comprised the many grievances Edward managed to dredge up against his cousin, going back to Thomas’s seizure of his possessions at Tynemouth in 1312 [when Lancaster
and the other barons were pursuing the King and his favourite Piers Gaveston, after his return from permanent exile. The charge however was unjust, since Lancaster had given the
possessions back in 1313] [477] and including Thomas’s jeering at him from the Pontefract battlements in 1317, [478]
and Lancaster’s blocking of the roads in an attempt to prevent Edward’s travelling through Yorkshire. [479]

Verdict:
A fourtheenth century scandal

One need not to be surprised about the verdict:

Of course Thomas was found guilty, since this
was a show trial, containing ”judges”, who were
extremely hostile to him.

But to be fair:
Even if it WERE a fair trial, the exchanged letters and dealings with the Scots [480] were reason enough to condemn him.

Therefore it was not the CONDEMNATION  that was shocking, and caused a scandal, but the
fact, that Thomas was condemned to death, which was
a break with the convention of the time, not only because of his close
kinship to the King [first cousin, Lancaster’s father was the younger brother of King Edward I], but especially because since
Waltheof, the Earl of Northumbria was executed  in 1076 on the orders of William the Conqueror [481], no English Earl was ever executed. [482]
In cases, comparable with Lancaster, an Earl had to suffer
”only” life imprisonment or exile. [483]

I think, that the King perhaps had shown mercy [I mean, not
imposing the death penalty], were it not for Lancaster’s involvement
in the murder of King’s favourite Piers Gaveston[484],
which was not one of the charges, but the underlying reason
for the King’s need for revenge. [485]

But there was more:
Not only the death penalty was pronounced, Thomas was
condemned to the worst form, the traitor’s death:
In other words: to be hanged, drawn and quartered…..[486]

But the King was not totally crazy:
Executing a [royal] Earl was already a scandal,
but to be hanged, drawn and quartered……
Besides, whatever had happened between them, Thomas
was the King’s first cousin and of royal blood
Therefore the King commuted this verdict to ”merely”
beheading……[487]

However, some sources mention, that the King commuted
the ”hanged, drawn and quarted” verdict to beheading “for the love of Quene Isabell,”[488], which possibly means, that the King
commuted the verdict to beheading as a result of intercession
of Queen Isabella [489], who was with King Edward at
Pontefract [brrrrrr, horrifying, to accompany one’s husband
at the eve of an execution….yet when she really intervened,
it was a good thing that she came…..] [490]
Queen Isabella was, you remember still,,,, Thomas’ niece, since he was the halfbrother of her mother, Queen Joan I of Navarre]
[491]

Of course the phrase “for the love of Quene Isabell” can also

mean, that the beheading verdict was the King”s own decision,
but that he considered his and Queen Isabella’s relationship
with Thomas of Lancaster……

THE OTHERS

Before we follow Thomas on his last passage, there is
a lot to tell about his adherents, who were captured together
with him or on other locations around the same time:
I mention six knights, who were hanged at Pontefract around
or at the same time as Thomas were executed:
William Cheyne or Cheney, Warin Lisle, Henry Bradbourne, William Fitzwilliam, Thomas Mauduit and William Tuchet [492]

According to the Flores Historiarum [493], such a lack
of humanity was shown, that Thomas had to face their execution
before he himself was executed[494] [although the Flores Historiarum mentioned
nine of his knights, while other sources give six] [495]

Anyway, Edward II was not satisfied with seven executions
[Thomas and the six knights], as a whole at least between
19 and 22 lords and knights were executed and one, Lord
Badlesmere [from the Siege of Leeds, see Chapter 7] suffered
the traitor’s death. [496]
Many were imprisoned, even the wives and children of
the rebels [see also Chapter 10, Aftermath] [497]
A bloody project of a vengeful King, undoubtedly
stimulated by the [with right mentioned so by the rebels!] evil councillors, the Despensers. [498]

LAST PASSAGE

It was on the morning of 22 march, that Thomas of Lancaster
heard his verdict, condemned in the Hall of his own
Favourite Castle in Pontefract.
The same morning, on a cold, snowy day, Thomas was executed.
The King, apparently making a holiday of his cousin’s
trial and execution, had arrived there on 19 march, together
with Queen Isabella and spent there until 25 march…..[499]
[strong nerves they must have had…….]

However, rather than have him executed in the castle
bailey, Edward II had a painful ”surprise” for
Thomas of Lancaster, which showed his desire for
revenge on the execution of his favourite, Piers Gaveston:
In fact, he arranged a ”parody” on the execution of
Piers Gaveston [who was executed on a hill, called
”Blacklow Hill” and also beheaded] [500]

Thomas was taken  outside to a small hill,  outside of the walls of his favourite Castle Pontefract, mirroring Piers’ 1312 death on Blacklow Hill.
He was forced to ride “some worthless mule” and “an old chaplet, rent and torn, that was not worth a half-penny,” was set on his head. A crowd of spectators again threw snowballs at him.
Apparently at the king’s order, Thomas was forced to kneel facing towards Scotland, in a pointed reminder of his  correspondence with Robert Bruce [which of course had been treason] [501]

Then Thomas uttered the words:

“Now the king of Heaven give us mercy, for the earthly king has forsaken us!” [502]

Two or three strokes of the axe and he was beheaded.

Thomas of Lancaster, Earl of Lancaster, Leicester, Derby,
Lincoln and Salisbury, long time adversary of his cousin
Edward II and the last to defend the Ordinances
[503] was no more………

ASTRID ESSED

NOTES

Reacties uitgeschakeld voor 22 MARCH 1322/22 MARCH 2022/Execution of Thomas of Lancaster, rebel cousin of king Edward II/Warlord,Reformer,Saint

Opgeslagen onder Divers

[Article from Kathryn Warner, Medieval historian]/Sir Robert Holland (d. 1328)

SIR ROBERT HOLLAND (d. 1328)

WEBSITE KATHRYN WARNER EDWARD II/BLOGSPOT]
http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.com/2021/11/sir-robert-holland-d-1328.html

INTRODUCTION
Dear Readers,

Kathryn Warner is a Medieval historian whom I value very much.Hereby I post  oneof her excellent articles she wrote  on her Blogspot, where are to be found hundreds of very, veryvaluable articles about events, issues and personalities about the period of the reign of kingEdward II, 1307-1327Karthyn Warner is a great expert on the reign of king Edward II and wrotealso agreat number of books about that period.
See her Blogspot
http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.com/

This article is about Sir Robert Holland, a close friend and ally ofking Edward II’s cousin, Earl Thomas of Lancaster.Earl Thomas of Lancaster was a very interesting historical person,who, after an initial good relationship with his cousin king Edward II,fell out with him and eventually came into open rebellion againsthim, which ended with his execution in march 1321.Interesting fact:After his death he was venerated as a Saint for more then200 years!If you want to know, how a warlord became a Saint, read my articleabout Earl Thomas of Lancaster!
IN CHAPTERS
https://www.astridessed.nl/my-earl-thomas-of-lancaster-article-in-chapters/

OR AS A WHOLE:
SEE
https://www.astridessed.nl/thomas-of-lancaster-rebel-cousin-of-king-edward-iifrom-warlord-to-saint/

OR
https://www.dewereldmorgen.be/community/thomas-of-lancaster-rebel-cousin-of-king-edward-ii-from-warlord-to-saint-chapter-ten/

AND NOW…..THE  ARTICLE OF KATHRYN WARNER!ENJOY, LIKE I ENJOYED IT!
LINK
http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.com/2021/11/sir-robert-holland-d-1328.html

TEXT

07 November, 2021

Sir Robert Holland (d. 1328)

I’ve previously written a post about the murder of Sir Robert Holland in October 1328, and another about his daughter Isabelle, mistress of John de Warenne, earl of Surrey (d. 1347). Here’s one about Robert himself, a knight of Lancashire whose grandchildren were the older half-siblings of King Richard II.

Robert’s family came originally from the village of Upholland in Lancashire, and in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, the name was spelt Holand, Holande, Holond, Holaund(e), Hoyland, Hoylaund, etc. Robert’s father was also called Sir Robert Holland, and the older Robert was the eldest of the six sons of Thurstan Holland, who was himself the son of yet another Robert Holland. [1] This Robert and his son Thurstan, our Robert’s great-grandfather and grandfather, were imprisoned in 1241 after setting fire to a house belonging to the rector of Wigan. 

Our Robert’s mother, Elizabeth, was the third and youngest daughter, and co-heir, of Sir William Samlesbury, who married Avina Notton and died in c. 1256, leaving their three daughters Margery, Cecily and Elizabeth as his heirs. Elizabeth and Sir Robert Holland Senior were certainly already married by September 1276 and probably a good few years before that. Robert Senior is assumed to have died c. 1304, while Elizabeth was still alive in 1313/14. The date of birth of Robert and Elizabeth’s eldest son and heir, our Robert, is not recorded but was probably sometime near the start of the 1270s; his father settled a tenement on him in Pemberton and Orrell in 1292, suggesting he was at least twenty-one then and may have recently turned twenty-one. In the late 1310s and early 1320s, a ‘Simon de Holand’ (d. 1325) was associated with Robert, who gave him a plot of land in Lancashire, and there was also a ‘Richard de Holand, knight’ who joined the Contrariant rebellion of 1321/22 with Robert. There’s an entry in the Final Concords for Lancashire in October 1321 regarding ‘Richard son of Robert de Holand, plaintiff’. [2] As the sons of our Robert Holland were still children in 1321, this would appear to mean that Richard was a son of Robert Holland Sr (d. c. 1304) and therefore our Robert’s brother. Robert certainly had a younger brother named William, who died in the late 1310s or early 1320s and whose son and heir was named Robert, and there are also references in the chancery rolls in the 1330s and 1340s to another son of William’s called Thurstan. 

J.R. Maddicott has pointed out that Robert Holland’s origins were not quite as humble as some fourteenth-century chroniclers, notably the Brut and Henry Knighton – who wrote that the earl of Lancaster raised Robert ‘from nothing’ – claimed. [3] C. Moor’s Knights of Edward I (vol. 2, p. 233) states that our Robert was active as a knight and a keeper of the peace in Lancashire as early as 1287, but surely that’s his father of the same name. As so often happens when father and son had the same name, it’s difficult, or even impossible, to distingush between them, especially when the son reached an age where he became active as a knight and soldier. It was possibly the younger Robert, rather than his father, who was appointed to ‘choose 2,000 footmen’ in Lancashire in June 1300, and who was appointed as a commissioner also in Lancashire in May 1303. [4] 

As early as September 1300, the younger Robert Holland was already associated with Edward I’s nephew Thomas of Lancaster, earl of Lancaster and Leicester, who was then in his early twenties (my belief is that Thomas was born on or around 29 December 1277). On 18 September 1300, Edward I ordered his escheator beyond Trent ‘not to intermeddle further with the lands that Robert de Holand had of the gift of Thomas, earl of Lancaster, tenant in chief, in Beltesford, which the escheator has taken into the king’s hands because Robert entered them without his licence.’ [5] This is an early indication of Robert’s close relationship with Thomas of Lancaster, which lasted for over twenty years. In March 1316, Thomas founded a chantry in Worcester to pray for the souls of his royal parents Edmund of Lancaster, earl of Lancaster and Leicester (d. 1296) and Blanche of Artois, dowager queen of Navarre (d. 1302), on the anniversaries of their deaths. The monks were also to pray on the anniversaries of two people currently still alive, after their deaths: Thomas himself, and Sir Robert Holland. Thomas didn’t ask for prayers for his wife Alice de Lacy or his younger brother Henry or Henry’s children or anyone else, just Robert Holland, an indication of Robert’s importance in his life. J.R. Maddicott has called Robert Thomas of Lancaster’s ‘companion and friend, estate steward, political agent, and general factotum’, and states that their ‘close friendship…ran at a deeper level than that of a mere business partnership’. [6] There are numerous instances in the chancery rolls of Earl Thomas granting manors to Robert and his wife Maud, and their heirs.

Edward II appointed Robert Holland to the important position of justice of Chester on 28 August 1307, at the beginning of his reign. Robert held the office until late 1311, was replaced, but then re-appointed a few weeks later. [7] At the beginning of the reign, and until c. late 1308 or early 1309, Thomas of Lancaster was closely associated with his cousin the king, and the two men were on excellent terms. Things went badly wrong, however, and for reasons that are unclear, Thomas began to move into opposition to his cousin. The two royal men came to detest and fear each other, especially after Thomas’s involvement in the death of Piers Gaveston in June 1312. A jousting tournament was held in Dunstable, Bedfordshire in the spring of 1309, which a large number of the English earls and barons used as a cover to meet and express their disgruntlement with Edward II’s governance. Thomas, earl of Lancaster, and Sir Robert Holland were among those present. [8] Edward replaced Robert as justice of Chester with Payn Tibetot in late 1311, but in January 1312 spoke of Robert’s ‘good service’ to him and re-appointed him as justice of Chester, being aggrieved with Tibetot, who had ’treated with contempt the king’s mandate directed to him’. [9]

The king sent a letter to Sir Robert Holland on 20 November 1311, stating that ‘we are very joyous and pleased about the good news we have heard concerning the improvement in our dear cousin and faithful subject Thomas, earl of Lancaster, that he will soon be able to ride in comfort. And we send you word and dearly pray that, as soon as he is comfortable and able to ride without hurt to his body, you should ask him to be so good as to hasten to us at our parliament’. [10] It was as though Robert was the earl’s deputy and spokesman, and sometime between 1319 and early 1322, Robert and Earl Thomas sent virtually identical letters to Edward II regarding the manor of Farnley in Yorkshire (the only real difference I can see between the two letters is that Robert’s opening salutation to Edward was far more deferential). [11] Sometime before 13 May 1306, Robert Holland married Maud la Zouche, co-heir to her father Alan (d. 1314) with her older sister Ellen or Elena. [12] Maud brought Robert a good few manors in several counties in the Midlands and south of England, and it’s surely reasonable to assume that Thomas of Lancaster had something to do with arranging such a favourable marriage for his most trusted adherent and associate. 

During the Contrariant rebellion of 1321/22, however, Robert abandoned Thomas of Lancaster, and on 4 March 1322 was ordered to ‘come to the king with all speed with horses and arms, in order to set out with the king against his contrariants’. On the same day, Edward II granted Robert a safe-conduct for ‘coming to the king by his command and about to go against the contrariants’. Robert Holland’s switching sides was surely connected to the fact that one of his and Maud la Zouche’s daughters, unnamed, had been taken into captivity in the Tower of London on 26 February 1322, along with Aline de Braose and John Mowbray (b. 1310), wife and son of John, Lord Mowbray (b. 1286): ‘…conducting by the king’s command to the Tower of London Aline, the wife of John de Moubray, and the son of the said John, also the daughter of Robert de Holand…’. [13] According to the very pro-Lancastrian author of the Brut chronicle, when Thomas of Lancaster heard about Robert’s defection, he groaned ‘how might Robert Holonde fynde in his hert me to bitraye, sithens that y have lovede him so miche?’ Thomas supposedly went on to say that he had ‘made [Robert] hie fram lowe’, i.e. high from low. [14]

Despite his taking armed men to the king, on 12 March 1322 Edward had all of Robert’s goods and his lands in Lancashire, Northamptonshire, Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire, Yorkshire, Northumberland, Shropshire and Staffordshire taken into his own hands. Robert also owned ‘houses called the houses of Viene in the city of London’ which were confiscated, and were possibly the same dwellings which in 1325 were called the ‘king’s houses in the parish of St Nicholas in the Shambles of London, sometime of Robert de Holand’. On 23 June 1322, Edward stated that Robert was ‘charged with being an adherent of Thomas, sometime earl of Lancaster’ – Thomas had been executed at his own castle of Pontefract in Yorkshire three months earlier, on 22 March – and had ‘surrendered to the king’s will’. [15] After Robert’s and Thomas of Lancaster’s downfall, one William de Leveseye petitioned the king, stating that the earl and Robert (‘Sire Rob’t de Holande’) had imprisoned him in Pontefract Castle in Yorkshire for over a year ‘because he was in the company of Sir…’, then the petition is sadly torn and the name is missing. [16] 

During the Contrariant rebellion, Robert had sacked several Leicestershire towns including Loughborough which belonged to Hugh Despenser the Elder, in the company of, among others, William Trussell, who in October and November 1326 would pronounce the death sentence on both Hugh Despensers. According to a petition, Robert and his associates chased the ‘poor people’ of Loughborough out of their homes and they did not dare to return for three months. On 1 October 1323, Edward II ordered the sheriff of Leicestershire not to outlaw Robert for his failure to appear in court to answer for the sacking of Loughborough, because he was in prison at the king’s order and was therefore unable to attend. [17] Robert was originally imprisoned in Warwick Castle in 1322, and on 23 July 1326 was moved from there to Northampton Castle. A few months later, early in Edward III’s reign, he was pardoned for escaping from prison in Northampton ‘when confined there by the late king’s order’, though his lands were then still officially in the king’s hands, and on 12 June 1327 his manors in Yorkshire were given into the custody of one Thomas Deyvill. While he was imprisoned in Warwick Castle, shortly after 4 November 1325, royal officials questioned Robert regarding the assignment of dower to his brother William’s widow Joan. [18] The date of Robert’s escape from Northampton Castle was not recorded, though the window of opportunity for him to do so was only quite small given that he was moved there after 23 July 1326 and that Queen Isabella and her invasion force, who freed the imprisoned Contrariants, arrived in England on 24 September 1326.Isabella officially pardoned Robert Holland and restored him to his lands and goods on 24 December 1327, a few days after the deposed Edward II’s funeral. The queen ignored the protestations of her uncle Henry of Lancaster, earl of Lancaster and Leicester, Thomas of Lancaster’s brother and heir, supposedly because she loved Robert ‘wonder miche’. [19] Both Henry himself and a number of his adherents were furious at what they saw as Robert’s betrayal of Earl Thomas, the man who had given him so much. As I’ve pointed out in my previous post about Robert’s murder, linked in the first paragraph above, on 15 October 1328 he was waylaid in a wood in Essex by a group of loyal Lancastrian knights, and beheaded. On 20 October, the lands of ‘Robert de Holand, deceased, tenant in chief’ were taken into the king’s hands. [20]

In my post about Robert Holland and Maud la Zouche’s daughter Isabelle, also linked above, I listed their other children; they had at least four sons and five daughters. Their first son and heir was another Robert (d. 1373), who was said to be sixteen on 1 December 1328 and seventeen or ‘seventeen and more’ in early January 1329, placing his date of birth around 1311/12 (sadly, there is no extant proof of age confirming the exact date). [21] Their second son Thomas, whose name probably indicates that Thomas, earl of Lancaster, was his godfather, raised the Holland family high when he married Edward I’s granddaughter Joan of Kent, later countess of Kent and Lady Wake in her own right (though when Thomas married her, her younger brother John, earl of Kent, was still alive). Thomas Holland died in late December 1360, and a few months later his widow married Edward III’s eldest son the prince of Wales and became the mother of Richard II in January 1367. Thomas Holland’s children were, therefore, the older half-siblings of the king of England. Robert Holland’s grandson John Holland (c. 1353-1400) married Edward III’s granddaughter Elizabeth of Lancaster and was later made earl of Huntingdon and duke of Exeter by Richard II, while John’s older brother Thomas Holland (1350/51-1397), earl of Kent, married the earl of Arundel’s daughter Alice and their children included the duchesses of York and Clarence and the countesses of March and Salisbury. In just a couple of generations, the Holland family rose from comparative obscurity in the north to become one of the foremost families in the land.

Sources

1) J.R. Maddicott, ‘Thomas of Lancaster and Sir Robert Holland: A Study in Noble Patronage’, English Historical Review, 86 (1971), p. 450.

2) Complete Peerage, vol. 6, pp. 528-31; Maddicott, ‘Thomas of Lancaster and Sir Robert Holland’, pp. 450-51; CCR 1318-23, pp. 210, 571; CFR 1319-27, p. 168; Calendar of Inquisitions Miscellaneous 1308-48, no. 735; Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem 1317-27, nos. 497, 567, 707; A History of the County of Lancaster, vol. 3, pp. 394-5; Final Concords for Lancashire, part 2, 1307-1377, no. 127.

3) Maddicott, ‘Thomas of Lancaster and Sir Robert Holland’, p. 450.

4) CCR 1296-1302, p. 401; CPR 1301-7, p. 191.

5) CCR 1296-1302, p. 365.

6) CPR 1313-17, p. 441; Maddicott, ‘Thomas of Lancaster and Sir Robert Holland’, p. 462.

7) CFR 1307-19, pp. 2, 5, 10; CPR 1307-13, pp. 38, 411, 427.

8) Collectanea Topographica et Genealogica, ed. F. Madden, B. Bandinel and J.G. Nichols, vol. 4, p. 67.

9) CPR 1307-13, pp. 411-12, 427; CCR 1307-13, p. 396.

10) Cited in G.O. Sayles, The Functions of the Medieval Parliament of England, vol. 1, p. 302; The National Archives SC 1/45/221.

11) TNA SC 8/234/11687 and 11689.

12) Feet of Fines, Berkshire, CP 25/1/9/38, no. 10, dated 13 May 1306, talks of ‘Robert de Holond and Maud his wife’ when the manor of Denford was given to them with remainder to Maud’s father Alan la Zouche.

13) CCR 1318-23, p. 525; CPR 1321-24, pp. 75, 77.

14) The Brut or the Chronicles of England, ed. F.W.D. Brie, part 1, pp. 216-17.

15) CFR 1319-27, p. 109; CPR 1321-24, pp. 137, 337; CPR 1324-27, p. 158.

16) The National Archives SC 8/58/2872.

17) CPR 1321-24, pp. 167, 309, 387; CCR 1323-27, p. 24.

18) CCR 1323-27, p. 592; CPR 1327-30, p. 17; CFR 1327-27, p. 46; CIPM 1317-27, no. 707.

19) TNA SC 8/57/2806; SC 8/57/2807A and 2807B; Brut, ed. Brie, p. 257.

20) CFR 1327-37, p. 105.

21) CCR 1327-30, pp. 348, 491; CIPM 1327-36, no. 156; CIPM 1347-52, no. 199.

END OF THE ARTICLE

Reacties uitgeschakeld voor [Article from Kathryn Warner, Medieval historian]/Sir Robert Holland (d. 1328)

Opgeslagen onder Divers

Rozenoorlogen tussen Huizen York en Lancaster/Onzininformatie over hoofdrolspeler Richard Neville, 16e Graaf van Warwick, de ”Kingmaker”

Ontdek 02-2019: Game of Thrones

HISTORISCHE ACCURATESSE IS HET EERSTE VEREISTE BIJDE BESCHRIJVING VAN HISTORISCHE GEBEURTENISSEN!DAARAAN ONTBRAK HET IN TIJDSCHRIFT ”ONTDEK” MET ALSTHEMA THE GAME OF THRONES

Image result for edward iv in the white queen

750 × 447Images may be subject to copyright. Find out moreImage credits
AFBEELDING/HISTORISCHE FICTIERICHARD NEVILLE, 16 DE GRAAF VAN WARWICK [ACHTERIN] MET ZIJNNEEF EN KONING, EDWARD IV [VOORAAN], VAN WIE HIJ DE EERSTEJAREN VAN ZIJN KONINGSCHAP DE VOORNAAMSTE ADVISEUR ENBONDGENOOT WAS TOTDAT ZIJ DOOR EEN SAMENSPEL VAN FACTOREN GEBROUILLEERD RAAKTEN EN RICHARD NEVILLE OVERLIEP NAAR HET HUIS VAN LANCASTER, DE AARTSVIJANDEN VAN EDWARD IV[DIE TOT HET HUIS VAN YORK BEHOORDE]DE LANCASTERS EN DE YORKS, BEIDEN BEHOREND TOT HET ENGELSE KONINGSHUIS PLANTAGENET, VOERDEN EEN DERTIG JAAR DURENDE, VERBITTERDE STRIJD OM DE ENGELSE TROON, DE ROZENOORLOGEN OF COUSINS WAR GENOEMD
https://www.astridessed.nl/the-wars-of-the-rosescauses-of-the-wars-of-the-rosesa-travel-to-the-past/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wars_of_the_Roses

747 × 696

AFBEELDING HISTORISCHE FICTIEKONING EDWARD IV 
MET AAN DE ZIJKANT MARGARET BEAUFORT, MOEDERVAN HENRY TUDOR [DE LATERE HENRY VII, DIE NA ZIJN OVERWINNINGIN DE SLAG BIJ BOSWORTH IN 1485, HET OFFICIELE EINDE VAN DE ROZENOORLOGEN, TROUWDE MET ELISABETH OF YORK, EDWARD IV”S OUDSTE DOCHTER, WAARMEE DE HUIZEN VAN LANCASTER EN YORKWAREN VERENIGD.HENRY VI EN ELISABETH OF YORK WAREN DE OUDERS VAN DE LATERE HENRY VIII]NAAST MARGARET BEAUFORT [BEHOREND TOT DE ONWETTIGE TAK VAN HET HUIS VAN LANCASTER, DE BEAUFORTS], HAAR DERDE MANTHOMAS STANLEY, EERSTE GRAAF VAN DERBY
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_Margaret_Beaufort
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Stanley,_1st_Earl_of_Derby

KONING EDWARD IVAFBEELDING HISTORISCHE FICTIE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England
Richard Neville
Warwick as drawn in the Rous Roll. He displays on his shield the arms of Montagu quartering Monthermer. The bull’s head is the crest of the Neville family, the eagle is the crest of Montagu.

RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK, 5TH EARL OF SALISBURY[RICHARD NEVILLE, 16DE GRAAF VAN WARWICK, VIJFDE GRAAF VAN SALISBURY, BIJGENAAMD ”DE KINGMAKER”[AFBEELDING IS HISTORISCHE NON FICTIE]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

Image result for edward iv in the white queen

RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK, WITH ON THE BACKGROUND HIS WIFE AND TWO DAUGHTERSHISTORICAL FICTIONRICHARD NEVILLE, 16 DE GRAAF VAN WARWICK, MET OP DE ACHTERGROND ZIJN VROUW EN DOCHTERS/HISTORISCHE FICTIE

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RICHARD NEVILLE, 16 DE GRAAF VAN WARWICK, DE KINGMAKERHISTORISCHE FICTIE

DE KINGMAKER EN ZIJN DOCHTERS LADY ANNE EN LADYISOBEL [UIT DE SERIE ”THE WHITE QUEEN]


HISTORISCHE FICTIE [AFBEELDING]RICHARD NEVILLE, 16 DE GRAAF VAN WARWICK, AAN DE VOORAVOND VAN DE SLAG BIJ BARNET IN 1471 [DE DEFINITIEVE EINDSTRIJD TUSSEN HEM EN ZIJN NEEF KONING EDWARD IV, VAN WIE HIJ DE VOORMALIGE EN BELANGRIJKSTE ADVISEUR WAS.IN DEZE SLAG SNEUVELDE WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Barnet

Battle of Barnet
Part of the Wars of the Roses

Late 15th-century artistic portrayal of the battle: Edward IV (left), wearing a circlet and mounted on a horse, leads the Yorkist charge and pierces the Earl of Warwick (right) with his lance; in reality, Warwick was not killed by Edward.

VIJFTIENDE EEUWSE VOORSTELLING VAN DE SLAG BIJ BARNET
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Barnet

DE UITEINDELIJKE STRIJD TUSSEN RICHARD NEVILLE EN KONING EDWARD IV, WAS EEN ONDERDEEL VAN DE ROZENOORLOGEN, DE 30 JAAR DURENDE STRIJD OM DE ENGELSE TROON TUSSEN HET HUIS VAN LANCASTER EN HET HUIS VAN YORK, TWEE TAKKEN VAN HET ENGELSE KONINGSHUIS PLANTAGENET [DAT HEERSTE VAN 1154 TOT 1485]DE ROZENOORLOGEN DUURDEN VAN 1455 TOT 1485, WAARMEE EENEINDE KWAM AAN HET HUIS PLANTAGENET

ZIE VOOR ACHTERGRONDINFORMATIE EN OORZAKEN VAN DE ROZENOORLOGEN

ROZENOORLOGEN TUSSEN HUIZEN YORK EN LANCASTER/ONZININFORMATIE OVER HOOFDROLSPELER RICHARD NEVILLE, 16E GRAAF VAN WARWICK ”DE KINGMAKER”

AANDe Redactie van Magazine ”Ontdek”Aflevering:De geschiedenis achter Game of ThronesUitgegeven in 2019
[Wegens drukke werkzaamheden is deze historische kritiek nu, september 2021, aan u verstuurd.Onderstaand magnum opus, want zo mag ik het wel noemen, is door mij aangevangen in september 2019, kort na lezing van uw tijdschriftDuik dus even in uw archieven]
Onderwerp:
Onzininformatie over Richard Neville, de 16de Graaf van Warwick, beter bekend als ”The Kingmaker”

Geachte Redactie,
Alvorens met mijn kritiek los te barsten, een oprecht woord van waardering.Als groot fan van de nu afgelopen grootse serie ”Game of Thrones” heb ik het buitengewoon gewaardeerd, dat u een uitgebreide achtergrondspecial hebt samengesteld, waarin u op een diversiteit aan aspecten over de serie zelf, maarook op een aantal historische perioden, zoals de Vikingen, de eerste christenen, kaliefen in het Midden-Oosten en andere onderwerpen, bent ingegaan.Of het allemaal historisch klopt, wat u schrijft, heb ik nog niet in detail kunnen nagaan, omdat ik nog niet alles heb gelezen [aanstonds zult u begrijpen, waarom ik dit naar voren breng], maar wat ik er wel van gelezen heb, komtals redelijk betrouwbaar en goed doorwrocht over.
Totdat ik bij het gedeelte over de Rozenoorlogen kwam [blz 20 t/m 25 van uw Magazine] en, excusez les mots,op een aantal ronduit onzinopmerkingen van uw kant stuitte.Kijk, DAT u de Rozenoorlogen in uw special hebt betrokken, vind ik interessant en is bijna vanzelfsprekend, omdat The Game of Thrones er in belangrijke mate op is gebaseerd.Of beter uitgedrukt:Schrijver George R.R. Martin heeft zich door die Rozenoorlogen in belangrijke mate laten inspireren, met hoog kwalitatief resultaat!
Maar als u nader op die Rozenoorlogen ingaat, mag verwacht worden, dat u met historisch juiste informatie komt.Anders zeg ik:Schrijf er dan niet over.
Ik ben nog niet in de gelegenheid geweest, alles en detail te lezen [wel enkele passages], wat u over die Rozenoorlogen geschreven hebt, vanwege een druk bezette agenda [misschien komt er nog een aanvullende brief, waarin ik u daarover te grazen neem, als ik dat nodig acht], maar ronduit belachelijk en historisch totale NONSENS [nogmaals, excusez lets mots] was, wat u over een van de hoofdrolspelers, Richard Neville, 16 de Graaf van Warwick, ook wel ”the Kingmaker” genoemd [1], hebt neergeschreven.
UW SCHRIJFSEL OVER RICHARD NEVILLE, DE KINGMAKER
Eerst maar eens uw schrijfsel over Richard Neville, de Kingmaker, wat te lezen is.Ik lees [en u nu met mij] bladzijde 24, links bovenaan:
”VERRADER WILDE ZELF OP DE TROON
De Graaf van Warwick, bijgenaamd ”The Kingmaker” steunde Hendrik VI van het Huis van Lancaster met zijn rijkdom., welsprekendheid en leger.Hij liep over toen zijn neef van het huis York als Eduard IV werd gekroond.Uit machtswellust nam de Graaf van Warwick na een veldslag de koning gevangenen probeerde hij zelf op de Engelse troon te komen.”
Einde uw tekst
Dit, waarde Redactie, is een warwinkel van nonsens, taalverwarring en historische inaccuratesse.
TEN EERSTE:
Richard Neville, de 16e Graaf van Warwick, liep, hoewel aanvankelijk inderdaadeen ”aanhanger” van koning Hendrik VI [van het Huis van Lancaster, klopt], NIETover naar het Huis van York, NADAT zijn neef Eduard, 7e Earl [Graaf] of Marchen zoon van Richard, de hertog van York, als Eduard IV tot koning werd gekroond:Neen, hij [Richard Neville dus] was al jaren in oppositie tegen koning Hendrik VI, waarbij hij samenwerkte met zijn eigen vader  Richard, de vijfde Graaf van Salisbury en de hertog van York, vader van de latere Eduard IV [vanaf hier aangeduid als Edward, het was tenslotte een Engelse koning!]
Bovendien was hij juist de grote voortrekker van de kroning van neef Edward totkoning Edward IV! [2]
Ik kom hierop aanstonds uitgebreider terug.
TEN TWEEDE:
U schrijft
”Uit machtswellust nam de Graaf van Warwick na een veldslag de koning gevangenen probeerde hij zelf op de Engelse troon te komen.”
Dat ..machtswellust” is een zeer kort door de bocht en simplistische verklaringvoor de oorzaken tot het latere conflict tussen koning Edward IV en Richard Neville [van nu af aan aangeduid met de Graaf Warwick of Warwick], waarover aanstonds uitleg volgt.
Het klopt, dat Warwick de koning gevangen nam, maar het is aperte nonsens om neer te pennen, dat Warwick zelf op de Engelse troon wilde komen!Hij had [en dat was erg belangrijk in de Middeleeuwen!] in geen enkel opzicht, niet eens in de verte, recht op die troon, omdat hij niet tot het Huis Plantagenet behoorde en er ook niet zijdelings van afstamde.Kortom:Naar Middeleeuwse mores zou niemand voor hem gevochten hebben en al evenmin was er een schijn van kans, dat hij als koning zou zijn geaccepteerd.Wel probeerde hij, door een slimme wijze van uithuwelijking van zijn tweewettige dochters [hij had ook nog een onwettige dochter, Margaret]. [3],zo dicht bij de troon te komen, dat hij effectief macht kon uitoefenen.
Hierop kom ik terug.
TEN DERDE:Taalverwarring:
U schrijft
”Uit machtswellust nam de Graaf van Warwick na een veldslag de koning gevangenen probeerde hij zelf op de Engelse troon te komen”
Uit bovenstaande zin wordt volstrekt niet duidelijk om welke koning het nu ging en om welke veldslag.U had moeten aangeven, dat het hier ging om koning Edward IV [want zoalsu het hebt  neergeschreven, kon het ook wel om koning Hendrik VI, vanaf nu aangeduid als Henry VI,  gaan] en dat het ging om de volgende veldslag:The  Battle of Edgecote in 1469, waaraan de slimme Warwick overigens niet zelf deelnam….] [4]
Dergelijke duidelijkheid is van groot belang, omdat het anders de toch al ingewikkelde verwikkelingen rond de Rozenoorlogen nog gecompliceerder maakt!

ACHTERGRONDGRAAF WARWICK EN DE ROZENOORLOGEN
Om Graaf Warwick te kunnen begrijpen, moet hij gezien worden tegen het licht van de Rozenoorlogen, waarin hij zo’n belangrijke rol speelde.
Om de Rozenoorlogen te kunnen begrijpen, moet je iets afweten van het toenmalige recht van opvolging op de Engelse troon en de verwikkelingenrond de regering van koning Richard II. [5]Want de Rozenoorlogen wortelen diep en zijn in feite gezaaid door de afzettingvan Richard II.[6]

ROZENOORLOGEN:
We beginnen met de voorgeschiedenis van de Rozenoorlogen, waarover u al geschreven hebt in uw Magazine.Globaal lezend heb ik echter gezien, dat u weliswaar de Rozenoorlogen alssuccessiestrijd aanmerkt, maar niet duidelijk hebt gemaakt, hoe het zat met de exacte claims van de Huizen Lancaster en York [De Tweede en Derde Zoon problematiek, zie onderstaand] en ook niet naar de wortels van het conflict gegaan bent.Daarom krijgt u hier deze informatie gratis en voor niets.Eigenlijk zou u mij hiervoor moeten betalen, HAHAHAHAHA
De Rozenoorlogen, ook wel ”the Cousins War” genoemd [7] [pas een eeuw na het conflict raakte de term ”Rozenoorlogen;’ in zwang] waren een 30 jaar lang durend binnenlands militair conflict [burgeroorlog dus]  tussen tweetakken van het toenmalige Engelse Koningshuis, het Huis Plantagenet[aan de macht vanaf 1154 tot 1485], de Huizen Lancaster en York.Een ”adellijke” burgeroorlog, die hoogst bloedig werd uitgevochten, waarbijde diverse adellijke families partij kozen voor Lancaster en York , weer van kant wisselden, als het hen zo uitkwam en verraad, kuiperijen, intriges en bloedige veldslagen elkaar afwisselden.Voor meer verdieping en informatie [die u ook deels hebt beschreven] zie noot 8
GEZAAID ZAAD
Maar het conflict begon niet bij de eerste militaire veldslag of liever gezegd schermutseling, de Eerste Slag bij St Albans in 1455 [9]Ook niet bij het gerezen en hoogopgelopen conflict tussen de vrouw vande vreedzame en geestelijk labiele koning Henry VI, de strijdbare Margaretha van Anjou [10]en haar gunsteling, Edmund Beaufort, Duke [hertog] of Somerset [behorend tot de Beauforts, de onwettige tak van het Huis Lancaster en neef van de Lancaster koning Henry VI] enerzijds en anderszijdsRichard, de hertog van York [vader van de latere koning Edward IV], ook een [weliswaar verdere] neef van koning Henry VI[11]Neen, het wortelde in de afzetting van koning Richard II door zijn neef, de latere koning Henry IV. [12]

RICHARD II/PRIMOGENITUUR RECHT
Ik heb weleens gekscherend opgemerkt, dat de diepere oorzaken van de Rozenoorlogen scholen in het feit, dat Edward III, de Engelse koning, die deHonderdjarige oorlog tegen Frankrijk startte, ook een soort successiestrijd [13],teveel zoons had.Het uiteindelijke Rozenoorlog conflict woedde dan ook tussen de nakomelingenvan de tweede zoon van Edward III [van wie de hertog van York van moederskant afstamde] en de derde zoon van Edward III [waartoe het Huis van Lancaster behoorde, de wettige tak en de onwettige tak]
Genoemde Koning Richard II was een zoon Edward of Woodstock, beter bekend als ”’De Zwarte Prins” [14] de oudste zoon van Edward III en volgde zijn grootvader Edward III op tienjarige leeftijd op, omdat zijn eigen vader reeds was overleden.En bij de Engelse troonopvolging gold het primogenituur recht [recht van de eerstgeborene] [15]Als de koning overleed, volgde zijn oudste zoon op.Wanneer deze overleed, diens zoon/nageslachtEn pas als zijn dynastie was uitgestorven, kwam de lijn van de tweede zoon aan de beurt,En zo ging het door.Vrouwen hadden in Engeland het recht op troonsopvolging, maar door de uitgesproken patriarchale samenleving in Middeleeuws Engeland probeerde men dat zoveel mogelijk te voorkomen. [16]
Door een aantal oorzaken en hoogoplopende conflicten met zijn edelen liep het helemaal mis met de regering van Richard II en werd deze uiteindelijk door zijn neef Henry Bolingbroke [Bolingbroke, naar het kasteel waar hij geboren was], afgezet [Richard II was kinderloos] [17] en liet Bolingbroke zichzelf kronen tot Henry IV en werd daarmee de  grootvader van Henry VI, die koning was tijdens het begin van de Rozenoorlogen. [18]
EN DAAR WRONG DE SCHOEN!
Niet alleen, dat de wettige koning van Engeland, Richard II, werd afgezet, was van doorslaggevend belang [19] maar ook door wie, namelijk door zijn neef Henry Bolingbroke, zoon van de DERDE zoon vanEdward III, John of Gaunt [Jan van Gent, hij was in Gent geboren gedurende Edward III’s oorlog tegen Frankrijk], hertog van Lancaster [die titel had hij gekregen via zijn eerste vrouw, Blanche van Lancaster, die de dochter was van de hertog van Lancaster] [20]
Maar in feite waren er nog de nakomelingen van de TWEEDE zoon van Edward III, Lionel of Antwerp [Lionel van Antwerpen, in Antwerpen geboren] [21], die dus een sterkere claim hadden op de Engelse troon.Lionel of Antwerp had echter geen zoons gehad, maar een dochter,  Philippa Plantagenet [22] en Philippa’s kleinzoon [zij was al overleden tijdens de afzetting van neef Richard II] Edmund was ten tijde van de afzetting van Richard II een kind van acht jaar en kon dus gemakkelijk opzij geschoven worden. [23]
TWEEDE EN DERDE ZOON VAN EDWARD III
Waar het dus op neer kwam was, dat de nakomelingen van de TWEEDE zoonvan Edward III [Lionel of Antwerp], door die van de DERDE zoon [John of Gaunt dus] opzijgeschoven waren, terwijl in feite die ”tweede zoon” nakomelingen een groter recht hadden op de Engelse troon!En Richard, de hertog van York, die met bondgenoten uiteindelijk de strijd tegenLancaster aan zou gaan, was via zijn moeders kant [Anne Mortimer] [24], een afstammeling van de TWEEDE zoon van Edward III, Lionel of Antwerp![Richard’s moeder, Anne Mortimer, was via de kant van haar vader, Roger Mortimer, de achterkleindochter van Lionel of Antwerp, zie de stamboom onder noot 25]

Om het lekker simpel te houden was Richard, de hertog van York [ik kan er ook niets aan doen, dat ze allemaal onder elkaar trouwden] van vaderskant ook nog eens de kleinzoon van de VIERDE ZOON van Edward III, Edmund of Langley, hertog van York.
Maar zijn recht op de troon, dat superieur was boven Lancaster, kwam van zijn MOEDERSKANT!, afstammende van de TWEEDE zoon! [25]
Dus samengevat:
De hertog van York, vader van de latere koningen Edward IV en Richard III [die de laatste Plantagenet koning was], had een sterkere claim op de troon dan Lancaster, omdat hij van moederskant afstamde van de TWEEDE zoon van Edward III en Lancaster van de DERDE zoon.

LANCASTERS OP DE TROON
Wat het nog simpeler maakte was echter, dat de regerende koningen sinds de afzetting van Richard III dus uit het Huis Lancaster kwamen en al vanaf 1399 koning waren, wat ze een zekere legitimiteit gaf.
Onder koning Henry IV, de feitelijke usurpator [26] van de Engelse troon,brak er nog geen dynastieke twist uit [denk eraan, dat de claimant van deEngelse troon, zoals gezegd, een jongen van 8 jaar was bij afzettingvan Richard II] [27], maar bij zijn zoon Henry V, de grote militaire leider inde nog voortwoedende Honderdjarige Oorlog, gestart door overgrootvader Edward III [28], zag je al het prille begin, belichaamd in het Southampton complot in 1415, waarbij onder andere Richard Conisburgh, de derde Graaf van Cambridge en de vader van Richard, de latere hertog van York met handlangers had geprobeerd, koning Henry V af te zetten ten gunste van zijn [ Conisburgh’s] zwager, Edmund Mortimer, de broer van zijn vrouw Anne Mortimer [Edmund was [de ”achtjarige jongen” met de grotere claim, ten tijde van de afzetting vanRichard II en oom van moederskant van de latere Richard, hertog van York.]Dat hele complot mislukte en de complotteurs werden geexecuteerd. [29]R.I.P. [30]
KONING HENRY VI/HET FEEST KAN BEGINNEN/ROZENOORLOGEN
Maar het werd pas echt hommeles onder koning Henry VI, kleinzoon van usurpator koning Henry IV [onze ”Bolingbroke]Belangrijke oorzaak was de ontevredenheid, ontstaan door hetvoor Engeland rampzalige verloop van de Honderdjarige Oorlog, het feit,dat de vreedzame Henry VI het tegenovergestelde was van een flinke militaire leider EN vooral het feit, dat de arme man ernstige psychische problemen had, waardoor ambitieuze mannen probeerden zichzelf en hun familie naar voren te schuiven en grip op de macht te krijgen.Waardoor de Engelse troon een speelbal werd in handen van mannen met echte en vermeende claims.
Tegen deze achtergrond laaide de strijd op tussen de Huizen Lancaster en York,aanvankelijk nog om de controle over de koning, maar gaandeweg om de troomzelf.
Grote tegenstanders waren bij het uitbreken van de strijd enerzijds Richard, derde hertog van York, als afstammeling van de TWEEDE zoon van Edward III[Lionel of Antwerp] [31] de man met de sterkste claim op de troon.Anderszijds Edmund Beaufort, de tweede hertog van Somerset, behorend tot de onwettige tak van het Huis van Lancaster [32], die namens koning Henry VI optrad en gunsteling was van diens strijdbare vrouw, Margaret of Anjou.[33]Gaandeweg echter werd het steeds openlijker een strijd tussen York en zijn bondgenoten enerzijds en Margaretha van Anjou, de vrouw van de koning [de koning kon door zijn psychische problemen vaak niet effectief regeren] en haar bondgenoten anderszijds, zeker na cde geboorte van haar en de koning’s zoon in 1453.
Het verbale en politieke steekspel tussen de heren [York en Somerset], die beurtelings ”protectors of the realm” [een soort regenten, vervangers van de koning] waren in de tijd, dat koning Henry VI niet kon regeren [staat voor: geestelijke inzinking] [34] duurde voort tot de eerste militaire confrontatie in de Rozenoorlogen, de Eerste Slag bij St Albans [35], waarin Beaufort, de tweede hertog van Somerset, sneuvelde [36]
Daarna ging het van Kwaad tot Erger [lees noot 37] , ondanks EEN poging om de partijen te verzoenen, de door de vreedzame koning Henry VI goedbedoelde maar te laat gekomen geinstigeerde ”Loveday]] [door u genoemd in uw artikel: complimenten, niet veel mensen kennen deze gebeurtenis!] [38], maar daarna ging het al snel helemaal mis!En vanaf het sluiten van het Act of Accord [tussen York en koning Henry VI] [39] al snel gevolgd door de Slag bij Wakefield, waarin de hertog van York omkwam [40], ging het er niet meer om, wie koning Henry VI controleerde, maar een keihard gevecht om de troon.GAME OF THRONES! [41]

When you play the game of thrones, you win or you die.There is no middle ground….” [42]Ja, DAT bewezen die Rozenoorlogen wel!

Het tijdperk brak aan  van de door u ook genoemde koning Edward IV, de Rozenoorlogkoning [43], die een redelijk stabiel bewind gevoerd heeft, slechts onderbroken door de Warwick opstand [44], waarover straks meer.Edward IV werd, niet geheel volgens wet en recht, opgevolgd door zijn broer Richard [Richard III]. [45]En tijdens zijn regering werden de Rozenoorlogen definitief beslecht in de Slag bij Bosworth in 1485 [46] tussen Richard III en Henry Tudor [de latere koning Hendrik VII][47], zoon van Margaret Beaufort [48] [uit het Huis van Beaufort en achterkleindochter van John of Gaunt en Katherine Swynford en aldus behorende tot de onwettige tak van het Huis Lancaster, die later was gewettigd].Bosworth werd gewonnen door Henry Tudor, waarbij niet alleen een definitief einde kwam aan de Rozenoorlogen, maar ook aan het Huis Plantagenet. [49]en in feite aan de Engelse Middeleeuwen.Richard III was de laatste koning uit het Huis Plantagenet.Het tijdperk van de Tudors [50] brak aan.
Henry Tudor, die zichzelf in feite koning maakte ”by right of conquest”  [51] was, bezegelde zijn legitimiteit als kining door te trouwen met Elisabeth of York, oudste dochter van koning Edward IV. [52]Slimme politieke zet:Want feite had Elisabeth of York [zoals zij werd genoemd en ook heette] natuurlijk koningin moeten worden, als dochter van Edward IV,die niet alleen koning geweest was, maar via zijn vader de hertog van York die superieure claim op de troon had geerfd, boven Lancaster en zeker boven de Beauforts, die onwettige [en later gewettigde tak van het Huis van Lancaster [53] [superieure York claim, weet u nog: via de TWEEDE zoonvan Edward III, Lionel of Antwerp….] [54]
Maar ja, Elisabeth of York was geen strijdbare Margaret of Anjou [55], anders had ze wel gevochten voor haar recht op de troon!Nu werd zij in plaats van Queen by right [heersend monarch], Queen consort [echtgenote van de ko ning][56]
Militaire overwinningen, he….Overigens waren Henry Tudor [Henry VII] en Elisabeth of York de ouders vande latere Henry VIII en dus de grootouders van koningin Elisabeth I.EN de voorouders van alle latere Engelse koningen!
Nou Redactie, was dat een mooi college over de Rozenoorlogen of niet somsHAHAHAHAHA!
NU naar Graaf Warwick, waar het om was begonnen en ZIJN plaats in die Rozenoorlogen.

RICHARD NEVILLE, 16DE GRAAF VAN WARWICK/DE KINGMAKER/THE STORY
De geschiedenis van de Kingmaker is fascinerend en door uw redactie deelsverkeerd verteld en neergeschreven.Dat heb ik hierboven al gecorrigeerd:
Nu een uitgebreider curriculum vitae, om een modern woord te gebruiken:Geboren als Richard Neville in 1428, was hij de zoon van Richard Neville,[door zijn huwelijk, via het recht van zijn vrouw]  5e Graaf van Salisbury [57] en Alice Montegu, 5e Gravin van Salisbury [Salisbury was in feite haar bezit en haar wettelijke titel] [58]Richard Neville stamde uit het Geslacht Neville, een oud-adellijke geslacht [teruggaand van nog voor Willem de Veroveraar] [59], dat als bondgenoten vanRichard, hertog van York, een doorslaggevende rol zou spelen in de Rozenoorlogen. [60]
De Nevilles waren ook verwant aan de hertog van York!Want de tante van Richard Neville [de zuster van zijn vader] Cecily Neville, wasgetrouwd met de hertog van York. [61]Dus simpeler gezegd:
Richard Neville, onze latere ”Kingmaker” was de volle neef van de latere koning Edward IV [zoon dus van de hertog van York en Lady Cecily Neville]
De titel ”Graaf van Warwick” verwierf Richard Neville door zijn huwelijk metLady Anne Beauchamp, de dochter van de dertiende Graaf van Warwick.Door een aantal sterfgevallen binnen de Familie Warwick, werd Richard Neville[jure uxoris: bij het recht van zijn vrouw] [62], de 16e Graaf van Warwick.Genoeg over de ingewikkelde erfelijkheidskwesties binnen de Middeleeuwse Engelse adel.Nu waar het om begonnen is:De Rozenoorlogen.
DIE ROZENOORLOGEN EN DE ROL VAN GRAAF WARWICK, IN VOGELVLUCHT
De wortels van de Rozenoorlogen, dat gewapende conflict tussen de HuizenLancaster en York, dat broeder tegen broeder en neef tegen neef opzette [63] en de mannelijke lijn van zowel het Huis van Lancaster als York zou uitroeien [64], alsmede een groot deel van de Middeleeuwse Engelse adel, lagen, zoals ik al schreef, in het verleden en wel bij de afzetting van Richard II door zijn neef, Henry of Bolingbroke [de latere Henry IV] [zie uitgebreid relaas, hierboven] En zie noot 65
Maar hoewel het zaad reeds in 1399 [bij de afzetting van Richard II dus] was gezaaid, brak het feitelijke conflict uit tijdens de regering van Henry VI, kleinzoon van Henry IV, hoewel het al voorbodes had in the Southampton plot [66],waarbij de vader van de hertog van York, Richard Conisburgh [derde Graaf van Richmond] had geprobeerd [zonder enig succes!], Henry V af te zetten ten gunste van zijn [Richard of Conisburgh’s] zwager, Edmund Mortimer, 5e Graaf van March en feitelijke troonopvolger van Richard II, die in 1399 aan de kant was geschoven door de neef van zijn [Edmund’s] moeder, Henry of Bolingbroke [latere Henry IV] [67]

GOEDHet gewapende conflict brak dus uit onder de regering van Henry VI, in 1455,56 jaar na de afzetting van Richard II.
Uiteraard gingen er groeiende spanningen aan vooraf, met name tussenEdward IV’s vader Richard, de [derde, zal ik niet steeds meer vermelden] hertog van York, die in feite de superieure rechten op de troon had [als neef van Edmund Mortimer en via moederszijde afstammeling van de TWEEDE zoon van Edward III, Lionel of Antwerp] [68], met als grote tegenspeler Edmund Beaufort [behorend dus tot de onwettige tak van het Huis van Lancaster], tweede hertog van Somerset. [69]Tussen die twee, van wie Edmund Beaufort een grote gunsteling was van de strijdbare Margaretha van Anjou, vrouw van Henry VI, barstte vanaf eind veertiger jaren tot 1455 [toen Somerset sneuvelde in de Eerste Slag bij St Albans] [70] een verbitterde machtsstrijd uit, waarbij op een zeker moment edelen partij gingen kiezen.
Grote spelers waren dus de hertog van York en de hertog van Somerset, waarbij de sympathie van de Kroon [in feite Margaretha van Anjou] duidelijk aan de kant van Somerset lag en er een steeds grotere vijandschap ontstond tussen Margaretha van Anjou en de hertog van York
Een machtsstrijd tussen twee machtige mannen dus, die in feite escaleerde door het feit, dat Henry VI een  vrome en zachtmoedige man,[In de Middeleeuwen was zachtmoedigheid niet bepaald handig voor een koning, die een keihard leider en een bekwaam militair moest zijn, wilde hij zijn macht handhaven], geen spoor van overwicht had.Rampzalig was bovendien, dat de man heftige psychische problemen had [71], waardoor hij hele periodes niet kon regeren en er een soort Regentschap[Protectoraat] werd ingesteld, beurtelings ingevuld door Somerset en York. [72]
Wat Henry VI miste aan vastberadenheid en overwicht, was aanwezig in Margaretha van Anjou, maar in die tijd was er voor een vrouw geen directe regeermacht weggelegd [wat ze wel graag wilde] [73], wat haar echter niet belette, het vuurtje flink op te stoken [zo zat zij nu eenmaal in elkaar], waardoor het conflict alleen maar excaleerde.
Naast de zwakke regering van de onevenwichtige Henry VI en de daaruitvolgende spanningen tussen de adel, speelde het slechte verloopvan de Honderdjarige Oorlog en sociale onrust ook een belangrijke rol. [74]
WHERE THE EARL OF WARWICK IS COMING IN
Wat opvalt aan de Rozenoorlogen was, dat de keuze, die edellieden maakten[voor Lancaster, dus trouw aan koning Henry VI] of voor York [een bondgenoot van de hertog van York [die steeds openlijker tegenover de koning kwam te staan, hoewel hij zijn trouw aan de koning bleef volhouden] [75], niet zozeer gebaseerd was op principes [het al dan niet erkennen van de betere claim op de troon, die de hertog van York inderdaad had] [76] en zelfs niet op het feit, dat ”s konings positie steeds onhoudbaarder werd door zijn psychische problemen [77], maar door hetzij eigen persoonlijke belangen, hetzij conflicten met andere edellieden.Het is niet teveel gezegd, dat heel veel edellieden tot begin vijftiger jaren nog de kat uit de boom keken.Zo ook Warwick, die het aanvankelijke protest en verzet in 1452, van zijn aangetrouwde oom, de hertog van York [de man van Warwick’s tante van vaderszijde, Cecily Neville] niet steunde, zoals vrijwel alle edelen, die trouw bleven aan Henry VI. [78]Maar dat zou om diverse redenen veranderen, waardoor Warwick EN zijn vader, ook een Richard Neville, de 5de Graaf van Salisbury, de trouwste bondgenoten werden van de hertog van York.Drie Richards, door historische fictie-schrijver Con Iggulden in zijn serie over de Rozenoorlogenaangeduid [hij refereerde aan de vijftiger jaren van die vijftiende eeuw] metde aparte benaming ”Trinity” in het Nederlands [correcter] vertaald als ”Het Drievoudig Verbond” [79]Maar goed:Wat Warwick triggerde om gaandeweg te belanden in het kamp van zijn aangetrouwde oom Richard, de hertog van York, was zijn conflict met zijn zwager, de 2de hertog van Somerset.[Somerset was getrouwd met de halfzuster van Warwick’s vrouw Anne Beauchamp.Zij heette Eleanor Beauchamp] [80]JA, dezelfde Somerset, die de aartsvijand/rivaal was van de hertog van York en een diehard gunsteling van Margaretha van Anjou, de vrouw van koning Henry VI.Dat Warwick/Somerset conflict ging, zoals zo vaak bij de Middeleeuwse adel, over land en dreef Warwick in de armen van de hertog van York. [81]Hierdoor, maar ook naarmate het conflict tussen de hertog van York en Somerset [lees ook de koning en vooral zijn vrouw Margaretha van Anjou] verder opliep en York [tijdelijk] Protector of the Realm [een soort regent] werd[de koning was weer eens uitgeschakeld], kwam ook de vader van Warwick [dus de broer van York’s vrouw Cecily Neville] steeds meer in het kamp van York [82] en vormden deze drie Richards, Richard, de hertog van York, Richard Neville, de vijfde Graaf van Salisbury en diens zoon, Richard Neville, de 16e Graaf van Warwick, een geducht bondgenootschap in de vijftiger jaren van de vijftiende eeuw!Daarnaast woedde ook nog een vernietigend conflict tussen de Huizen Neville[met aan het hoofd Warwick’s vader] en Henry Percy, 2de Graaf van Northumberland, over land, wat de geschiedenis in zou gaan als de Percy-Neville feud [de Percy Neville vete] [83]En de Percy’s waren felle verdedigers van de Kroon, dus langs deze lijnen ontvouwde het conflict zich ook nog eens.En alles liep zo hoog en fel op, dat in de eerste Rozenoorlog veldslag, de Eerste Slag om St Albans, Warwick’s vader [en zijn zoon en York] tegenover Henry Percy en de hertog van Somerset zouden komen te staan, die beiden sneuvelden, waardoor het zaad van verbittering en haat [hun zoons wilden wraak] verder werd gezaaid. [84][Extra pijnlijk, omdat die Henry Percy weer getrouwd was met een zuster van Warwick’s vader, Lady Eleanor, waardoor ook de neven tegenover elkaar kwamen te staan!]”[85]
Maar samengevatHet voor Engeland rampzalige verloop van de Honderdjarige oorlog, de mentale instabiliteit van de koning, dat Percy Neville conflict en allerlei andere conflicten tussen edelen, triggerden die Rozenoorlogen. [86]En in deze atmosfeer maakte een man als Warwick zijn carriere!

WARWICK EN KONING EDWARD IVTOEN NOG THICK AS BROTHERS………….
Wat in de vijftiger jaren begon als een schermutseling tussen de aanhangers van de hertog van York [met als bondgenoten Warwick en zijn vader ook een Richard Neville, weet u nog?] enerzijds en de getrouwen van koning Henry VI anderszijds [87], De zogenaamde Eerste Slag bij St Albans [88], werd gaandeweg steeds grimmiger, wat uiteindelijk uitmondde in een verbitterde burgeroorlog en een regelrechte strijd om de troon.Zie voor dat verloop noot 89, waarin de strijdbare vrouw, Margaretha van Anjou, steeds meer de leider van de Lancaster Partij werd.Ook wel begrijpelijk:Ze verdedigde niet alleen haar incapabele echtgenoot, maar ook de rechten van haar in 1453 geboren zoon, de toenmalige Prince of Wales, Edward of Westminster [90]
Om een lang en bitter verhaal kort te maken:Na de nederlaag in de Slag bij Ludlow Bridge in 1459 waren de drie Richards gedwongen, in ballingschap te gaan, York en zijn tweede zoon Edmund, Earl of Rutland, naar Ierland, Warwick, zijn vader en York’s oudste zoon Edward, Earl of March [later Edward IV] naar Calais [91], ze kwamen terug, overwonnen aanvankelijk [92], waarna York koning Henry het recht van troonsopvolging afdwong [93], maar leden een bittere nederlaag in Wakefield, waarbij de hertog van York sneuvelde [of na afloop van de strijd gedood], zijn tweede zoon Edmund werd geexecuteerd, Warwick’s vader werd geexecuteerd en Warwick’s broer Sir Thomas Neville, sneuvelde. [94]Een militaire ramp dus, maar ook een persoonlijke tragedie,voor Warwick en Edward [latere Edward IV], die op dat moment pas 18 jaar oud was.Want beiden waren hun vader en een broer kwijt.
Natuurlijk triggerde deze rampzalige verliezen deze twee heren, zowel om wraak te willen nemen als wel om nu echt voor de troon te gaan, wat in 1461 lukte, toen Edward, mede door inspanning van Warwick, tot koning werd gekroond na een aantal klinkende York overwinningen! [95]De nieuwe, jongere generatie York Leiders was dus aanmerkelijk harder en ging verder.Voor vader York was de troonsopvolging van Henry VI genoeg [96], de zoon echter ging direct voor de hoofdprijs.DE TROON!

EDWARD EN WARWICKPARADISE?OR TROUBLE IN PARADISE…..THE BEGINNING:
In het begin van de heerschappij van Edward IV leek alles nog zo goed te gaan.Warwick was king’s best ally and trusted advisor[97], bekwaam als hij was op diplomatiek gebied.Vooral op de Fransen maakte hij indruk.Zo merkte de Gouverneur van Abbeville op in een brief aan de Franse koningLouis XI [Lodewijk XI]:[vertaald naar het Engels]””They have but two rulers, M. de Warwick and another whose name I have forgotten.” [98]
Naar mijn mening vulden Warwick en zijn koning Edward IV elkaar perfect aan.Warwick had het politieke inzicht en hoewel een redelijk goed militair, was het Edward IV, die een brilliant legeraanvoerder was en zelden een veldslag  verloor.Zelfs op zijn achttiende had hij in de slag bij St Mortimers Cross in 1461, kort na de dood van zijn vader en broer [99] Jasper Tudor [oom van de latere koning Henry VII] , halfbroer [van moederskant] van koning Henry VI, verslagen en een zeer ervaren legeraanvoerder. [100]
Zelf schrijf ik in mijn artikel ”The Causes of the wars of the Roses/A travel to the Past:”I myself hold the opinion, that when King Edward would have concentratedon the military (he was an extremely capable military commander) and the Earl of Warwick on ruling and diplomacy, they whould have been made a deadly double and perhapsruled England happily together, if at least Edward had not fallen ill and diedso untimely.” [101]
Het was een Golden Couple:
Edward IV, jong en een van de mooiste mannen van zijn tijd, een brilliant legeraanvoerder en Warwick, charmant, geslepen, zeer ervaren, een goed militair maar een nog veel betere diplomaat.
Helaas…..het mocht niet duren….
Het is nu eenmaal zo
”When you play the Game of Thrones, you win or you die.There is no middleground” [102]
Maar naast die machtsstrijd, die er ook tussen hen was, was het breekpunt het Geheime Huwelijk, dat Edward IV sloot met Elizabeth Woodville, weduwe van nota bene een Lancaster supporter, de edelman John Grey, die in de Tweede Slag om St Albans was gesneuveld [1461, uitgevochten tussen Warwick en Margaretha van Anjou/supporters, beslissende Lancaster overwinning] [103]Warwick was aan het onderhandelen over een politiek zeer voordelig huwelijk met de Franse prinses Bona, schoonzuster van de Franse koning Louis XI, toen bleek, dat de koning [zonder Warwick in kennis te stellen, al met Elizabeth Woodville getrouwd was. [104]Niet alleen een klap voor Warwick’s ego, die in het buitenland voor gek stond, de dame was ook nog eens weduwe van een man, die supporter geweest was van de Lancaster erfvijand!En tot overmaat van ramp begon de koning de aanzienlijke familie van zijn koningin, de Wooodvilles, te bevoordelen en aanzienlijke posities te geven, waardoor Warwick aan macht inboette! [105]Van Warwick’s kant dus wel begrijpelijk, dat zijn wrok gevoed werd en daarmee zijn zijn vervolgstappen beter te verklaren.Wat uw opmerking:”Uit machtswellust nam de Graaf van Warwick na een veldslag de koning gevangenen probeerde hij zelf op de Engelse troon te komen.’ [106], dus wel zeer simplistisch maakt!
HEBT U ZOVER NOG MEEGELEZEN?/MOOI!/DAN STAAT U ECHT OPEN VOOR KRITIEK EN BENT U BEREID, BIJ TE LEREN:
VERVOLG:
EDWARD AND WARWICKDE BREUK
Ondanks de strubbelingen over het Geheime Huwelijk van de koningen de toenemende invloed van de Woodvilles [de familie van Edward IV’s koningin], hield, om het even populair te zeggen, Edward IV nog van Warwick.Zo werd zijn broer, George Neville, tot Aartsbisschop van York benoemd en in juli 1465, toen de tragische [voormalige] koning Henry VI gevangen genomen werd, begeleidde Warwick hem naar gevangenschap in The Tower. [107]

MAAR TOEN KWAM DE KLAPPER [OF KLAPPERS], DIE WARWICK EN EDWARD IV UIT ELKAAR DREEF!
Terwijl Warwick de Koninklijke Opdracht kreeg, zowel met de Fransen en de Boergondiers [elkaars vijanden, de Bourgondiers waren de bondgenoten van de Engelsen geweest gedurende de Honderdjarige Oorlog] [108] te onderhandelen over een huwelijk van de zuster van de koning [Margaret] met een van de twee partijen en Warwick langzamerhand de aandacht verschoof naar de Fransen, bij wie hij een uitstekende reputatie genoot [109], sloot Edward IV een geheim verdrag met de Bourgondiers [uiteindelijk werd Margaret uitgehuwelijkt aan de Boergondische Graaf Karel de Stoute] [110], waardoor Warwick weer voor Gek stond!Zaken liepen nog meer uit de hand, omdat de schoonvader van de koning, Richard Woodville, Graaf Rivers, fel voor de verbintenis met de Boergondiers was. [111]Maar los daarvan:Het WAS verstandige en wijze politiek van Warwick, de voorkeur te geven aan een Franse alliantie:Frankrijk was een machtige monarchie en de voormalige tegenstander in de door Engeland begonnen Honderdjarige Oorlog [112] en als bondgenoot veel waardevoller dan het Graafschap Boergondie!
MAAR ER GEBEURDE MEER TUSSEN WARWICK EN EDWARD IV
Want tot overmaat van ramp weigerde Edward IV een huwelijk goed te keuren tussen Warwick’s oudste dochter en zijn [Edward IV’s] broer George, de hertog van Clarence. [113]Waarmee de maat voor Warwick vol was en duidelijk werd, dat Graaf Rivers [de schoonvader van Edward IV] de machtsstrijd had gewonnen.Niet alleen een klap voor Warwick persoonljk, maar ook voor de gehele Familie Neville, waarvan Warwick het Hoofd was. [114]
Om een lang Verhaal kort te maken:
Warwick stoorde zich niet aan het verbod van de koning, maar huwelijkte zijn dochter Isabel vrolijk uit aan ’s Konings broer George, hertog van Clarence, die ook al zo zijn eigen ambities had en graag met Warwick opliep, ook al omdat hij de illusie had [en misschien was dat ook Warwick’s intentie], dat Warwick Edward IV door hem zou willen vervangen als koning [115] [en vergeet ook niet, dat Warwick, na de koning, de rijkste man in Engeland was en dat een huwelijk met zijn dochter een zeer lucratieve zaak was. [116]Het Paar trouwde in 1469 in Calais, met de zegen van de Aartsbisschop van York, George Neville, broer van Warwick. [117]
Daarna escaleerde de Zaak snel en een wervelwind aan gebeurtenissen volgde
Warwick orchestreerde een opstand in het Noorden, waarmee hij schijnbaar niets te maken had [slim!], onder leiding van een mysterieuze ”Robin van Redesdale” [118], keerde  [in 1469] met schoonzoon George PLantagenet terug naar Engeland, ’s koning’s troepen werden door Robin of Redesdale verslagen in de slag bij Edgecote [119], waarna de vader en broer van deKoningin gevangengenomen werden en geexecuteerd [120]
Drama ging door:Later werd de koning zelf gevangengezet, weer vrijgelaten door Warwick [121], een tijd leek dat dan weer redelijk te gaan tussen de koning en Warwick [de koning had Warwick en George hun verraad vergeven] [122], totdat de bom weer barstte, Warwick en George opnieuw in opstand kwamen en de koning gedwongen was, Engeland te verlaten en met een kleine groep getrouwen, waaronder zijn toen zeer loyale broer Richard. hertog van Gloucester en zijn boezemvriend, Lord Hastings [123].De koning ging in ballingschap  naar Bourgondie, waar zijn zuster Margaret inmiddels met Graaf van Bourgondie Karel de Stoute getrouwd was. [124]
Warwick sloot intussen een bondgenootschap met Margaretha van Anjou en plaatste de geestelijk instabiele koning Henry VI opnieuw op de troon [maar Warwick regeerde uiteraard] [125]Hiermee was Warwick definitief naar de kant van Lancaster overgelopen,iets wat enkele jaren daarvoor nog ondenkbaar was [zijn eigen vader en broer waren omgekomen tijdens de strijd in 1461] [126]Zijn bondgenootschap met Margaretha van Anjou werd bezegeld [voor wat, hoort wat!] door het huwelijk tussen Warwick’s jongste dochter Anne Neville en Margaretha’s en Henry VI’s zoon, Edward of Westminster, de Lancaster Prince of Wales. [127]

Het Einde verliep tragisch, want Warwick’s periode van macht was een korte vreugde.Edward IV [wat was ook anders te verwachten] keerde naar Engeland terug met een leger [geholpen door zijn zwager Graag Karel de Stoute van Bourgondie] en versloeg Warwick in de slag bij Barnet [128], waarbij Warwick en zijn broer John, de Eerste Markies van Montagu, sneuvelden.Warwick’s schoonzoon George Plantagenet had zich inmiddels weer verzoend met broer Edward, waarschijnlijk gepiqueerd omdat Warwick zijnkaarten niet meer op hem als koning zette. [129]

Zie voor een zeer interessant overzicht van Warwick’s carriere de documentaire van de Britse historicus Dan Jones [130]
Met de dood van Warwick kwam feitelijk een einde aan de machtspositie van de Familie Neville.Erbij gezegd moet nog worden, dat zij tot een van de weinige adellijke Families behoorden, die aan de kant van het Huis van York stonden.De meeste adelsfamilies waren Lancaster, en dus koning Henry VI, trouw gebleven. [131]Want de monarchie was nog praktisch sacraal en het afzetten van een koning, ook al was dat al wel gebeurd met Edward II [hoewel ten gunste van zijn eigen zoon] en Richard II [usurpatie door zijn neef Henry Bolingbroke, waarmee die het zaad van die ellende van de Rozenoorlogen werd gezaaid] [132], het afzetten van een koning dus, was nog net geen heiligschennis.

Margaretha van Anjou, die ook met een troepenmacht naar Engeland was gezeild, maar helaas voor de Lancaster zaak te laat in Engeland aankwam om samen met Warwick Edward IV in een militaire tangpositie te nemen, werd in mei 1471 door Edward IV verslagen in de slag bij Tewkesbury, waarbij de kans op een Lancaster heerschappij verkeken was. [133]Tijdens het leven van Edward IV, althans.
Na de dood van Edward IV bemachtigde zijn broer Richard, de hertog vanGloucester, de troon, als Richard III [Zie noot 45]] en werd hij, na twee jaar koningschap, zoals ikal in bovenstaande had vermeld, in de slagbij Bosworth verslagen door Henry Tudor, de latere Hendrik VII,  zoon van Margaret Beaufort [uit het Huis van Beaufort en achterkleindochter van John of Gaunt en Katherine Swynford en aldus behorende tot de onwettige tak van het Huis Lancaster, die later was gewettigd].Hiermee kwam niet alleen definitief een einde aan de Rozenoorlogen, maar ookaan het Huis Plantagenet.Het tijdperk van de Tudors brak aan. [Zie noten 46 t/m 50]
EPILOOG
Aanleiding tot mijn schrijven, een Opus, dat ik in september 2019 ben begonnen en nu heb voltooid, is uw ongenuanceerde uitspraakover een van de belangrijkste Spelers tijdens de Rozenoorlogen, Richard Neville,16e Graaf van WarwickNogmaals herhaald mijn reden tot kritiek:Op bladzijde 24 van uw uitgave ”De geschiedenis achter de Game of Thrones”,schreef u dus:”VERRADER WILDE ZELF OP DE TROON
De Graaf van Warwick, bijgenaamd ”The Kingmaker” steunde Hendrik VI van het Huis van Lancaster met zijn rijkdom., welsprekendheid en leger.Hij liep over toen zijn neef van het huis York als Eduard IV werd gekroond.Uit machtswellust nam de Graaf van Warwick na een veldslag de koning gevangenen probeerde hij zelf op de Engelse troon te komen.”
Einde uw tekst
In bovenstaande heb ik u niet alleen uitgelegd, waarom deze Passage uituw tijdschrift kort door de bocht, verward en historisch onjuist is [ik verwijsnaar het begin van mijn schrijven], ook heb ik u meegenomen opeen Reis door de Tijd, met uitgebreide informatie over de achtergrondenvan de Rozenoorlogen, tegen welks licht de carriere van Richard Neville,bijgenaamd ”The Kingmaker” gezien moet worden.
Mensen zijn complexe wezens en zelden is iemand alleen ”de verrader” en handelt/zij hij alleen ”uit machtswellust”Handelingen van mensen, zeker uit voorbije tijden, die qua wereldbeelden opvattingen ver afstaan van de onze, moeten bekeken worden vanuitde complexiteit, die zij verdienen.
Ik hoop, dat ik met dit commentaar ertoe heb bijgedragen, dat u inhet vervolg complexe historische gebeurtenissen en ontwikkelingenniet zult afdoen met goedkope one liners, maar recht doetaan de tijd, waarin een en ander dient te worden geplaatst en deafwegingen die iemand tot zijn gedrag hebben bewogen, ook meeweegt.
Alleen dan doet u recht aan de historische werkelijkheid, voor zover wij die kennen.
Een gecompliceerd en veelzijdig carrierepoliticus [om maar eenmodern woord te gebruiken] als de Graaf van Warwick verdient beter.
Vriendelijke groeten
Astrid EssedAmsterdam 
NOTEN
Voor uw gemak heb ik de bijbehorende noten in links ondergebrachtZie voor noten 1 t/m 133
LINKS

OF

https://www.dewereldmorgen.be/community/noten-1-t-m-133-bij-brief-aan-historisch-tijdschrift-ontdek-over-verkeerde-historische-informatie-over-de-rozenoorlogen/

FYSIEKE NOTEN

[1]

Richard Neville, de 16de Graaf van Warwick, werd bekend als ”the Kingmaker”omdat hij twee koningen in het zadel heeft geholpen, eerst zijn neef Edward, de 7de Earl [Graaf] of March en zoon van Richard, hertog van York.Edward werd na een aantal overwinningen op de Lancasters, in 1461,tot koning gekroond, waarbij Warwick een beslissende rol speelde.Nadat er een breuk was ontstaan met zijn neef, koning Edward IV, trachtte Warwick George Plantagenet, de broer van Edward IV, die inmiddels metWarwick’s dochter getrouwd was [tegen de wil van Edward IV], op de troon te brengen.Toen dat mislukte, liep Warwick over naar de kant van Lancaster, zette de in 1461 afgezette koning Hendrik VI weer op de troon en bracht een huwelijktot stand tussen zijn jongste dochter Anne Neville en de zoon van koning Hendrik VI en zijn strijdbare vrouw, Margaretha van Anjou, Edward van Westminster.Tenslotte sneuvelde Warwick in de slag bij Barnet, de eindstrijd tegen zijnneef, koning Edward IV [die vanuit ballingschap in Bourgondie met een leger naar Engeland was teruggekeerd.
ZIE OP WIKIPEDIA:
”After a failed plot to crown Edward’s brother, George, Duke of Clarence, Warwick instead restored Henry VI to the throne.”
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

WIKIPEDIAEDWARD IV OF ENGLAND
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England

LUMINARIUMRICHARD NEVILLE, EARL OF WARWICK
http://www.luminarium.org/encyclopedia/warwick.htm

[2]

YOUTUBE.COMBRITAIN’S BLOODY CROWNTHE KINGMAKER MUST DIE[WARS OF THE ROSES DOCUMENTARY]

[3]
NEVILL FEASTA GLIMPSE AT WARWICK’S NATURAL DAUGHTER MARGARET
https://nevillfeast.wordpress.com/2011/08/24/a-glimpse-at-warwicks-natural-daughter-margaret/

ONCE UPON A TIME IN HISTORYMARGARET ALMOST-NEVILLE
http://cupboardworld.blogspot.com/2014/08/margaret-almost-neville.html

[4]

WIKIPEDIABATTLE OF EDGECOTE MOOR
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Edgecote_Moor

LUMINARIUMTHE BATTLE OF EDGECOTE
http://www.luminarium.org/encyclopedia/edgecote.htm

[5]

WIKIPEDIA RICHARD II OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_of_England

[6]

YOUTUBE.COMTHE CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES

”Henry was by now fully determined to take the throne, but presenting a rationale for this action proved a dilemma.[2] It was argued that Richard, through his tyranny and misgovernment, had rendered himself unworthy of being king.[98] However, Henry was not next in line to the throne; the heir presumptive was Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, great-grandson of Edward III’s second surviving son, Lionel. Bolingbroke’s father, John of Gaunt, was Edward’s third son to survive to adulthood”
WIKIPEDIARICHARD II OF ENGLAND/DOWNFALL
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_of_England#Downfall

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIA RICHARD II OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_of_England

[7]

Door tijdgenoten werd het conflict ”Cousins war” genoemd, omdat de Huizen Lancaster en York aan elkaar verwant waren, beiden behorend tot het Huis Plantagenet, en zij cousins [neven, vaak verre neven] van elkaar waren.De term ”Rozenoorlogen”, verwijzend naar de symbolen de Witte Roos [Huis van York] en de Rode Roos [Huis van Lancaster] is pas een eeuw later in zwang gekomen, met name door Shakespeare’s koningsdrama ”Henry VI, bestaande uit drie delenIn deel 1 romantiseert Shakespeare de gebeurtenissen [er is geen enkel historisch bewijs voor, dat het ook zo is gegaan] door de vertegenwoordigers van het Huis van York en Het Huis van Lancaster een respectievelijk witte en rode roos te laten plukken als ”strijd” symbool:
‘PLANTAGENET

Since you are tongue-tied and so loath to speak,
In dumb significants proclaim your thoughts:
Let him that is a true-born gentleman
And stands upon the honour of his birth,
If he suppose that I have pleaded truth,
From off this brier pluck a white rose with me.

SOMERSET

Let him that is no coward nor no flatterer,
But dare maintain the party of the truth,
Pluck a red rose from off this thorn with me.

WARWICK

I love no colours, and without all colour
Of base insinuating flattery
I pluck this white rose with Plantagenet.

SUFFOLK

I pluck this red rose with young Somerset
And say withal I think he held the right.

VERNON

Stay, lords and gentlemen, and pluck no more,
Till you conclude that he upon whose side
The fewest roses are cropp’d from the tree
Shall yield the other in the right opinion.

SOMERSET

Good Master Vernon, it is well objected:
If I have fewest, I subscribe in silence.
RICHARD

PLANTAGENET

And I.

VERNON

Then for the truth and plainness of the case.
I pluck this pale and maiden blossom here,
Giving my verdict on the white rose side.

SOMERSET

Prick not your finger as you pluck it off,
Lest bleeding you do paint the white rose red
And fall on my side so, against your will.

VERNON

If I my lord, for my opinion bleed,
Opinion shall be surgeon to my hurt
And keep me on the side where still I am.

SOMERSET

Well, well, come on: who else?

Lawyer

Unless my study and my books be false,
The argument you held was wrong in you:

To SOMERSETIn sign whereof I pluck a white rose too.
RICHARD

PLANTAGENET

Now, Somerset, where is your argument?

SOMERSET

Here in my scabbard, meditating that
Shall dye your white rose in a bloody red.
RICHARD

PLANTAGENET

Meantime your cheeks do counterfeit our roses;
For pale they look with fear, as witnessing
The truth on our side. SHAKESPEARE, HENRY VI, PART ONE, SCENE IV, LONDON, THE TEMPLE GARDEN http://shakespeare.mit.edu/1henryvi/full.html

”PLANTAGENET” IS RICHARD PLANTAGENET, DE HERTOG VAN YORK, MET ALS SYMBOOL DE WITTE ROOS
SOMERSET, HENRY BEAUFORT, POLITIEKE TEGENSTANDER  VAN DE HERTOG VAN YORK EN BEHOREND TOT DE ONWETTIGE TAK VAN HET HUIS LANCASTER, MET ALS SYMBOOL DE RODE ROOS

[8]

WIKIPEDIA
WARS OF THE ROSES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wars_of_the_Roses
YOUTUBE.COM
THE CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES

WARS OF THE ROSES/CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES/A TRAVEL TO THE PAST
ASTRID ESSED
3 FEBRUARY 2015

[9]
WIKIPEDIAFIRST BATTLE OF ST ALBANS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Battle_of_St_Albans

[10]

WIKIPEDIAENMITY OF MARGARET AND THE DUKE OF YORK  

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_of_Anjou#Enmity_between_Margaret_and_the_Duke_of_York

ORIGINELE BRONWIKIPEDIA MARGARET OF ANJOU
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_of_Anjou

ENGLISH HISTORY/THE WARS OF THE ROSES/MARGARET OF ANJOU AND RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK, TWO MAJOR PLAYERSASTRID ESSED11 JANUARY 2015
https://www.astridessed.nl/english-historythe-wars-of-the-rosesmargaret-of-anjou-and-richard-duke-of-york-two-major-players/

[11]

Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset,[a]KG ( c. 1406 – 22 May 1455), was an English nobleman and an important figure in the Wars of the Roses and in the Hundred Years’ War. He also succeeded in the title of 4th Earl of Somersetand was created 1st Earl of Dorset and 1st Marquess of Dorset (previously held by his father and later forfeited), and Count of Mortain. He was known for his deadly rivalry with Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York.”

WIKIPEDIAEDMUND OF BEAUFORT, 2ND DUKE OF SOMERSET
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Beaufort,_2nd_Duke_of_Somerset

HOUSE OF BEAUFORT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Beaufort

YOUTUBE.COMTHE CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES

[12]

WIKIPEDIARICHARD II OF ENGLAND/DOWNFALL
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_of_England#Downfall

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIARICHARD II OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_of_England

[13]

Toen de laatste koning uit het Franse geslacht Capet, koning Charles IV overleed, was zijn naaste mannelijke bloedverwant de zoon van zijn zusterIsabella of France, de Engelse koning Edward IIIDe Franse troon werd door zijn moeder Isabella [die toen de macht achter de troon was] voor hem geclaimd, maar aangezien vrouwen in Frankrijk waren  uitgesloten van de erfopvolging, kon de zoon van een vrouw [Isabella was de dochter van de in 1314 overleden koning Philips IV en zuster van Charles IV]ook niet opvolgen
Gevolg was uiteindelijk, dat Edward III later de Honderdjarige Oorlog startteom de Franse troon te bemachtigen

WIKIPEDIAHUNDRED YEAR’S WAR/ORIGIN OF THE CONFLICT
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hundred_Years%27_War#Origin_of_the_conflict

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA HUNDRED YEARS WAR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hundred_Years%27_War

[14]

WIKIPEDIAEDWARD, THE BLACK PRINCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_the_Black_Prince

[15]

WIKIPEDIAPRIMOGENITURE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primogeniture

[16]
KONING HENRY I, ZOON VAN WILLEM DE VEROVERAAR, LIET DE EDELEN ZWEREN, ZIJN ENIG OVERGEBLEVEN KIND, DOCHTER MATHILDA, TE ERKENNEN ALS KONINGIN VAN ENGELANDDIT DEDEN ZE ZEER TEGEN HUN ZIN, MAAR NA DE DOOD VAN HENRY I KWAMEN DE EDELEN DAARTEGEN IN OPSTAND EN CLAIMDE DE NEEF VAN MATHILDA, STEPHEN VAN BLOIS, EEN KLEINZOON VAN WILLEN DE VEROVERAAR VAN MOEDERSKANT, DE TROONEEN JARENLANGE STRIJD TUSSEN MATHILDA EN STEPHEN BRANDDE LOS, DE ANARCHY GENAAMD, MAAR EINDIGDE TOCH IN EEN OVERWINNING VOOR MATHILDA, OMDAT IN HET VERDRAG VAN WALLINFORD [OOK WEL BEKEND ALS VERDRAG VAN WINCHESTER] WERD BEPAALD, DAT STEPHEN TIJDENS ZIJN LEVEN KONING ZOU ZIJN, MAAR DAT MATHILDA’S ZOON, DE LATERE HENRY II [VADER VAN RICHARD LEEUWENHART EN JAN ZONDER LAND] HEM ZOU OPVOLGEN
ZIE:

”Meanwhile, Matilda’s younger brother, William Adelin, died in the White Ship disaster of 1120, leaving Matilda’s father and England facing a potential succession crisis. On Emperor Henry V’s death, Matilda was recalled to Normandy by her father, who arranged for her to marry Geoffrey of Anjou to form an alliance to protect his southern borders. Henry I had no further legitimate children and nominated Matilda as his heir, making his court swear an oath of loyalty to her and her successors, but the decision was not popular in the Anglo-Norman court. Henry died in 1135, but Matilda and Geoffrey faced opposition from Anglo-Norman barons. The throne was instead taken by Matilda’s cousin Stephen of Blois, who enjoyed the backing of the English Church. Stephen took steps to solidify his new regime but faced threats both from neighbouring powers and from opponents within his kingdom.”

WIKIPEDIA EMPRESS MATHILDA
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empress_Matilda

WIKIPEDIATHE ANARCHY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Anarchy

”Stephen announced the Treaty of Winchester in Winchester Cathedral: he recognised Henry FitzEmpress as his adopted son and successor, in return for Henry doing homage to him. Other conditions included:

  • Stephen promised to listen to Henry’s advice, but retained all his royal powers;
  • Stephen’s remaining son, William, would do homage to Henry and renounce his claim to the throne, in exchange for promises of the security of his lands;
  • Key royal castles would be held on Henry’s behalf by guarantors, whilst Stephen would have access to Henry’s castles;
  • The numerous foreign mercenaries would be demobilised and sent home.[4]

Stephen and Henry sealed the treaty with a kiss of peace in the cathedral.[5] Henry II later rewarded Wallingford for its assistance in the struggle by giving the town its royal charter in 1155.”
TREATY OF WALLINGFORD/TERMS OF THE TREATY
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Wallingford#Terms_of_the_treaty

ORIGINELE BRON
TREATY OF WALLINGFORD

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Wallingford

THE WARS OF THE ROSES/LANCASTER AND YORK/USURPATION AND THE RIGHT TO THE THRONE THROUGH FEMALESASTRID ESSED17 FEBRUARY 2015
https://www.astridessed.nl/the-wars-of-the-roseslancaster-and-yorkusurpation-and-the-right-to-the-throne-through-females-2/

[17]

‘Henry was by now fully determined to take the throne, but presenting a rationale for this action proved a dilemma.[2] It was argued that Richard, through his tyranny and misgovernment, had rendered himself unworthy of being king.[98] However, Henry was not next in line to the throne; the heir presumptive was Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, great-grandson of Edward III’s second surviving son, Lionel. Bolingbroke’s father, John of Gaunt, was Edward’s third son to survive to adulthood”
WIKIPEDIARICHARD II OF ENGLAND/DOWNFALL
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_of_England#Downfall

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIA RICHARD II OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_of_England

YOUTUBE.COMBRITAIN’S BLOODIEST DYNASTYTYRANNYPART 4 OF 4[RICHARD II]

Henry IV (15 April 1367 – 20 March 1413), also known as Henry Bolingbroke (/ˈbɒlɪŋbrʊk/), was King of England from 1399 to 1413.”
WIKIPEDIAHENRY IV OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_IV_of_England

[18]

WIKIPEDIAHENRY IV OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_IV_of_England

[19]
Voor het eerst in de geschiedenis van het Huis Plantagenet was met afzetting van een koning de erfelijke lijn verbroken:Er was al eerder een koning afgezet, koning Edward II, door toedoen van zijn van hem vervreemde vrouw, Isabella of France en haar bondgenoot [wellicht minnaar] Roger Mortimer, maar dat was geweest ten gunste van zijn [Edward II’s] eigen zoon, de latere Edward III, waarmee de opvolgingslijn niet werd verbroken
WIKIPEDIAEDWARD II OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_II_of_England


YOUTUBE.COM
THE CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES

[20]

JOHN OF GAUNT, OFTEWEL JAN VAN GENT, WERD HERTOG VAN LANCASTER ”JURE UXORIS”/BIJ HET RECHT VAN ZIJN VROUWZIJN VROUW, BLANCHE VAN LANCASTER, WAS DE DOCHTER VAN HENRY GROSMONT, HERTOG VAN LANCASTER EN JOHN OF GAUNT ERFDE BIJ DE DOOD VAN ZIJN SCHOONVADER DIENS HERTOGELIJKE TITELBLANCHE OF LANCASTER WAS DE MOEDER VAN DE LATERE KONING HENRY IV [HENRY OF BOLINGBROKE], DIE ZIJN NEEF,KONING RICHARD II, AFZETTE ALS KONING

ZIE
Jure uxoris (a Latin phrase meaning “by right of (his) wife”[1][2]) is a title of nobility used by a man because his wife holds the office or title suo jure (“in her own right”). Similarly, the husband of an heiress could become the legal possessor of her lands. For example, married women in England were legally incapable of owning real estate until the Married Women’s Property Act 1882.

WIKIPEDIAJURE UXORIS

WIKIPEDIAJOHN OF GAUNT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_of_Gaunt

”On 19 May 1359 at Reading Abbey, John married his third cousinBlanche of Lancaster, younger of the two daughters of Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster. Both shared a common descent from King Henry III. The wealth she brought to the marriage was the foundation of John’s fortune. Blanche died on 12 September 1368 at Tutbury Castle, while her husband was overseas. 
WIKIPEDIAJOHN OF GAUNT/MARRIAGES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_of_Gaunt#Marriages

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIAJOHN OF GAUNT
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_of_Gaunt

WIKIPEDIABLANCHE OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blanche_of_Lancaster

”Henry was the son of John of Gaunt (the fourth son of Edward III) and Blanche of Lancaster. ”
WIKIPEDIAHENRY IV OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_IV_of_England

[21]

WIKIPEDIALIONEL OF ANTWERP, 1ST DUKE OF CLARENCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lionel_of_Antwerp,_1st_Duke_of_Clarence

[22]

Philippa of Clarence (16 August 1355 – 5 January 1382) was the suo jureCountess of Ulster.  

WIKIPEDIAPHILIPPA, 5TH COUNTESS OF ULSTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippa,_5th_Countess_of_Ulster

[23]

‘Henry was by now fully determined to take the throne, but presenting a rationale for this action proved a dilemma.[2] It was argued that Richard, through his tyranny and misgovernment, had rendered himself unworthy of being king.[98] However, Henry was not next in line to the throne; the heir presumptive was Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, great-grandson of Edward III’s second surviving son, Lionel. Bolingbroke’s father, John of Gaunt, was Edward’s third son to survive to adulthood”
WIKIPEDIARICHARD II OF ENGLAND/DOWNFALL
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_of_England#Downfall

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIA RICHARD II OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_of_England


YOUTUBE.COM
THE CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES

[24]

”Born on 27 December 1388,[2][3][4] Anne Mortimer was the eldest of the four children of Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March (1374–1398), and Eleanor Holland(1370–1405).[3] She had two brothers, Edmund, 5th Earl of March (1391–1425), and Roger (1393–1413?), as well as a sister, Eleanor.[3]

Anne’s father was a descendant of Lionel, Duke of Clarence, second surviving son of King Edward III of England, an ancestry which made Mortimer a potential heir to the throne during the reign of the childless King Richard II. Upon Roger Mortimer’s death in 1398, this claim passed to his son and heir, Anne’s brother Edmund, Earl of March.[5] In 1399, Richard II was deposed by Henry IV, of the House of Lancaster, making Edmund Mortimer a dynastic threat to the new king, who in turn placed both Edmund and his brother Roger under royal custody.”

WIKIPEDIA

ANNE DE MORTIMER/EARLY LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anne_de_Mortimer#Early_life

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIA

ANNE DE MORTIMER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anne_de_Mortimer

[25]

KORTE STAMBOOM/AFSTAMMING RICHARD, HERTOG VAN YORK VAN DE TWEEDEZOON VAN EDWARD III

VOORAF:
KING EDWARD III [married with Philippa of Hainault
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_III_of_England

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippa_of_Hainault

A

LIONEL OF ANTWERP, FIRST DUKE OF CLARENCE ENDE TWEEDE ZOON VAN EDWARD III [ [married with Elizabeth de Burgh, 4th Countess of Ulster]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lionel_of_Antwerp,_1st_Duke_of_Clarence

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_de_Burgh,_4th_Countess_of_Ulster
B
PHILIPPA OF CLARENCE, 5TH COUNTESS OF ULSTER, DOCHTER VAN LIONEL OF ANTWERP EN ELIZABETH DE BURGH:
PHILIPPA OF CLARENCE, 5TH COUNTESS OF ULSTER[Married with Edmund Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March] 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippa,_5th_Countess_of_Ulster

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Mortimer,_4th_Earl_of_March

C

ROGER MORTIMER, FOURTH EARL OF MARCH, ZOON VAN PHILIPPA OF CLARENCE EN EDMUND MORTIMER, 3RD EARL OF MARCH.[Married with Alianore Holland
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Mortimer,_4th_Earl_of_March

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alianore_Holland,_Countess_of_March

D

ANNE DE MORTIMER, DOCHTER VAN ROGER MORTIMER, 4RD EARLOF MARCH EN ALIANORE HOLLAND [Married Richard of Conisburgh, Third Earl of Cambridge en zoonvan Edmund of Langley, First Duke of York,, vierde zoon van Edward III ]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anne_de_Mortimer
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_of_Conisburgh,_3rd_Earl_of_Cambridge
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_of_Langley,_1st_Duke_of_York

RICHARD, THIRD DUKE OF YORK [Titel erfde hij van de oudere broervan zijn vader Richard Conisburgh, genaamd Edmund, second Duke of York,die kinderloos overleed][Married Cecily Neville, uit de beroemde en invloedrijke familie Neville]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_York
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_York

RICHARD, HERTOG VAN YORK WAS DE VADER VAN DE LATERE KONINGEN EDWARD IV EN RICHARD III [MOEDER WAS CECILY NEVILLE]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_III_of_England

[26]

WIKIPEDIAUSURPATOR

https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Usurpator

[27]

WIKIPEDIAEDMUND MORTIMER, 5TH EARL OF MARCH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Mortimer,_5th_Earl_of_March


YOUTUBE.COM
THE CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES

[28]

WIKIPEDIAHENRY V OF ENGLAND
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_V_of_England

[29]

WIKIPEDIASOUTHAMPTON PLOT
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southampton_Plot

[30]

WIKIPEDIASOUTHAMPTON PLOT
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southampton_Plot

NEVILFEASTLETTERS OF RICHARD EARL OF CAMBRIDGE TO HENRY V
https://nevillfeast.wordpress.com/2011/03/10/letters-from-richard-earl-of-cambridge-to-henry-v/

TEXT

In 1415, when his son, Richard (later duke of York), was four years old, Richard, earl of Cambridge, was “accused of a treasonable conspiracy, indicted, convicted and beheaded” (p45). This has come to be known as the Southampton Plot. During his captivity he wrote two letters to the king, Henry V: a letter of confession and a plea for mercy, “but neither had any effect upon Henry” (p45).

Cambridge’s letter of confession:

My most dredfulle and sovereyne lege Lord, lyke to yowre hynesse to wete touchyng the purpose cast ageyns ʒowre hye estate. Havyng ye Erle of Marche by his aune assent, and by the assent of myself, Wher of y most me repent of all worde [worldly] thyng and by the acord of the lord Scrop and Sir Thomas Grey, to have hadde ye forseyd erle into the lond of Walys wyth outyn yowre lycence, takying upon hym the sovereynte of ʒys lond; ʒyf yondyr manis persone wych they callyn kynge Richard hadde nauth bene alyve, as Y wot wel yat he nys not alyve, for the wyche poynt I putte me holy in ʒowre grace. And as for ye forme of a proclamacyon wych schulde hadde bene cryde in ye Erle name, as he heyre to the Corowne of Ynglond ageyns ʒow, my lege lord, calde by auntreu [untrue] name Harry of Lancastre usurpur of Yngland, to the entent to hadde made the more people to hadde draune to hym and from ʒow, of the wych crye Scrop knew not of by me, but Grey dyd, havyng wyth the erle a baner of ye Armes of Ynglond, havyng also ye coroune of Speyne on a palet, wych, my lege Lord, is one of ʒowre weddys, for ye wych offence y put me holy in ʒowre grace. And as for ye p’pose takyn by Unfrevyle and Wederyngtoun for ye bryngyng in of that persone whych they namyd kyng Richard, and Herry Percye oute of Scotland wyth a power of Scottys, and theyre power togedyrs neyming to theyme able to geve ʒow a bataylle, of ye wych entent Sir Thomas Grey wyste of, and i also, but nauth Scrop as by me; of ye wych knawing i submytte me holy into ʒowre grace. And as touchyng the Erle of Marche, and Lusy hys man, they seyden me both yat the Erle was nauth schreven of a great whyle, but at all hys confessours putte hym in penaunce to clayme yat yey callyddyn hys ryth that wold be that tyme that every iknew, heny thyng yat ever to hym longyd … … … Of ye which poynttes and artycles here befor wretyn, and of al odyr wych now arne nauth in mynde, but treuly as oft as heny to myn mynd fallyn i schal deuly and treuly certefye now thee of, besekyng to now, my lege Lord, for hys love yat syffyrd passyoun on ye good fryday see compassyoun on me ʒowre lege men, and yf heny of thes persones whos names arne contenyd in ʒyz tyme, i schalle be redy wyth the myth of god to make hyt good, as ʒee my lege Lord will awarde me.

_____________________

_____________________

A plea for mercyMyn most dredfull and sovereyne Lege Lord, i Richard York ʒowre humble subgyt and very lege man, beseke ʒow of Grace of al maner offenses wych y have done or assentyd to in heny kynde, by steryng of odyr folke eggynge me yer to, where in y wote wel i have hyll offendyd to ʒowre Hynesse; besechyng ʒow at the reverence of God yat ʒyke to take me in to the handys of ʒowre gred goodnesse. My lege Lord, my fulle trust is yat ʒee wylle have consyderacyoun, thauth yat myn persone be of none valwe, ʒowre hye goodnesse wher God hath sette ʒow in so hye estat to every lege man yat to ʒow longyth plenteousely to geve grace, yat ʒow lyke to accept ʒys myn symple reqwest for ye love of oure Lady and of ye blysfulle Holy Gost, to whome I pray yat yey mot ʒowre hert enduce to all pyte and grace for yeyre hye goodnesse. 

[30]

R.I.P.
 Latin requiēscat (or requiēscantin pāce

https://www.dictionary.com/browse/r-i-p-

[31]

ZIE NOOT 25

[32]
KORT:De Beauforts, ook wel de ”onwettige” tak van het Huis Lancaster genoemd, behoorden feitelijk helemaal niet tot het Huis Lancaster,.aangezien zijgeen kinderen waren van John of Gaunt [derde zoon van Edward III]en zijn eerste vrouw, Blanche of Lancaster, maar afstamden van John of Gaunt en zijn DERDE vrouw, Katherine Swynford:
John of Gaunt’s eerste vrouw, Blanche of Lancaster, was de dochter van Henry Grosmont, de eerste hertog van Lancaster [zijn vader was Graaf Henry of Lancaster] en als zodanig erfde John of Gaunt de hertogelijke titel van zijnvrouw.”Jure uxoris”
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jure_uxoris

John of Gaunt’s zoon, Henry Bolingbroke, de latere Henry IV, was ook de zoon van Blanche of Lancaster en als zodanig een Lancaster.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_IV_of_England
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blanche_of_Lancaster

DE BEAUFORTS echter waren dus kinderen van John of Lancaster en zijn derde vrouw Katherine Swynford, zijn gewezen maitresse.Omdat zij waren geboren tijdens het huwelijk van John of Gaunt, waren ze onwettig, maar werden achteraf gewettigd door zowel Richard II als  Paus Bonifacius IX  en kregen de naam Beaufort.
Maar met de fysieke Lancaster afstamming hadden zij dus niets te maken.Wat hen echter een rol gaf, was dat zij halfbroers/zusters waren van de eerste Lancaster koning, Henry IV en dus partij werden in het conflict .

WIKIPEDIAHOUSE OF BEAUFORT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Beaufort

[33]

WIKIPEDIAMARGARET OF ANJOU

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_of_Anjou

WIKIPEDIAEDMUND  BEAUFORT, 2ND DUKE OF SOMERSET

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Beaufort,_2nd_Duke_of_Somerset

[34]
WIKIPEDIARICHARD, 3RD DUKE OF YORK, PROTECTOR OF THE REALM, 1453-1455
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_York#Protector_of_the_Realm,_1453–1455

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIARICHARD, 3RD DUKE OF YORK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_York

WIKIPEDIAEDMUND BEAUFORT, 2ND DUKE OF SOMERSET, POLITICAL POWER AND CONFLICT
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Beaufort,_2nd_Duke_of_Somerset#Political_power_and_conflict

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIAEDMUND BEAUFORT, 2ND DUKE OF SOMERSET
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Beaufort,_2nd_Duke_of_Somerset

WIKIPEDIAHENRY VI OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VI_of_England

[35]

WIKIPEDIAFIRST BATTLE OF ST ALBANS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Battle_of_St_Albans

”The first battle of St Albans was relatively minor in military terms,[dubious – discuss] but politically was a complete victory for York and the Nevilles: York had captured the king and restored himself to complete power, while Somerset and the Nevilles’ northern rivals Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland and Lord Clifford all fell during the rout”

WIKIPEDIAFIRST BATTLE OF ST ALBANS/RESULT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Battle_of_St_Albans#Result

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIAFIRST BATTLE OF ST ALBANS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Battle_of_St_Albans

[36]

”By now York was determined to depose Somerset by one means or another, and in May 1455 he raised an army. He confronted Somerset and the King in an engagement known as the First Battle of St Albans which marked the beginning of the Wars of the Roses. Somerset was killed in a last wild charge from the house where he had been sheltering.

WIKIPEDIAEDMUND BEAUFORT, 2ND DUKE OF SOMERSET/POLITICAL POWER AND CONFLICT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Beaufort,_2nd_Duke_of_Somerset#Political_power_and_conflict

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIAEDMUND BEAUFORT, 2ND DUKE OF SOMERSET

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Beaufort,_2nd_Duke_of_Somerset

[37]

WIKIPEDIAWARS OF THE ROSES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wars_of_the_Roses

[38]

WIKIPEDIALOVEDAY, 1458

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loveday,_1458

[39]

”The Act of Accord was passed by the English Parliament on 25 October 1460,[1] three weeks after Richard, Duke of York, had entered the Council Chamber and laid his hand on the empty throne. Under the Act, King Henry VI of England was to retain the crown for life but York and his heirs were to succeed, excluding Henry’s son, Edward of Westminster. Henry was forced to agree to the Act.”

WIKIPEDIAACT OF ACCORD

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Act_of_Accord

[40]

WIKIPEDIABATTLE OF WAKEFIELD

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Wakefield

[41]

WIKIPEDIAGAME OF THRONES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Game_of_Thrones

[42]

”When you play the game of thrones, you win or you die.There is no middle ground”[Cersei Lannister in the Game of Thrones]

YOUTUBE.COMCERSEI LANNISTER: IN THE GAME OF THRONES YOU WIN OR YOU DIE

”The title of the episode is part of a quote from Cersei Lannister during the final confrontation with Eddard: “When you play the game of thrones, you win or you die. There is no middle ground.”

WIKIPEDIAYOU WIN OR YOU DIE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/You_Win_or_You_Die

[43]

De term voor Edward IV ”Rozenoorlogkoning” houdt verband met het feit, dat Edward, als 7de Earl [Graaf] van March en erfgenaam van zijn vader de hertog van York, letterlijk met ”bloed, zweet en tranen” voor de troon heeft moeten vechten:Zijn vaders superieure claim op de troon [van moederskant afstammend van de TWEEDE  zoon van Edward III, terwijl de Lancasters afstamden van de DERDEzoon] ging na zijn vaders dood op hem over.En dan was er ook nog het [van koning Henry VI afgedwongen] Act of Accord, dat inhield, dat Henry VI tijdens zijn leven zou regeren, maar dat na zijn dood de hertog van York en zijn erfgenamen de troon zouden bestijgen [waarmee de eigen zoon van de koning, Edward van Westminster, werd gepasseerd]Helemaal ”eerlijk” was de troonsbestijging van Edward IV [ondanks zijn superieure claim dus niet, want Henry VI was op dat moment nog in leven…..
MAAR GOED:Edward heeft dus keihard moeten vechten voor zijn troon en tijdens zijn bewind hebben de meeste veldslagen van de Rozenoorlogen plaatsgehad….
ZIE AAN DE RECHTERKANT VAN ONDERSTAANDE LINK
http://www.luminarium.org/encyclopedia/warsoftheroses.htm

[44]

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/REBELLION AND DEATH
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Rebellion_and_death

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

[45]

WIKIPEDIARICHARD III OF ENGLAND/KING OF ENGLAND
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_III_of_England#King_of_England

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIARICHARD III OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_III_of_England

[46]
WIKIPEDIABATTLE OF BOSWORTH [BATTLE OF  BOSWORTH FIELD]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bosworth_Field

[47]

WIKIPEDIAHENRY VII OF ENGLAND/ANCESTRY AND EARLY LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VII_of_England#Ancestry_and_early_life

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIAHENRY VII OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VII_of_England

[48]

”She was the daughter and sole heiress of John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset (1404–1444), a legitimised grandson of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster (third surviving son of King Edward III) by his mistress Katherine Swynford.”

WIKIPEDIALADY MARGARET BEAUFORT/ORIGINS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_Margaret_Beaufort#Origins

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIALADY MARGARET BEAUFORT 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_Margaret_Beaufort

WIKIPEDIAHOUSE OF BEAUFORT 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Beaufort

[49]
”The Battle of Bosworth Field (or Battle of Bosworth) was the last significant battle of the Wars of the Roses, the civil war between the Houses of Lancaster and York that extended across England in the latter half of the 15th century. Fought on 22 August 1485, the battle was won by the Lancastrians. Their leader Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, became the first English monarch of the Tudor dynasty by his victory and subsequent marriage to a Yorkist princess. His opponent Richard III, the last king of the House of York, was killed during the battle, the last English monarch to die in battle. Historians consider Bosworth Field to mark the end of the Plantagenet dynasty, making it one of the defining moments of English history.”

WIKIPEDIABATTLE OF BOSWORTH [BATTLE OF  BOSWORTH FIELD]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bosworth_Field

[50]

WIKIPEDIAHOUSE OF TUDOR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Tudor

[51]

”Henry Tudor, the future Henry VII, succeeded in presenting himself as a candidate not only for traditional Lancastrian supporters, but also for discontented supporters of their rival House of York, and he took the throne by right of conquest
WIKIPEDIAHOUSE OF TUDOR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Tudor

WIKIPEDIARIGHT OF CONQUEST

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Right_of_conquest

[52]

”By 1483, Henry’s mother was actively promoting him as an alternative to Richard III, despite her being married to Lord Stanley, a Yorkist. At Rennes Cathedral on Christmas Day 1483, Henry pledged to marry Elizabeth of York, the eldest daughter of Edward IV, who was also Edward’s heir since the presumed death of her brothers, the Princes in the Tower, King Edward V and his brother Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York

WIKIPEDIAHENRY VII OF ENGLAND/RISE TO THE THRONE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VII_of_England#Rise_to_the_throne

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIAHENRY VII OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VII_of_England

[53]

”The family is descended from John of Gaunt by his then-mistress Katherine Swynford. Gaunt married Swynford in 1396, and their children were legitimized by Richard II and Pope Boniface IX. ”

WIKIPEDIAHOUSE OF BEAUFORT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Beaufort

[54]

ZIE NOOT 25

[55]

WIKIPEDIA MARGARET OF ANJOU

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_of_Anjou

WIKIPEDIAELIZABETH OF YORK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_of_York

[56]

QUEEN BY RIGHT OF QUEEN REGNANT

”A queen regnant (plural: queens regnant) is a female monarch, equivalent in rank to a king, who reigns in her own right, as opposed to a queen consort, who is the wife of a reigning king, or a queen regent, who is the guardian of a child monarch and reigns temporarily in the child’s stead”

WIKIPEDIAQUEEN REGNANT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Queen_regnant

WIKIPEDIAQUEEN CONSORT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Queen_consort

[57]

”Three of Richard’s sisters married dukes (the youngest Cecily, marrying Richard, Duke of York), and Richard himself married Alice Montacute, daughter and heiress of Thomas Montacute, the Earl of Salisbury………..”At the time of the marriage, the Salisbury inheritance was not guaranteed, as not only was Earl Thomas still alive, but in 1424 he remarried (to Alice Chaucer, granddaughter of the poet Geoffrey Chaucer). This second marriage was without issue and when the Earl Thomas Montacute died in 1428, Richard Neville and Alice were confirmed as the Earl and Countess of Salisbury. From this point on, Richard Neville will be referred to as Salisbury.”
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 5TH EARL OF SALISBURY/BACKGROUND
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_5th_Earl_of_Salisbury#Background

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 5TH EARL OF SALISBURY
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_5th_Earl_of_Salisbury

WIKIPEDIAJURE UXORIS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jure_uxoris

[58]

ZIE NOOT 57

[59]

”But the male line of the Nevilles was of native origin, and the family may well have been part of the pre-conquest aristocracy of Northumbria.[1] The continuation of landowning among such native families was more common in the far north of England than further south.”
WIKIPEDIAHOUSE OF NEVILLE/ORIGINS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Neville#Origins

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIAHOUSE OF NEVILLE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Neville

[60]

WIKIPEDIAHOUSE OF NEVILLE/WARS OF THE ROSES
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Neville#Wars_of_the_Roses

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIAHOUSE OF NEVILLE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Neville

[61]

Cecily Neville (3 May 1415 – 31 May 1495) was an English noblewoman, the wife of Richard, Duke of York (1411–1460), and the mother of two kings of EnglandEdward IV and Richard III. Cecily Neville was known as “the Rose of Raby”, because she was born at Raby Castle in Durham, and “Proud Cis”, because of her pride and a temper that went with it, although she was also known for her piety. She herself signed her name “Cecylle”.”
WIKIPEDIACECILY NEVILLE, DUCHESS OF YORK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cecily_Neville,_Duchess_of_York

CECILY NEVILLE, DUCHESS [HERTOGIN] OF YORK, WAS DE ZUSTER VAN DE VADER VAN DE 16DE GRAAF VAN WARWICK [THE KINGMAKER],RICHARD, DE VIJFDE GRAAF VAN SALISBURYMET ANDERE WOORDEN:CECILY NEVILLE, DUCHESS OF YORK WAS WARWICK’S TANTE.
ZIE OOK

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 5TH EARL OF SALISBURY
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_5th_Earl_of_Salisbury

[62]
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/BECOMING WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Becoming_Warwick

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

[63]

BROTHER AGAINST BROTHER/COUSIN AGAINST COUSIN
VOORBEELD:
IN DE SLAG BIJ NORTHAMPTON [1460] STONDEN DE LATERE EDWARD IV [TOEN NOG EDWARD OF YORK,  7DE EARL OF MARCH] EN DE GRAAF VAN WARWICK TEGENOVER ONDER ANDERE HUN NEEF, THOMAS PERCY, EERSTE BARON EGREMONT, DIE AAN DE LANCASTER KANT VOCHT EN IN DEZE SLAG SNEUVELDE

THOMAS PERCY WAS EEN ZOON VAN HENRY PERCY, TWEEDE GRAAF VAN NORTHUMBERLAND EN LADY ELEANOR NEVILLE, DE ZUSTERVAN CECILY OF YORK-NEVILLE [MOEDER VAN EDWARD IV] EN RICHARD,VIJFDE GRAAF VAN SALISBURY, DE VADER VAN GRAAF WARWICK

WIKIPEDIATHOMAS PERCY, 1ST BARON EGREMONT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Percy,_1st_Baron_Egremont

WIKIPEDIA BATTLE OF NORTHAMPTON (1460)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Northampton_(1460)

IN DE SLAG BIJ TOWTON [1461] STONDEN EDWARD IV [TOEN NET TOT KONING GEKROOND, WAARMEE HIJ HENRY VI VERVING] EN DE GRAAF VAN WARWICK, SAMEN MET ANDERE FAMILIELEDEN, ONDER ANDERE TEGENOVER HENRY PERCY, DE DERDE GRAAF VAN NORTHUMBERLAND EN BROER VAN THOMAS PERCY, EERSTE BARON VAN EGREMONT[ZIE DIRECT HIERBOVEN]DUS WEER TEGENOVER EEN NEEF, DIE AAN DE KANT VAN LANCASTER VOCHT.OOK HENRY PERCY SNEUVELDE, IN DE SLAG BIJ TOWTON
WIKIPEDIABATTLE OF TOWTON
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Towton

WIKIPEDIAHENRY PERCY, 3RD EARL OF NORTHUMBERLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Percy,_3rd_Earl_of_Northumberland

EN ZO GING HET SCHERING EN INSLAGBROTHER AGAINST BROTHER/COUSIN AGAINST COUSIN……

[64]

The Wars of the Roses were a series of English civil wars for control of the throne of England fought between supporters of two rival cadet branches of the royal House of Plantagenet: the House of Lancaster, associated with the Red Rose of Lancaster, and the House of York, whose symbol was the White Rose of York. Eventually, the wars eliminated the male lines of both families. 

WIKIPEDIAWARS OF THE ROSES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wars_of_the_Roses

[65]

WIKIPEDIASOUTHAMPTON PLOT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southampton_Plot

Henry was by now fully determined to take the throne, but presenting a rationale for this action proved a dilemma.[2] It was argued that Richard, through his tyranny and misgovernment, had rendered himself unworthy of being king.[98] However, Henry was not next in line to the throne; the heir presumptive was Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, great-grandson of Edward III’s second surviving son, Lionel. Bolingbroke’s father, John of Gaunt, was Edward’s third son to survive to adulthood”
WIKIPEDIARICHARD II OF ENGLAND/DOWNFALL
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_of_England#Downfall

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIA RICHARD II OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_of_England

 [66]

WIKIPEDIASOUTHAMPTON PLOT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southampton_Plot

[67]
ZIE NOOT 23 EN 65

[68]
ZIE NOOT 23

[69]

WIKIPEDIAEDMUND BEAUFORT, 2ND DUKE OF SOMERSET/POLITICAL POWER AND CONFLICT
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Beaufort,_2nd_Duke_of_Somerset#Political_power_and_conflict

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIAEDMUND BEAUFORT, 2ND DUKE OF SOMERSET
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Beaufort,_2nd_Duke_of_Somerset

[70]

ZIE NOOT 69

ZIE OOK
WIKIPEDIA FIRST BATTLE OF ST ALBANS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Battle_of_St_Albans

[71]

WIKIPEDIAHENRY VI OF ENGLAND
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VI_of_England

[72]

WIKIPEDIARICHARD OF YORK, 3RD DUKE OF YORK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_York

WIKIPEDIAEDMUND BEAUFORT, 2ND DUKE OF SOMERSET
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Beaufort,_2nd_Duke_of_Somerset

[73]

”Margaret at the time seven months pregnant, attempted to claim the regency, but gained no support. It was given instead to Henry’s cousin, Richard, Duke of York, much to the annoyance of the Queen, who strongly felt that she and her party should govern England.”
ENGLISH MONARCHSMARGARET OF ANJOU
http://www.englishmonarchs.co.uk/plantagenet_26.html

[74]

YOUTUBE.COMTHE CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSESMARK GOACHER

[75]

”What Cade and York were challenging was the improper influence of the king’s advisors on the application of royal authority. It is difficult to regard this as anything other than a tactic intended to prevent the imputation of treason against them. In York’s case he embellished his complaints with the inference that the king was the innocent victim of evil councillors. It was a situation from which York — the king’s true and loyal subject — would recue him; thus, allowing him to rule properly as was always his intention. 

DUKE RICHARD, THE 3RD DUKE OF YORK, THE KING’S TRUE LIEGEMAN?

ZIE OOK
https://www.astridessed.nl/the-wars-of-the-rosesmurreyandbluewordpress-comduke-richard-the-3rd-duke-of-york-the-kings-true-liegeman/

[76]

ZIE NOOT 23

ZIE OOK

YOUTUBE.COMTHE CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSESMARK GOACHER

[77]

YOUTUBE.COMTHE CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSESMARK GOACHER

[77]

WIKIPEDIAHENRY VI OF ENGLAND/INSANITY AND THE ASCENDANCY OF YORK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VI_of_England#Insanity,_and_the_ascendancy_of_York

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIAHENRY VI OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VI_of_England

[78]
[78]

”When Richard, Duke of York, unsuccessfully rose up against the king in 1452, both Warwick and his father rallied to the side of King Henry VI”

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK, BECOMING WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Becoming_Warwick

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

[79]

CON IGGULDENTRINITY
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/22468475-trinity
CON IGGULDEN [Vertaald in het Nederlands]HET DRIEVOUDIG VERBOND
https://www.bol.com/nl/f/de-rozenoorlogen-het-drievoudig-verbond/9200000036034854/
 [80]

STAMBOOM, WAARUIT HET ZWAGERSCHAP VAN RICHARD NEVILLE, 16E GRAAF VAN WARWICK MET EDMUND BEAUFORT, 2DE HERTOG VAN SOMERSET, IS AF TE LEIDEN.HUN VROUWEN WAREN ELKAARS HALFZUSTERS, KINDEREN VANRICHARD, 13E GRAAF VAN WARWICK UIT ZIJN EERSTE EN TWEEDE HUWELIJKZIE DIRECT HIERONDER:

RICHARD BEAUCHAMP, 13E GRAAF VAN WARWICKUIT ZIJN EERSTE HUWELIJK MET ELIZABETH DE BERKELEY WERDEN GEBOREN:
MARGARET BEAUCHAMP, DE LATERE COUNTESS OF SHRESBURYELEANOR BEAUCHAMP, DE LATERE DUCHESS OF SOMERSETELIZABETH BEAUCHAMP, DE LATERE BARONESS LATIMER
UIT ZIJN TWEEDE HUWELIJK MET ISABEL LE DESPENSER WERDEN GEBOREN
HENRY, 14E GRAAF VAN WARWICK [OVERLEDEN IN 1446]ANNE [DIE DAARDOOR LATER DE TITEL ERFDE], 16E GRAAF VAN WARWICK[NA HET OVERLIJDEN VAN DE DOCHTER VAN HAAR BROER HENRY, OOKEEN ANNE [OVERLEDEN IN 1449]
ZIEHIER DE DRAMATIS PERSONAE
RICHARD BEAUCHAMP, 13E GRAAF VAN WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Beauchamp,_13th_Earl_of_Warwick
ZIJN EERSTE VROUW ELIZABETH DE BERKELEY
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_Berkeley,_Countess_of_Warwick
HUN DRIE DOCHTERS
MARGARET, COUNTESS OF SHREWSBURY
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_Beauchamp,_Countess_of_Shrewsbury
ELEANOR, DUCHESS OF SOMERSET, GETROUWD MET EDMUND BEAUFORT, 2E HERTOG VAN SOMERSET
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eleanor_Beauchamp,_Duchess_of_Somerset

ELIZABETH, BARONESS LATIMER [GEEN WIKIPEDIA]

TWEEDE VROUW VAN RICHARD BEAUCHAMP, 13E GRAAF VAN WARWICK
ISABEL LE DESPENSER
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isabel_Despenser,_Countess_of_Warwick

ZOON EN DOCHTER UIT DIT TWEEDE HUWELIJK
HENRY BEAUCHAMP, 14E GRAAF VAN WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Beauchamp,_1st_Duke_of_Warwick

ANNE BEAUCHAMP, 16E GRAVIN VAN WARWICKGETROUWD MET RICHARD NEVILLE, 16E GRAAF VAN WARWICK [JURE UXORIS]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anne_Beauchamp,_16th_Countess_of_Warwick
[81]

”In June 1453, Somerset was granted custody of the lordship of Glamorgan – part of the Despenser heritage held by Warwick until then – and open conflict broke out between the two men.[15] Then, in the summer of that year, King Henry fell ill.[16] Somerset was a favourite of the king and Queen Margaret, and with the king incapacitated he was virtually in complete control of government.[17] This put Warwick at a disadvantage in his dispute with Somerset, and drove him into collaboration with York”
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/CIVIL WAR
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Civil_War

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK  

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

[82]

” The political climate, influenced by the military defeat in France, then started turning against Somerset. On 27 March 1454, a group of royal councillors appointed the Duke of York protector of the realm.[19] York could now count on the support not only of Warwick, but also of Warwick’s father Salisbury, who had become more deeply involved in disputes with the House of Percy in the north of England

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/CIVIL WAR
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Civil_War

ORIGINELE BRONWIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

[83]
WIKIPEDIAPERCY-NEVILLE FEUD
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Percy–Neville_feud

[84]

WIKIPEDIAFIRST BATTLE OF ST ALBANS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Battle_of_St_Albans

YOUTUBE.COMTHE CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES

[85]

Thomas Percy, 1st Baron Egremont (29 November 1422 – 10 July 1460) was the son of Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland, and Eleanor Neville, being made Lord Egremont in 1449. A northern baron, he became a leading figure in the internecine Percy-Neville feud, fighting at the Battle of Heworth Moor. When the Wars of the Roses began mid-decade, Egremont fought for the king on the Lancastrian side, being killed five years later at the Battle of Northampton.

WIKIPEDIATHOMAS PERCY, 1ST BARON EGREMONT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Percy,_1st_Baron_Egremont
ZOALS TE LEZEN [ZIE BOVENSTAANDE]
HET TRIESTE WAS, DAT DEZE THOMAS PERCY DE ZOON WAS VANGENOEMDE LORD PERCY, MAAR OOK VAN ELEANOR NEVILLE, TANTE VAN VADERSZIJDE [ZUSTER VAN ZIJN VADER] VAN WARWICK EN TANTE VAN MOEDERSZIJDE VAN DE LATERE EDWARD IV [ZUSTER VAN ZIJN MOEDER CECILY NEVILLE] , TOEN NOG DE 7E EARL OF MARCH [ZOON VAN DE HERTOG VAN YORK]

IN DE BATTLE OF NORTHAMPTON STREED THOMAS PERCY TEGEN ZIJN NEVEN WARWICK EN DE EARL OF MARCH [ZOON VAN DE HERTOG VAN YORK] EN SNEUVELDE
WIKIPEDIABATTLE OF NORTHAMPTON (1460)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Northampton_(1460)

[86]

YOUTUBE.COMTHE CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES

WIKIPEDIAPERCY-NEVILLE FEUD
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Percy–Neville_feud

WIKIPEDIAHUNDRED YEARS WAR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hundred_Years%27_War

 [87]

BELANGRIJKE EDELEN, DIE GETROUWEN WAREN VAN KONING HENRY VI:
Edmund Beaufort, 2de hertog van York
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Beaufort,_2nd_Duke_of_Somerset

Henry Percy, 2e Graaf van Northumberland, getrouwd met Lady Eleanor Neville, zuster van Richard Neville [de vader van Warwick, tegenpartij en bondgenoot van York] en Cecily Neville, vrouw van de hertog van York.
Humphrey Stafford, Eerste hertog van Buckingham , getrouwd met Lady Anne Neville, ook een zuster van Richard Neville en Cecily Neville, vrouw van de hertog van YorkToen al liepen de Families in de Rozenoorlogen door elkaar!
HENRY PERCY, TWEEDE GRAAF VAN NORTHUMBERLAND
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Percy,_2nd_Earl_of_Northumberland

HUMPHREY STAFFORD, EERSTE HERTOG VAN BUCKINGHAM
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humphrey_Stafford,_1st_Duke_of_Buckingham

Eleanor Neville, Richard Neville en Cecily Nevilles zuster, Humphrey Stafford, Eerste hertog van Buckingham en getrouwd met de zuster van Warwick’s vader, Lady Anne Neville, die eveneens de zuster was van Cecily Neville, de vrouw van de hertog van York/Toen al stonden de families tegenover elkaar]

[88]

WIKIPEDIAFIRST BATTLE OF ST ALBANS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Battle_of_St_Albans

[89]

WIKIPEDIAWARS OF THE ROSES
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wars_of_the_Roses

DE DRIE RICHARDS WERDEN DOOR HET ”PARLIAMENT OF DEVILS” ALS VERRADERS GEBRANDMERKT [FIGUURLIJK] EN HUN BEZITTINGEN VERBEURD VERKLAARD [ATTAINDER]DIT WAS VOORAL HET WERK VAN MARGARETHA VAN ANJOUKONING HENRY VI NEIGDE ALTIJD TOT VERGEVINGSGEZINDHEIDIK DENK, DAT DE PASSAGE [ZIE HET LAATSTE CITAAT, NA DE STIPPELLIJNEN] WAARBIJ VOLLEDIG PARDON WERD AANGEBODEN VOOR WIE ZICH AAN DE KONING ONDERWIERP, VAN DE HAND VAN HENRY VI KWAM……

”The Parliament opened in the chapter house of St. Mary’s priory with a speech by the chancellor, William Waynflete, bishop of Winchester, preaching on the text ‘Grace to you and peace be multiplied’, but the government’s purpose was undoubtedly to condemn York and his kinsmen and allies as traitors. A bill accused twenty-four persons of levying war against the King at Blore Heath and Ludford, and three more (including the countess of Salisbury) of plotting  his death elsewhere. It recited York’s treasons since 1450; what had been done at St. Albans (in 1455 when the duke had eliminated several of his political opponents in a pitched battle in the streets of the town) had been an ‘execrabill and moost detestable dede’, prompted by ‘the moost diabolique unkyndnesse and wrecched envye’. Attainder was fully justified, whereby the traitors were condemned to death and all their possessions declared forfeit. Furthermore, their heirs were to be barred from inheritance forever”…………”The chancellor’s choice of text for his sermon could be taken to imply an intention to pursue peace by softening the rigour of justice with the King’s prerogative of mercy, and at the end of the session Henry VI did indeed mitigate the effects of the act of attainder, insisting on a proviso that he could grant full pardon and restoration to those who humbly sought his grace”

THE HISTORY OF PARLIAMENTON THIS DAY: 20 NOVEMBER 1459, THE ”PARLIAMENT OF DEVILS” ASSEMBLES AT COVENTRY
https://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/periods/medieval/day-20-november-1459-parliament-devils-assembles-coventry

”The main business of the Parliament was to pass bills of attainder for High treason against the leading Yorkist nobles, following the start of a new stage in the Wars of the Roses and the Battle of Ludford Bridge.”

WIKIPEDIAPARLIAMENT OF DEVILS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parliament_of_Devils

”A bill of attainder (also known as an act of attainder or writ of attainder or bill of pains and penalties) is an act of a legislature declaring a person or group of persons guilty of some crime and punishing them, often without a trial. As with attainder resulting from the normal judicial process, the effect of such a bill is to nullify the targeted person’s civil rights, most notably the right to own property (and thus pass it on to heirs), the right to a title of nobility, and, in at least the original usage, the right to life itself.”

WIKIPEDIABILL OF ATTAINDER
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_of_attainder

NA DEZE HANDELINGEN VAN HET PARLIAMENT OF DEVILS, ONTVLUCHTTEN DE  DRIE RICHARDS [MET YORK’S ZOON EDWARD, DE EARL OF MARCH, LATER EDWARD IV] HET LAND
YORK NAAR IERLAND, WARWICK, NEEF EDWARD [EARL OF MARCH] EN VADER RICHARD NEVILLE, 5E GRAAF VAN SALISBURY, NAAR FRANKRIJK, CALAIS [LAATSTE ENGELSE BOLWERK IN FRANKRIJK,WARWICK WAS KAPITEIN VAN CALAIS

”Forced to flee the country, York left for Dublin, Ireland, with his second son Edmund, Earl of Rutland, while Warwick and Salisbury sailed to Calais, accompanied by the Duke’s son, Edward, Earl of March (the future King Edward IV).”
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/HOUSE OF YORK TRIUMPHANT
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#House_of_York_triumphant

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

[90]

WIKIPEDIAEDWARD OF WESTMINSTER, PRINCE OF WALES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_of_Westminster,_Prince_of_Wales

[91]

‘Forced to flee the country, York left for Dublin, Ireland, with his second son Edmund, Earl of Rutland, while Warwick and Salisbury sailed to Calais, accompanied by the Duke’s son, Edward, Earl of March (the future King Edward IV).”
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/HOUSE OF YORK TRIUMPHANT
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#House_of_York_triumphant
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

[92]

WIKIPEDIABATTLE OF NORTHAMPTON (1460)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Northampton_(1460)

[93]
”The Act of Accord was passed by the English Parliament on 25 October 1460,[1] three weeks after Richard, Duke of York, had entered the Council Chamber and laid his hand on the empty throne. Under the Act, King Henry VI of England was to retain the crown for life but York and his heirs were to succeed, excluding Henry’s son, Edward of Westminster. Henry was forced to agree to the Act.”

WIKIPEDIAACT OF ACCORD
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Act_of_Accord

[94]

”The Duke of York was either killed in the battle or captured and immediately executed. Some later works support the folklore that he suffered a crippling wound to the knee and was unhorsed, and he and his closest followers then fought to the death at that spot;[38] others relate the account that he was taken prisoner (by one Sir James Luttrell of Devonshire), mocked by his captors and beheaded.[40]

His son Edmund, Earl of Rutland attempted to escape over Wakefield Bridge, but was overtaken and killed, possibly by Clifford in revenge for his father’s death at St Albans. Salisbury’s second son Sir Thomas Neville also died in the battle.[21] Salisbury’s son in law William, Lord Harington and Harington’s father, William Bonville, were captured and executed immediately after the battle. (The Bonvilles had been engaged in a feud with the Earl of Devon and the Courtenay family in Devon and Cornwall.) Salisbury himself escaped the battlefield but was captured during the night, and was taken to the Lancastrian camp. Although the Lancastrian nobles might have been prepared to allow Salisbury to ransom himself, he was dragged out of Pontefract Castle and beheaded by local commoners, to whom he had been a harsh overlord”

WIKIPEDIABATTLE OF WAKEFIELD/CASUALTIES
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Wakefield#Casualties

ORIGINELE BRON 

WIKIPEDIABATTLE OF WAKEFIELD
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Wakefield

[95]

[95]

”The death of his father left Edward, now Duke of York, at the head of the Yorkist faction. He defeated a Lancastrian army at Mortimer’s Cross in Herefordshire on 2–3 February 1461. He then united his forces with those of Warwick, whom Margaret’s army had defeated at the Second Battle of St Albans (17 February 1461), during which Henry VI had been rescued by his supporters.[7] Edward’s father had restricted his ambitions to becoming Henry’s heir, but Edward now took the more radical step of proclaiming himself king in March 1461.[7] He then advanced against the Lancastrians, having his life saved on the battlefield by the Welsh Knight Sir David Ap Mathew. He defeated the Lancastrian army in the exceptionally bloody Battle of Towton in Yorkshire on 29 March 1461.[8] Edward had effectively broken the military strength of the Lancastrians, and he returned to London for his coronation. King Edward IV named Sir David Ap Mathew Standard Bearer of England and allowed him to use “Towton” on the Mathew family crest.”

WIKIPEDIAEDWARD IV OF ENGLAND/ACCESSION TO THE THRONE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England#Accession_to_the_throne

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIAEDWARD IV OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England

[96]

WIKIPEDIAACT OF ACCORD

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Act_of_Accord

[97]

”Warwick’s position after the accession of Edward IV was stronger than ever.[59] He had now succeeded to his father’s possessions, and in 1462 he also inherited his mother’s lands and the Salisbury title.[60] Altogether he had an annual income from his lands of over £7,000 far more than any other man in the realm but the king.[61] Edward confirmed Warwick’s position as Captain of Calais, and made him High Admiral of England and Steward of the Duchy of Lancaster, along with several other offices”

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/WARWICK’S APEX
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Warwick’s_apex

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

[98]

””They have but two rulers, M. de Warwick and another whose name I have forgotten.”– The Governor of Abbeville in a letter to Louis XI[2][58]

AAN DE RECHTERKANT VAN
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/WARWICK’S APEX
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Warwick’s_apex

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick [99]

WIKIPEDIABATTLE OF MORTIMER’S CROSS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Mortimer%27s_Cross

[100]

WIKIPEDIAJASPER TUDOR
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jasper_Tudor

[101]

”I myself hold the opinion, that when King Edward would have concentratedon the military (he was an extremely capable military commander) and the Earl of Warwick on ruling and diplomacy, they whould have been made a deadly double and perhapsruled England happily together, if at least Edward had not fallen ill and diedso untimely.”

THE WARS OF THE ROSES/CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES/A TRAVEL OF THE PASTASTRID ESSED3 FEBRUARI 2015
https://www.astridessed.nl/the-wars-of-the-rosescauses-of-the-wars-of-the-rosesa-travel-to-the-past/

[102]
”When you play the game of thrones, you win or you die.There is no middle ground”[Cersei Lannister in the Game of Thrones]

YOUTUBE.COMCERSEI LANNISTER: IN THE GAME OF THRONES YOU WIN OR YOU DIE

”The title of the episode is part of a quote from Cersei Lannister during the final confrontation with Eddard: “When you play the game of thrones, you win or you die. There is no middle ground.”

WIKIPEDIAYOU WIN OR YOU DIE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/You_Win_or_You_Die

[103]

”Sir John Grey was killed in the Second Battle of St Albans in 1461, fighting for the Lancastrian cause.[1] His widow, Dame Elizabeth Grey, later secretly married Edward IV who was the successful Yorkist claimant to the throne.”
WIKIPEDIAJOHN GREY OF GROBY/DEATH AT THE BATTLE OF ST ABLANS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Grey_of_Groby#Death_at_the_battle_of_St_Albans
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIAJOHN GREY OF GROBY
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Grey_of_Groby

[104]
”At the negotiations with the French, Warwick had intimated that King Edward was interested in a marriage arrangement with the French crown, the intended bride being Louis XI’s sister-in-law, Bona, daughter of Louis, Duke of Savoy.[71] This marriage was not to be, however, because in September 1464, Edward revealed that he was already married, to Elizabeth Woodville.[72] The marriage caused great offence to Warwick: not only due to the fact that his plans had been sabotaged, but also the secrecy with which the king had acted.[73] The marriage – contracted on 1 May of the same year – was not made public before Warwick pressed Edward on the issue at a council meeting, and in the meanwhile Warwick had been unknowingly deceiving the French into believing the king was serious about the marriage proposal.”
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/EARLY TENSIONS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Early_tensions

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

[105]

For Edward the marriage may very well have been a love match, but in the long run he sought to build the Woodville family into a powerhouse independent of Warwick’s influence.[74] The marriage of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville caused Warwick to lose his power and influence. He accused Elizabeth, and her mother Jacquetta of Luxembourg, of witchcraft to try and restore the power that he had lost 

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/EARLY TENSIONS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Early_tensions

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick


YOUTUBE.COM
BRITAIN’S BLOODY CROWNTHE KINGMAKER MUST DIE/EP 2 OF 4 (WARS OF THE ROSES DOCUMENTARY

[106]

”VERRADER WILDE ZELF OP DE TROON
De Graaf van Warwick, bijgenaamd ”The Kingmaker” steunde Hendrik VI van het Huis van Lancaster met zijn rijkdom., welsprekendheid en leger.Hij liep over toen zijn neef van het huis York als Eduard IV werd gekroond.Uit machtswellust nam de Graaf van Warwick na een veldslag de koning gevangenen probeerde hij zelf op de Engelse troon te komen.”

Bladzijde 24Magazine ”Ontdek”Aflevering:De geschiedenis achter Game of Thrones

[107]
This was not enough to cause a complete fallout between the two men, though from this point on Warwick increasingly stayed away from court.[76] The promotion of Warwick’s brother George to Archbishop of York shows that the earl was still in favour with the king. In July 1465, when Henry VI was once more captured, it was Warwick who escorted the fallen king to his captivity in the Tower. 

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/EARLY TENSIONS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Early_tensions

WIKIPEDIA
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

[108]

”The Burgundian party was a political allegiance against France that formed during the latter half of the Hundred Years’ War. The term “Burgundians” refers to the supporters of the Duke of BurgundyJohn the Fearless, that formed after the assassination of Louis I, Duke of Orléans. Their opposition to the Armagnac party, the supporters of Charles, Duke of Orléans, led to a civil war.”
WIKIPEDIABURGUNDIAN (PARTY)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burgundian_(party)

”The English negotiated with their Burgundian allies to transfer her to their custody, with Bishop Pierre Cauchon of Beauvais, an English partisan, assuming a prominent role in these negotiations and her later trial.[68] The final agreement called for the English to pay the sum of 10,000 livres tournois[69] to obtain her from Jean de Luxembourg, a member of the Council of Duke Philip of Burgundy.”
WIKIPEDIAJOAN OF ARC/CAPTURE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joan_of_Arc#Capture

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIAJOAN OF ARC
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joan_of_Arc

[109]

””They have but two rulers, M. de Warwick and another whose name I have forgotten.”– The Governor of Abbeville in a letter to Louis XI[2][58]

AAN DE RECHTERKANT VAN
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/WARWICK’S APEX
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Warwick’s_apex

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

[110]

”Meanwhile, Edward’s father-in-law, Richard Woodville, Earl Rivers, who had been created treasurer, was in favour of a Burgundian alliance.[80] This set up internal conflict within the English court, which was not alleviated by the fact that Edward had signed a secret treaty in October with Burgundy, while Warwick was forced to carry on sham negotiations with the French”

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/EARLY TENSIONS’
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Early_tensions

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

WIKIPEDIAMARGARET OF YORK/MARRIAGE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_of_York#Marriage

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIAMARGARET OF YORK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_of_York

[111]

Meanwhile, Edward’s father-in-law, Richard Woodville, Earl Rivers, who had been created treasurer, was in favour of a Burgundian alliance 

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/EARLY TENSIONS’
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Early_tensions

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

[112]

WIKIPEDIAHUNDRED YEARS WAR/BEGINNING OF THE WAR: 1337-1360
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hundred_Years%27_War#Beginning_of_the_war:_1337–1360

ORIGINELE BERICHT

WIKIPEDIAHUNDRED YEARS WAR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hundred_Years%27_War

[113]

”Later, George Neville was dismissed as chancellor, while Edward refused to contemplate a marriage between Warwick’s oldest daughter Isabel, and Edward’s brother George, Duke of Clarence.[82] It became increasingly clear that Warwick’s position of dominance at court had been taken over by Rivers
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE. 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/EARLY TENSIONS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Early_tensions

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE. 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

[114]
WARWICK ALS HOOFD VAN DE NEVILLE FAMILIE

Most of England’s leading families had remained loyal to Henry VI or remained uncommitted in the recent conflict. The new regime, therefore, relied heavily on the support of the Nevilles, who held vast estates and had been so instrumental in bringing Edward to the throne. However, the king increasingly became estranged from their leader the Earl of Warwick, due primarily to his marriage 

WIKIPEDIAEDWARD IV OF ENGLAND/OVERTHROW
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England#Overthrow

Edward’s impetuous marriage to Elizabeth Woodville greatly offended the Nevilles, largely because Warwick had been negotiating several continental alliances to support Edward’s tenuous reign, including a marriage to one of several family members of Louis XI of France.  

WIKIPEDIAEDWARD IV OF ENGLAND
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIAEDWARD IV OF ENGLAND
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England

[115]

Warwick now orchestrated a rebellion in Yorkshire while he was away, led by a “Robin of Redesdale“.[87] Part of Warwick’s plan was winning over King Edward’s younger brother, George Plantagenet, possibly with the prospect of installing him on the throne 

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/REBELLION AND DEATH
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Rebellion_and_death

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

[116]

WIKIPEDIAHOUSE OF NEVILLE/DISAFFECTION AND DEFECTION

Disaffection and defection

Warwick, now the richest man in England after the king, was the power behind the throne in Edward’s regime during its early years, but the two men later fell out.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Neville#Disaffection_and_defection

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIA

HOUSE OF NEVILLE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Neville

[117]

The king opposed the marriage as it would bring the already powerful Earl of Warwick too close to the throne. However the ceremony took place in secret at Calais on 11 July 1469, conducted by Isabel Neville’s uncle George Neville, archbishop of York.  

WIKIPEDIA

ISABEL NEVILLE, DUCHESS OF CLARENCE/LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isabel_Neville,_Duchess_of_Clarence#Life

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIA

ISABEL NEVILLE, DUCHESS OF CLARENCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isabel_Neville,_Duchess_of_Clarence

”Warwick retired in dudgeon to his estates, and began to plot in secret for his revenge. In the summer of 1469 he went over to Calais, where Isabel and Clarence were married without the king’s knowledge. ”

LUMINARIUM

RICHARD NEVILLE, EARL OF WARWICK

 ”THE KINGMAKER”

(1428-1471)

http://www.luminarium.org/encyclopedia/warwick.htm  [118]

Robin of Redesdale (fl. 1469), sometimes called “Robin Mend-All”, was the leader of an insurrection against King Edward IV of England.[1] His true identity is unknown, but it is thought he could have been either Sir John Conyers of Hornby (d. 1490) or his brother Sir William Conyers of Marske (d. 1469), or even both. Whoever he was, the power behind his rebellion was Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick (“Warwick the Kingmaker”).”
WIKIPEDIAROBIN OF REDESDALE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robin_of_Redesdale

”Warwick now orchestrated a rebellion in Yorkshire while he was away, led by a “Robin of Redesdale“.[87] Part of Warwick’s plan was winning over King Edward’s younger brother, George Plantagenet, possibly with the prospect of installing him on the throne”
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/REBELLION AND DEATH
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Rebellion_and_death

ORIGINELE BRON 

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

[119]

WIKIPEDIABATTLE OF EDGECOTE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Edgecote_Moor

[120]

”Following the battle, Richard Woodville, Earl Rivers, father of the Yorkist Queen Elizabeth Woodville, and his second son John were taken prisoners at Chepstow. Following a hasty show trial, they were beheaded at Kenilworth on 12 August 1469”

WIKIPEDIABATTLE OF EDGECOTE/THE REBELLION
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Edgecote_Moor#The_rebellion
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIABATTLE OF EDGECOTE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Edgecote_Moor

[121]

With his army now defeated, King Edward IV was taken under arrest by George Neville.[95] Warwick then imprisoned the king in Warwick Castle, and in August, the king was taken north to Middleham Castle.[96] In the long run, however, it proved impossible to rule without the king, and continuing disorder forced Warwick to release King Edward IV in September 1469 
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/REBELLION AND DEATH
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Rebellion_and_death

ORIGINELE BRON 

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick
[122]
At this point, Edward did not seek to destroy either Warwick or Clarence but sought reconciliation instead 

WIKIPEDIAEDWARD IV OF ENGLAND/OVERTHROW
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England#Overthrow

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIAEDWARD IV OF ENGLAND
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England

”A modus vivendi had been achieved between Warwick and the king for some months, but the restoration of Henry Percy to Montagu’s earldom of Northumberland prevented any chance of full reconciliation.[97] A trap was set for the king when disturbances in Lincolnshire led him north, where he could be confronted by Warwick’s men.[98] Edward, however, discovered the plot when Robert, Lord Welles, was routed at Losecote Field in Rutland, and gave away the plan

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/REBELLION AND DEATH
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Rebellion_and_death

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

[123]

”A few months later in March 1470, Warwick and Clarence chose this opportunity to rebel against Edward IV again”
WIKIPEDIAEDWARD IV OF ENGLAND/OVERTHROW
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England#Overthrow

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIAEDWARD IV OF ENGLAND
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England

”This time, Edward IV was forced to flee to Flanders when he learned that Warwick’s brother John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu, had also switched to the Lancastrian side, making Edward’s military position untenable.[WIKIPEDIAEDWARD IV OF ENGLAND/OVERTHROW
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England#Overthrow

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIAEDWARD IV OF ENGLAND
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England 



”Despite this matrimonial relationship with the Nevilles, when Warwick drove Edward IV into exile in 1470, Hastings went with Edward and accompanied the king back the following spring

WIKIPEDIAWILLIAM HASTINGS, 1ST BARON HASTINGS/BIOGRAPHY
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Hastings,_1st_Baron_Hastings#Biography 

ORIGINELE BRON


WIKIPEDIAWILLIAM HASTINGS, 1ST BARON HASTINGS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Hastings,_1st_Baron_Hastings  

”During the latter part of Edward IV’s reign, Richard demonstrated his loyalty to the king,[49] in contrast to their brother George who had allied himself with Warwick when the earl rebelled towards the end of the 1460s.[50] Following Warwick’s 1470 rebellion, before which he had made peace with Margaret of Anjou and promised the restoration of Henry VI to the English throne, Richard, William, Lord Hastings and Anthony Woodville, Earl Rivers escaped capture at Doncaster by Warwick’s brother, Lord Montague.[51] On 2 October they sailed from King’s Lynn in two ships; Edward landed at Marsdiep and Richard at Zeeland.[52] It was said that, having left England in such haste as to possess almost nothing, Edward was forced to pay their passage with his fur cloak; certainly, Richard borrowed three pounds from Zeeland’s town bailiff.

WIKIPEDIARICHARD III OF ENGLAND/EXILE AND RETURN
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_III_of_England#Exile_and_return 

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIARICHARD III OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_III_of_England 
”Henry VI was briefly restored to the throne in 1470 in an event known as the Readeption of Henry VI, and Edward took refuge in Flanders, part of Burgundy, accompanied by his younger brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester (later King Richard III of England). The Duke of Burgundy had been Edward’s brother-in-law since the marriage of Edward’s sister Margaret of York to Charles, Duke of Burgundy, on 3 July 1468”
WIKIPEDIAEDWARD IV OF ENGLAND/RESTORATION
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England#Restoration  


ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIAEDWARD IV OF ENGLAND
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England  


[124]

”Henry VI was briefly restored to the throne in 1470 in an event known as the Readeption of Henry VI, and Edward took refuge in Flanders, part of Burgundy, accompanied by his younger brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester (later King Richard III of England). The Duke of Burgundy had been Edward’s brother-in-law since the marriage of Edward’s sister Margaret of York to Charles, Duke of Burgundy, on 3 July 1468”
WIKIPEDIAEDWARD IV OF ENGLAND/RESTORATION
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England#Restoration  


ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIAEDWARD IV OF ENGLAND
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England  



[125]

”Warwick soon gave up, and once more fled the country with Clarence. Denied access to Calais, they sought refuge with King Louis XI of France.[100] Louis arranged a reconciliation between Warwick and Margaret of Anjou, and as part of the agreement, Margaret and Henry’s son, Edward, Prince of Wales, would marry Warwick’s daughter Anne



WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/REBELLION AND DEATH
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Rebellion_and_death 

ORIGINELE BRON 

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick 


”Warwick made an accord with Louis XI and Queen Margaret in which he agreed to restore Henry VI in return for French support for a military invasion of England”

WIKIPEDIAEDWARD IV OF ENGLAND/OVERTHROW
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England#Overthrow

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIAEDWARD IV OF ENGLAND
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England 

[126]

”On 30 December, at the Battle of WakefieldYork was killed, as were York’s second son Edmund, Earl of Rutland, and Warwick’s younger brother Thomas

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/HOUSE OF YORK TRIUMPHANT
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#House_of_York_triumphant

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

[127]

Warwick soon gave up, and once more fled the country with Clarence. Denied access to Calais, they sought refuge with King Louis XI of France.[100] Louis arranged a reconciliation between Warwick and Margaret of Anjou, and as part of the agreement, Margaret and Henry’s son, Edward, Prince of Wales, would marry Warwick’s daughter Anne 

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/REBELLION AND DEATH
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Rebellion_and_death

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

[128]

WIKIPEDIABATTLE OF BARNET

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Barnet

[129]

”Henry VI rewarded Clarence by making him next in line to the throne after his own son, justifying the exclusion of Edward IV either by attainder for his treason against Henry VI or on the grounds of his alleged illegitimacy.[citation needed] After a short time, Clarence realized that his loyalty to his father-in-law was misplaced: Warwick had his younger daughter, Anne Neville, Clarence’s sister-in-law, marry Henry VI’s son in December 1470. This demonstrated that his father-in-law was less interested in making him king than in serving his own interests and, since it now seemed unlikely that Warwick would replace Edward IV with Clarence, Clarence was secretly reconciled with Edward ”

WIKIPEDIAGEORGE PLANTAGENET, 1ST DUKE OF CLARENCE/LIFE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Plantagenet,_1st_Duke_of_Clarence#Life

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIAGEORGE PLANTAGENET, 1ST DUKE OF CLARENCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Plantagenet,_1st_Duke_of_Clarence

[130]


YOUTUBE.COM
BRITAIN’S BLOODY CROWNTHE KINGMAKER MUST DIE/EP 2 OF 4 (WARS OF THE ROSES DOCUMENTARY

[131]
”Most of England’s leading families had remained loyal to Henry VI or remained uncommitted in the recent conflict. The new regime, therefore, relied heavily on the support of the Nevilles, who held vast estates and had been so instrumental in bringing Edward to the throne.”

WIKIPEDIA EDWARD IV OF ENGLAND/OVERTHROW
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England#Overthrow

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIA EDWARD IV OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England

[132]

”Henry was by now fully determined to take the throne, but presenting a rationale for this action proved a dilemma.[2] It was argued that Richard, through his tyranny and misgovernment, had rendered himself unworthy of being king.[98] However, Henry was not next in line to the throne; the heir presumptive was Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, great-grandson of Edward III’s second surviving son, Lionel. Bolingbroke’s father, John of Gaunt, was Edward’s third son to survive to adulthood”
WIKIPEDIARICHARD II OF ENGLAND/DOWNFALL
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_of_England#Downfall

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIARICHARD II OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_III_of_England

ZIE VOOR HET SUPERIEURE RECHT VAN HET HUIS YORK OP DE TROON, OOK DE NOTEN 24 EN 25 

[133]

WIKIPEDIA BATTLE OF TEWKESBURY

Battle of Tewkesbury
Battle of TewkesburyThe Battle of Tewkesbury, which took place on 4 May 1471, was one of the decisive battles of the Wars of the Ros…

Reacties uitgeschakeld voor Rozenoorlogen tussen Huizen York en Lancaster/Onzininformatie over hoofdrolspeler Richard Neville, 16e Graaf van Warwick, de ”Kingmaker”

Opgeslagen onder Divers

The Prince Harry and Meghan Markle Interview/A Racist Cuckoo in the Royal Family?

THE PRINCE HARRY AND MEGHAN MARKLE INTERVIEW/A RACIST CUCKOO IN THE ROYAL FAMILY?

Meghan and Harry, who introduced Archie in May 2019, said there were concerns about how dark their baby's skin would be
Meghan said the Queen was one of the first people she met
Related image


ASTRID ESSED KEEPS HER WORD!

YOUTUBE.COMGAME OF THRONESA LANNISTER ALWAYS PAYS HIS DEBTS4.16-4.18

CHAPTERS
RACIST SMEAR CAMPAIGN

LEAVING THE COUNTRY 

GOODBYE TO ROYAL TASKS

THE OPRAH WINFREY INTERVIEW, THAT SHOOK THE WORLD!

RACIST REMARKS AND ”THE FIRM” PRESSURE

STATEMENT OF THE QUEEN ON RACIST REMARKS

RELATIONSHIP WITH THE QUEEN

WHAT’S FURTHER ON THE TABLE

DEPRESSION OF MEGHAN MARKLE

SNAKE PIERS MORGAN!

ASTRID’S WRITING ABOUT THE OPRAH INTERVIEW, FROM

MARCH UNTIL AUGUST

FINAL

[END OF THE CHAPTERS, NOW READ MY ARTICLE!]

[Written between 10 March and 7 August 2021!]

Readers!At 10 March anno Domini 2021  I did a promise to you, that I wouldcomment on the Sensational Oprah Winfrey interview with PrinceHarry and his wife Meghan Markle [1], who both had finally decided not to return to their royal roles and duties [2]However,according to my information, Prince Harry is stillin the line for the throne [3],which I applaud, since as you’ll know, I cheered theroyal couple on from the beginning! [4]Why?Because Cheddar Man finally won. [5]HAHAHA/NO, That’s a half joke!I think one of the reasons is, that here I saw a Couple, that chose foreach other, despite the racist backlash Meghan Markle had from the beginning [6]and the courageous and honourable defense from Prince Harry on her behalf [7].Seems like a modern fairy Tale and Why not?People are allowed to dream, to juice the very life!
That was the Fairy Tale side of it.But like a bad dream in ”Alice in Wonderland” [8], it was not a”and they lived happily ever after” Story, not only because ofthe backlash at first [9], but because apparently there was an evil partyspoiler within the Royal Family.I’ll deal with that later.
But meanwhile the disturbing backlash continued [10], even a nasty petition to strip Prince Harry and his wife Meghan Markle from theirroyal titles ”The Duke and Duchess of Sussex” [11]The petitioner considered the titles as ” ‘morally wrong’ and ‘disrespectful’and considered them as ” ‘entirely non-democratic’ and a ‘symbol of oppression by the wealthy elite’. [12]Be that as it may [indeed, in 21st century monarchs and royal titles are a thing apart], but is this just an outburst of republicanism [13]or…it is more?Because, when it were just them ”holding royal titles”, then why especially directed against Prince Harry and his wife and not against the rest of the royal family, like Prince Harry’s elder brother, Prince William, heir to the throne after their father the Prince of Wales, Prince Charles?[Prince Willam is the Duke of Cambridge] [14]Seems suspicious to me!
Because the whole case felt unfair to me,  I send an email letter to the Council of Brighton, in which I wrote among else:
”Although I am not a British national, yet I take the liberty to write you about your debating the petition of stripping Prince Harry and his wife Ms Meghan Markle from the royal titles ”Duke and Duchess of Sussex”, which were given to them by Queen Elisabeth at the occasion of their wedding. [1]Shortly said:I think this petition is an outrage, a sign of disrespect against the Queen and especially Prince Harry and Ms Meghan Markle and I urgently request to you NOT to grant this nonsense petition;” [15]
I was pleased to receive the following letter from Mr R. Watson, Customer Feedback Officer | Performance, Improvements and Programmes | Brighton & Hove City Council”
””Dear Astrid Essed,

Many thanks for your email. While we are obliged to debate any petition with more than 1,250 signatures at Full Council, the issue raised is a matter for the Crown rather than local authorities. We do not have the power to remove titles and, therefore, the council voted to simply ‘note’ the petition. No further action is being taken.

Best regards,

Richard Watson | Customer Feedback Officer | Performance, Improvements and Programmes | Brighton & Hove City Council”

[16]

The haters did not win! [17]

RACIST SMEAR CAMPAIGN

But like Prince Harry rightly stated in his declaration to defend his then

fiancee Meghan Marke [18], there has been a nasty, racist smear campaign against Meghan Markle from nearly the beginning the press [and others]

knew, that she had a love relation with Prince Harry. [19]

Of course it were not all journalists and the whole press:

Espexially low class ”journalist” Piers Morgan [20] led the smear campaign for resaons he knows best, followed by other journalistic

nobodies [21]

By the way:

This Piers Morgan journalist is so obsessed by his vendetta against

Meghan Markle, that he recently [march 2021] left the ITV Good Morning Britain show program because of his [again] hateful remarks about Meghan Markle, even though she and her husband left the country for a time already [22]

The reason for his nasty remarks led in the Oprah Winfrey interview [23]

and the remarks Meghan Markle made about her mental state of health 

[suicide thoughts] [24]

I refer to that later.

But of course not the whole press was led by either racist or hateful

[or a combination of the two] moties against Meghan Markle:

For example journalist Zoe Williams did a good job with her

article in the Guardian ”Whatever Meghan does, she’s damned. Let’s not

repeat history.”, fighting the nasty villification of Meghan Markle. [25]

Am I saying now, that Meghan Markle is a Saint?

Of course not!

Everybody makes mistakes and she will have made hers:

But here I am fighting the abnormal negative attention, with often

racist undertones Meghan Markle got [26] and I am glad that there were

journalists, who played fair play!

LEAVING THE COUNTRY 

Anyway, partly because of that continuing smear campaign against

Meghan Markle [27], Prince Harry and his wife Meghan Markle, who became happy parents of a son, Lord Archie, on 6 may 2019 [28], decided 

to step back as senior royals, splitting their time between the UK and

North-America. [29]

That was in january 2020. [30]

The MEGXIT, as sensational tabloids called it [31], as if Meghan Markle

made that decision alone…..! 

Cherchez la Femme…../HAHAHAHA

First the Royal Couple went to Canada, later they moved to L.A. [Los Angeles] [32]

According to my information, they now live in Montecito [33], where Meghan Markle expects their second child [34], a daughter, as they revealed

in the Oprah Winfrey interview. [35]

A special Blessing after the miscarriage Meghan suffered last year! [36]

By the way, I forgot to mention, that after leaving England, Prince

Harry and Meghan Markle signed contracts with Netflix and Spotify [37]

A Shrewd Couple!

GOODBYE TO ROYAL TASKS

As I wrote before, in the beginning of this year, Prince Harry and

Meghan made up their mind, not to return to their royal tasks and

duties. [38]

Also we have seen Prince Harry and his son Lord Archie’s right on

succession to the throne remains the same. [39]

 But [and that’s understandable, since they don’t do the

Royal Job anymore] that they lose their royal patronages. [40]

Prince Harry’s grandmother, Queen Elizabeth, issued a declaration,

stating, confirming this grand step of Prince Harry and his wife, Meghan,

stating ”While all are saddened by their decision, The Duke and Duchess remain much loved members of the family” [41]

The Statement of the Queen also referred to the fact, that

the royal patronages were withdrawn:

”Following conversations with The Duke, The Queen has written confirming that in stepping away from the work of The Royal Family it is not possible to continue with the responsibilities and duties that come with a life of public service. The honorary military appointments and Royal patronages held by The Duke and Duchess will therefore be returned to Her Majesty, before being redistributed among working members of The Royal Family.'[42]

THE OPRAH WINFREY INTERVIEW, THAT SHOOK THE WORLD!

RACIST REMARKS AND ”THE FIRM” PRESSURE

So far, so good.

Now the interview with Oprah Winfrey

That D….mnd interview. [43]

Now assuming, that Prince Harry and Meghan Markle spoke the truth

with Oprah Winfrey, did it shocked me?

For a part, yes.

For a part, no, since I already learnt [and wrote about] the racist smearcampaign against Meghan, Duchess of Sussex, by the press. [44]

But now the Royal Family was involved, at least one [or more?] members,

uttering racist remarks. [45]

And not the least!

I quote from the interview:

”Meghan: But I can give you an honest answer. In those months when I was pregnant, all around this same time . . . so we have in tandem the conversation of ‘He won’t be given security, he’s not going to be given a title’ and also concerns and conversations about how dark his skin might be when he’s born.” [46]

AND THAT’S SOMETHING!

OR ISN’T IT?

Before going deeper into this, there were twelve higlights in the notorious

[or famous] interview, which BBC clarified for us [47]:

I mention them for you, one by one:

1 Discussions about how dark Meghan’s baby might be

2 Kate ”made Meghan cry”, not the other way around

3 Meghan said she was on the verge of suicide but was refused help

4  Meghan spoke to one of Diana’s friends

5  Harry feels ”let down” by Charles

6  But the couple’s relationship with the Queen is good

7  Harry ”cut out financially”

8  The truth behind a photograph

9   Meghan ”didn’t do any research” on the Royal Family

10  They exchanged vowed three days before their wedding

11   Archie’s favourite phrase is ”drive safe”

12   And….it’s a girl!

[48]

Now I don’t comment on all the twelve highlights [the Megan-Katie thing [49] I consider as less important, I can’t judge who is right, I was not there], I only mention those things

which I think are really important.

To begin with:

THE FIRM, THAT MYSTERIOUS FIRM

During the interview with Oprah Winfrey, several times Meghan Markle

refers to an institution within the British Royal Family, ”The Firm” and she is very vague about the person or persons who back[s] this:

I quote from the interview:

”Oprah: So, are you saying you did not feel supported by the powers that be, be that The Firm, the monar-chy, all of them?

Meghan: It’s hard for people to distinguish the two because there’s . . . it’s a family business, right? [50]

Oprah: Mm-hmm.

Meghan: So, there’s the family, and then there’s the people that are running the institution. Those are two separate things” [51]

ANOTHER QUOTE ABOUT ”THE FIRM”/THE PRESSURE

” And I . . . and I remember so often people within The Firm would say, ‘Well, you can’t do this because it’ll look like that. You can’t’. So, even, ‘Can I go and have lunch with my friends?’ ‘No, no, no, you’re oversaturated, you’re every-where, it would be best for you to not go out to lunch with your friends’. I go, ‘Well, I haven’t . . . I haven’t left the house in months’.” [52]

THE FIRM, AGAIN/IT’S WAY OF ACTING

[Quote]

”Oprah: So the institution is never a person. Or is it a series of people?

Meghan: No, it’s a person.

Oprah: It’s a person.

Meghan: It’s several people” [53]

THE FIRM/RACIST REMARKS

I must confess readers, that I don’t get grip on this, no persons

mentioned, no facts to check, no names

”It” or ” those people” can be anyone in the Royal Family, but, assuming that

Meghan Markle speaks the truth about some damaging sides of ”The Firm” [like having trouble with the skin colour of her and Prince Harry’s first child, Archie, a horror story, which was confirmed by Prince Harry, as denying Meghan a form of help, when she was depressed] [54], that Firm must be some important members of the Royal Family.

I puzzled and puzzled, but without more information I can’t make sense

of this.

Only of course, that assuming Meghan Markle and Prince Harry speak the truth, there must be a racist cuckoo in the British Royal Family, which is

no suprise to me, after from 17th centuries creation of the concept of race,

in time of  slavery and colonialism. [55]

Would have been strange if it had not affected the Royal Family.

So ”The Firm” is a vague Institution of a series of people [who, is the big question] in the Royal Family with some power and some of them

have uttered very painful, racist things against Prince Harry about

the possible skin colour of the baby [who turned to be ”Lord Archie] [56]

I’ve puzzled and puzzled, like as I’m sure most people, who

saw or read the interview [I did noth], who that mysterious person or

persons might be, who made those nasty remarks about the skin colour

of Lord Archie, the great grandson of reigning Queen Elizabeth II!

If the whole thing is true-if Meghan Markle and Prince Harry speak the

truth and for now I have no reason to doubt that-it is a nasty business, but, again, not the whole amazing, that racism also exists between the British

Royal Family after from 17th centuries creation of the concept of race,

in time of  slavery and colonialism! [57]

STATEMENT OF THE QUEEN ON RACIST REMARKS

More important is the Statement of the Queen, who spoke out concerns

about those racist remarks after the Oprah Winfrey interview. [58]

Quoting the message of Buckingham Palace:

”The whole family is saddened to learn the full extent of how challenging the last few years have been for Harry and Meghan.

“The issues raised, particularly that of race, are concerning. While some recollections may vary, they are taken very seriously and will be addressed by the family privately.

“Harry, Meghan and Archie will always be much loved family members.” [59]

RELATIONSHIP WITH THE QUEENThat’s clear talk and as Meghan Markle remarked in the famous Oprah Winfreyinterview about the Queen:”So, there’s the family, and then there’s the people that are running the institution. Those are two separate things. And it’s important to be able to compartmentalise that, because the Queen, for example, has always been wonderful to me. I mean, we had one of our first joint engagements together. She asked me to join her, and I . . . 

Oprah: Was this on the train?

Meghan: Yeah, on the train.”

AND

”Right. Just moments of . . . and it made me think of my grand-mother, where she’s always been warm and inviting and . . . and really welcoming.

Oprah: So, OK, so she made you feel welcomed?

Meghan: Yes.” [60]

Prince Harry also commented:

” I’ve spoken more to my grandmother in the last year than I have done for many, many years.

ALSO

”My grandmother and I have a really good relationship . . .And an understanding. And I have a deep respect for her. She’s my Colonel-In-Chief, right? She always will be. ” [61]

[HAHAHA, THE MILITARY WAY……]

WHAT’S FURTHER ON THE TABLE

DEPRESSION OF MEGHAN MARKLE

As I said before, I don’t comment on all the topics of that famous

Oprah Winfrey Interview

I leave the Meghan/Katie thing [62] for what it is, that Meghan didn’t do research on the Royal Family [63] etcetera.

Also I don’t comment on Prince Harry’s relationship between his father 

and brother [64], because fathers and sons often have their issues, like brothers.

After all, fathers and sons are fathers and sons and brothers will 

be brothers and  in most cases, everything will be allright and they”

ll end as one big, happy fami!y!

And I do believe, that a Royal Life can be a golden harnass [as Prince Harry commented, that his father and brother are ”trapped” [64], but that’s the price you pay for your privilege, isn’t it?

As Prince Harry said himself ”It’s part of the job” [65]

Also Prince Harry’s remarks, that he was ”cut out financially” [66],

didn’t impress me.

When you are the grandson of the Queen, one of the richest women in

the world [67] and you have been raised with all kinds of privileges

and financial advantages, than ”cut out financially” means a totally

different story than when it happens to the common man.

Besides, the first task of any man and father, royalty or not, is

to provide for his family on his own force.

So that’s for the royal privileges

But of course that all changes , when you are twelve [two weeks after his mother’s death, Prince Harry became thirteen years old] and fifteen years old

when you loses your mother far too early by a car crashincident, pushed

by the tabloids and you have to walk behind her coffin for the eyes

of the whole world to see [68]

I felt really sorry for Prince Harry and his brother Prince William at that moment.

Too young, far too young to lose one;s mother [although it is never the right time]

That also changes when you feel that depressed, like Meghan Markle stated in the Oprah  interview,  that you want to take your own life…..[69]

SNAKE PIERS MORGAN!

Even about that statement boulevard hater Piers Morgan made a nasty remark, so he had to leave Good Morning Britain after more than 40.000 complaints!  [70]

GOOD RIDDANCE TOO!

So therefore I wanted to comment that depression of Meghan Markle,

nearly ruining her life and that of her family.

And if it’s really true, that Meghan knocked on the door of

”the Firm” and they didn’t open it, when she was in need [refused to give 

the necessary help] [71], that that’s more than scandalous.

ASTRID’S WRITING ABOUT THE OPRAH INTERVIEW, FROM

MARCH UNTIL AUGUST

Since I began to comment the famous Oprah Interview [in March] until now [August], much has happened in the British Royal Family, so including in the lives of Prince Harry and Meghan Markle.

Prince Harry’s grandfather, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, died [72]

Prince Harry and his brother Prince William unveil a statue in the honour of their mother,  Princess Diana [73] and of course the happy arrival of

Prince Harry and Meghan Markle’s daughter, Lady Lilibeth, the eleventh grandchild of Queen Elizabeth and named after her greatgrandmother Queen Elizabeth [Lilibet was the name the Queen’s family called her] and her grandmother Princess Diana  [74]

[They listened to me:

I always said, that when Harry and Meghan became parents of a daughter,

they had to name her after her greatgrandmother the Queen/HAHAHA]

Also Prince Harry revealed some issues he had with his father concerning

the way he was raised [75], but I consider that as personal and I am sure

they will work that out.

Prince Harry and Meghan Markle have their own life now, far from any

racist smearcampaign [76] and I wish them, with their children, a happy life!

FINAL

So as I promised at 10 march this anno Domini [77], I would comment on

the famous Oprah Winfrey interview with Prince Harry and Meghan Markle.

Now I did.

And you readers probably will ask yourself:

Why she is bothering with an interview from march, we living in august?

Normally indeed I would not bother, but now it is important, because racism is there, that greeneyed monster [78] that can ruin lives.

But happily not the life of the Duke and Duchess of Sussex, who choose the

right way to leave this mess behind them.

But this is racism in the highest circles, the British Royal Family and you

would think, that somebody who is that priviliged as the Duchess of Sussex, should not be subject of it.

Yet it happened, but luckily she has a true husband, Prince Harry, who supports her no matter what, as he has proved. [79]

That made it worth to write about this, although it was months ago, that

the interview was taken.

As I wrote in this article, I could not track down, who is the racist cuckoo

in the British Royal Family, but that matters not.

Fact is, that racism is appartently also the issue in those circles.

And alas, racism is with us for a long time yet, perhaps until

we are attacked by aliens and together we are defending our Mother Earth

[HAHAHA]

But fighting against racism and prejudice, wherever you find it, was worth

to write this article.

And the fact that I completed this article five months after the famous Oprah Winfrey interview [80], adds the worth of fighting for equality.

It was nice to write this!

Astrid Essed

SEE FOR NOTES 

OR

https://www.dewereldmorgen.be/community/notes-1-t-m-80-the-prince-harry-and-meghan-markle-story-astrids-comments/

Reacties uitgeschakeld voor The Prince Harry and Meghan Markle Interview/A Racist Cuckoo in the Royal Family?

Opgeslagen onder Divers

A Royal Daughter for the Duke and Duchess of Sussex!/Lady Lilibet Diana, welcome to the world!

A ROYAL DAUGHTER FOR THE DUKE AND DUCHESS OF SUSSEX!/LADY LILIBET DIANA, WELCOME TO THE WORLD!

Meghan Markle and Prince Harry wished everyone a merry Christmas from their family of four.Meghan Markle and Prince Harry wished everyone a merry Christmas from their family of four.

Prince Harry and Duchess Meghan pose with their newborn son during a photocall in St George’s Hall at Windsor Castle on May 8, 2019 .https://eu.usatoday.com/story/life/2019/05/08/royal-baby-photos-meghan-markle-prince-harry-pose-newborn/1120765001/

Image result for royal baby/prince harry and Meghan Markle/Images
Related image

GREATGRANDMOTHER QUEEN ELISABETH WITH HEREIGHTH GREATGRANDSONhttps://www.bbc.com/news/uk-48201625

Image result for royal baby/prince harry and Meghan Markle/Images
Image result for royal baby/prince harry and Meghan Markle/Images
https://www.astridessed.nl/prince-harry-and-his-bride-meghan-markle-congratulations-to-the-duke-and-duchess-of-sussex/https://twitter.com/RoyalFamily/status/1401614927236841474

The Royal Family@RoyalFamilyCongratulations to The Duke and Duchess of Sussex on the birth of Lilibet Diana! The Queen, The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall and The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge are delighted with the news. Lilibet is Her Majesty’s 11th great-grandchild.9:00 PM · Jun 6, 2021·Twitter for iPhone3,275 Retweets511 Quote Tweets36.7K Like

PHOTO OF THE SECOND ROYAL BABY YET TO BE ADDED

Image result for Cheddar man/Images

THE ENGLISH ROYAL HOUSE BECOMING BLACK!HAHAHAHAHA!!!!, THE REVENGE OF CHEDDAR MAN!


OFFICIAL ANNOUNCEMENT OF PRINCE HARRY AND MEGHAN MARKLE, DUKE AND DUCHESS OF SUSSEX
”“It is with great joy that Prince Harry and Meghan, The Duke and Duchess of Sussex, welcome their daughter, Lilibet “Lili” Diana Mountbatten-Windsor, to the world. Lili was born on Friday, June 4 at 11:40 a.m. in the trusted care of the doctors and staff at Santa Barbara Cottage Hospital in Santa Barbara, CA.

She weighed 7 lbs 11 oz. Both mother and child are healthy and well, and settling in at home. 

Lili is named after her great-grandmother, Her Majesty The Queen, whose family nickname is Lilibet. Her middle name, Diana, was chosen to honor her beloved late grandmother, The Princess of Wales.

This is the second child for the couple, who also have a two-year-old son named Archie Harrison Mountbatten-Windsor. The Duke and Duchess thank you for your warm wishes and prayers as they enjoy this special time as a family.” [1]

This was the official Statement of Prince Harry and his wife, Meghan Markle, the happy parents of now a son [ Archie Harrison Mountbatten-Windsor] and a daughter [Lilibet Diana  Mountbatten-Windsor ] [2]

As at the birth of their son, Lord Archie [3], I add my congratulations to the happy parents!

Also to the Royal Girl’s uncle and aunt, the Duke and Duchess ofCambridge [Prince Harry’s brother, Prince William andhis wife, Kate Middleton], paternal grandfather Prince Charles and his wife Camilla, Prince Harry’s stephmother, her maternal grandparents Doria Ragland and Thomas Markle.And of course her great grandmother, Queen Elisabeth and alas for him, her husband, paternal great grandfather Prince Philip didn’t live long enough to see this day….[4]
Of course the Duke and Duchess of Sussex received congratulationsfrom the Queen, Prince Charles and Prince William [5]

After the birth of Lady Lilibet’s brother, Lord Archie, I remarked jokingly, that it would be nice if the Duke and Duchess of Sussex became parents of a daughter, who would

be named after Queen Elisabeth and so nice that they did indeed! 

But the most of all I appreciate that the Royal Couple named their daughter after Prince Harry’s mother, Princess Diana,

who died so tragically and made such a great contribution to

the fight against landmines [6], which remains greatly

memorable.

Beautiful to honour her on this way, to name her granddaughter,

whom she regrettably never saw, after her.

Astrid Essed

NOTES

[1]

OFFICIAL STATEMENT

“It is with great joy that Prince Harry and Meghan, The Duke and Duchess of Sussex, welcome their daughter, Lilibet “Lili” Diana Mountbatten-Windsor, to the world. Lili was born on Friday, June 4 at 11:40 a.m. in the trusted care of the doctors and staff at Santa Barbara Cottage Hospital in Santa Barbara, CA.

She weighed 7 lbs 11 oz. Both mother and child are healthy and well, and settling in at home.

Lili is named after her great-grandmother, Her Majesty The Queen, whose family nickname is Lilibet. Her middle name, Diana, was chosen to honor her beloved late grandmother, The Princess of Wales.

This is the second child for the couple, who also have a two-year-old son named Archie Harrison Mountbatten-Windsor. The Duke and Duchess thank you for your warm wishes and prayers as they enjoy this special time as a family.”

A MESSAGE OF THANKS FROM THE DUKE AND DUCHESS OF SUSSEX

“On June 4th, we were blessed with the arrival of our daughter, Lili. She is more than we could have ever imagined, and we remain grateful for the love and prayers we’ve felt from across the globe. Thank you for your continued kindness and support during this very special time for our family.”

ARCHEWELL

CONGRATULATIONS TO THE DUKE AND DUCHESS OF

SUSSEX

””It is with great joy that Prince Harry and Meghan, The Duke and Duchess of Sussex, welcome their daughter, Lilibet ‘Lili’ Diana Mountbatten-Windsor, to the world,” the statement said.”Lili was born on Friday, June 4 at 11:40 a.m. in the trusted care of the doctors and staff at Santa Barbara Cottage Hospital,” it said, adding that the new arrival weighed in at 7 pounds, 11 ounces (3.49 kilos) and that “both mother and child are healthy and well, and settling in at home.””Lili is named after her great-grandmother, Her Majesty The Queen, whose family nickname is Lilibet. Her middle name, Diana, was chosen to honor her beloved late grandmother, The Princess of Wales,” the statement added.”
CNNMEGHAN AND HARRY WELCOME BABY GIRL, LILIBET DIANA
https://edition.cnn.com/2021/06/06/europe/meghan-harry-baby-girl-news-intl-scli/index.html

(CNN)Meghan, Duchess of Sussex has given birth to a daughter, the second child for her and Prince Harry, the couple announced in a statement on Sunday.”It is with great joy that Prince Harry and Meghan, The Duke and Duchess of Sussex, welcome their daughter, Lilibet ‘Lili’ Diana Mountbatten-Windsor, to the world,” the statement said.”Lili was born on Friday, June 4 at 11:40 a.m. in the trusted care of the doctors and staff at Santa Barbara Cottage Hospital,” it said, adding that the new arrival weighed in at 7 pounds, 11 ounces (3.49 kilos) and that “both mother and child are healthy and well, and settling in at home.””Lili is named after her great-grandmother, Her Majesty The Queen, whose family nickname is Lilibet. Her middle name, Diana, was chosen to honor her beloved late grandmother, The Princess of Wales,” the statement added.Baby Lili is a sister for the couple’s 2-year-old son, Archie Harrison.Harry, Meghan and their baby son, Archie, meet Archbishop Desmond Tutu during their royal tour of South Africa on September 25, 2019.In a message on their Archewell foundation website, Meghan and Harry said they had been “blessed” by their daughter’s arrival.”She is more than we could have ever imagined, and we remain grateful for the love and prayers we’ve felt from across the globe. Thank you for your continued kindness and support during this very special time for our family.”Buckingham Palace released a statement Sunday on the baby girl’s birth.”The Queen, The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall, and The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge have been informed and are delighted with the news of the birth of a daughter for The Duke and Duchess of Sussex,” it read.The Prince of Wales and Duchess of Cornwall along with the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge tweeted their congratulations.The US Embassy in London also congratulated the Sussexes, noting the news comes just in time for Father’s Day.

‘Feeling of joy’

Harry and Meghan revealed they were expecting a girl during their tell-all interview with Oprah Winfrey, broadcast in March.The newborn is the Queen’s 11th great-grandchild. She is eighth in line to the throne behind her grandfather Charles, uncle William, his three children (George, Charlotte and Louis), her father Harry, and big brother Archie.Her birth in the United States makes her the most senior royal in the line of succession to have been born overseas.It also makes her a dual US-UK citizen, meaning that the youngest Sussex could potentially go on to become US President when she grows up — while also being in line to the British throne.Meghan and Harry kept the pregnancy as private as possible, speaking just a handful of times about their daughter’s impending arrival.One of those occasions was for a pre-recorded message from Meghan for the recent Vax Live concert in May, which she and Harry co-chaired.”My husband and I are thrilled to soon be welcoming a daughter — it’s a feeling of joy we share with millions of other families around the world,” the Duchess told the audience at the event, intended to promote Covid-19 vaccine equity and gender equality.”When we think of her, we think of all the young women and girls around the globe who must be given the ability and support to lead us forward,” she said. “Their future leadership depends on the decisions we make, and the actions we take now to set them up, and set all of us up, for a successful, equitable, and compassionate tomorrow.”

Pregnancy announcement

The royal couple announced back in February they were expecting an addition to their family, sharing a black-and-white snap of them gazing at each other, while Meghan cradled her baby bump.The photo was shot by Misan Harriman, a Nigerian-born British photographer and friend of the couple, who took the picture remotely from his London residence.The timing of their Valentine’s Day announcement likely held special significance for the couple, coming almost exactly 37 years to the day after Prince Charles and Princess Diana revealed that they were expecting their second child: Prince Harry.

Meghan and Harry are expecting a second child

Meghan and Harry are expecting a second childMeghan disclosed in an opinion piece for The New York Times that she suffered a miscarriage last summer.Their newborn daughter is entitled to be a Lady from birth, but will likely not use the title.When Archie Harrison was born in 2019, the Duke and Duchess opted to forgo titles and indicated they would not use his father’s second peerage title, the Earl of Dumbarton.Neither of the Sussex children is currently eligible to use HRH titles, following the rules set out by George V in the 1917 Letters Patent. However, this will change when their grandfather Charles ascends to the throne.As for the question of whether Archie and his baby sister will be joined by more siblings in the future, that doesn’t seem to be on the cards right now.Harry revealed that he and his wife are likely to keep their brood limited to “two, maximum” while discussing the Earth’s dwindling resources with activist and chimpanzee expert Jane Goodall for a special edition of British Vogue last July.Harry and Meghan were married in a lavish wedding at St. George’s Chapel in Windsor, England, three years ago.They stepped back from their roles as senior working royals last year, relinquishing their HRH titles, and now live in Santa Barbara, California.

The private neighborhood

Harry and Meghan settled into their Santa Barbara home last July, according to August reports from People magazine.”They have settled into the quiet privacy of their community since their arrival and hope that this will be respected for their neighbors, as well as for them as a family,” a representative for the family told the magazine in August 2020.Richard Mineards, a columnist for Montecito Journal who covered the royals for 45 years, told CNN on Sunday that the area where they live is very “grand … with very large estates” and it does not have issues with paparazzi.”I mean, Oprah Winfrey, Ellen DeGeneres, Oscar winner Jeff Bridges, Oscar winner Kevin Costner (and) George Lucas live just down the road,” Mineards said. “We are a celebrity community.”The community also has “very wealthy people” such as tech billionaires, he said. “You name it, we have it,” he said.
END OF THE ARTICLE

[3]

WIKIPEDIA

ARCHIE MOUNTBATTEN-WINDSOR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archie_Mountbatten-Windsor

A ROYAL BABY FOR THE DUKE AND DUCHESS OF SUSSEX/LORD ARCHIE. WELCOME TO THE WORLD

ASTRID ESSED

[4]

BBC

PRINCE PHILIP HAS DIED AGED 99, BUCKINGHAM

PALACE ANNOUNCES

9 APRIL 2021

https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-11437314

Prince Philip, Queen Elizabeth II’s husband, has died aged 99, Buckingham Palace has announced.

A statement issued by the palace just after midday spoke of the Queen’s “deep sorrow” following his death at Windsor Castle on Friday morning.

The Duke of Edinburgh, the longest-serving royal consort in British history, was at the Queen’s side for more than her six decades of reign.

Boris Johnson said he “inspired the lives of countless young people”.

“It is with deep sorrow that Her Majesty The Queen announces the death of her beloved husband,” the Palace said.

“The Royal Family join with people around the world in mourning his loss.”

It is understood that the Prince of Wales travelled from his home in Gloucestershire to visit his mother at Windsor Castle on Friday afternoon.

Speaking at Downing Street, the prime minister said that the duke had “earned the affection of generations here in the United Kingdom, across the Commonwealth, and around the world”.

Meanwhile, Justin Welby, the Archbishop of Canterbury, said he “consistently put the interests of others ahead of his own and, in so doing, provided an outstanding example of Christian service”.

In tribute to the duke, Westminster Abbey began tolling its tenor bell once every 60 seconds at 18:00 BST. It rang out 99 times to honour each year of his life.

Earlier, the flag at Buckingham Palace was lowered to half-mast and a notice was posted on the gates to mark the duke’s death.

People placed floral tributes outside the palace, while hundreds visited Windsor Castle to pay their respects.

However, the government urged the public not to gather or leave tributes at royal residences amid the coronavirus pandemic.

The Royal Family has asked people to consider making a donation to a charity instead of leaving flowers in memory of the duke, and an online book of condolence has been launched on the official royal website for those who wish to send messages.

A message on the website of the Duke and Duchess of Sussex’s non-profit organisation Archewell paid tribute to the “loving memory” of the Duke of Edinburgh, saying: “Thank you for your service… you will be greatly missed.”

From midday on Saturday, a 41-gun salute will take place for Prince Philip in cities including London, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast, as well as in Gibraltar and at sea from Royal Navy warships, the Ministry of Defence said. They will be broadcast online and on television for the public to watch from home.

The BBC’s royal correspondent Nicholas Witchell said it was “a moment of sadness” for the country and “most particularly, for the Queen losing her husband of 73 years – a bigger span of years than most of us can imagine”.

He said Prince Philip had made “a huge contribution to the success of the Queen’s reign”, describing the duke as “utterly loyal in his belief in the importance of the role that the Queen was fulfilling – and in his duty to support her”.

“It was the importance of the solidity of that relationship, of their marriage, that was so crucial to the success of her reign,” he added.

A bank of photographers and cameramen were lined up around the growing number of tributes at Buckingham Palace on Friday afternoon, said BBC News reporter Marie Jackson.

Rhea Varma, from Pimlico, pulled up to the gates on her bike to lay flowers and a note saying Rest in Peace Duke.

She said the news was “super sad”. To her, the duke was “the kind of stability that’s so old-fashioned it’s difficult to comprehend. He was a rock who brought integrity.”

Adam Wharton-Ward, 36, also arrived to leave lilies by the palace gates. He is visiting London from his home in France but was so moved by the news, he wanted to “rally round” for the Queen’s sake.

“It’s so sad. He’s been with her for 73 years. If it wasn’t for him who knows if she would have got through it,” he said.

The duke’s appeal, he added, was that he was “almost normal with his gaffes”.

“Now that normality has gone,” he said.

The prince married Princess Elizabeth in 1947, five years before she became Queen.

In March, the duke left King Edward VII’s hospital in central London after a month-long stay for treatment.

He was admitted on 16 February after feeling unwell, and later underwent a procedure for a pre-existing heart condition at another London hospital – St Bartholomew’s.

END OF THE ARTICLE

WIKIPEDIA

PRINCE PHILIP, DUKE OF EDINBURGH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prince_Philip,_Duke_of_Edinburgh

[5]
TOWN AND COUNTRY MAGAZINEQUEEN ELIZABETH AND THE ROYAL FAMILY SHARE A WELCOME MESSAGE TO MEGHAN AND HARRY’S DAUGHTER
https://www.townandcountrymag.com/society/tradition/a36332986/queen-elizabeth-message-prince-harry-meghan-daughter/

Prince Harry and Meghan Markle just announced the birth of their daughter, Lilibet ‘Lili’ Diana Mountbatten-Windsor.

Queen Elizabeth is now a great-grandmother to eleven! With the birth of Prince Harry and Meghan, Duchess of Sussex’s new daughter, the Queen added yet another little one to her royal brood.

The Queen has not been able to meet little Lilibet ‘Lili’ Diana Mountbatten-Windsor yet, as she was born in California. The Duke and Duchess of Sussex are now living in Montecito with their son, Archie Harrison Mountbatten-Windsor, and their new baby girl. The pandemic has made international travel difficult and, given the Queen’s age and schedule, she probably will not head to California soon. However, despite the distance, the monarch shared a sweet public message welcoming the new baby, according to a Buckingham Palace spokesperson.

The Queen, The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall, and The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge have been informed and are delighted with the news of the birth of a daughter for The Duke and Duchess of Sussex.

The Royal Family’s social media channels also shared a note about the new baby, along with a photo from the Duke and Duchess of Sussex’s wedding day.This content is imported from Twitter. You may be able to find the same content in another format, or you may be able to find more information, at their web site.

Lilibet, whose name is a tribute to both Queen Elizabeth and Princess Diana, was born on Friday, June 4 at 11:40 a.m weighing in at a healthy 7 lbs 11 oz. Her parents and older brother were all happy to welcome the little royal to their family. According to the statement, grandparents Prince Charles and Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall are also “delighted” about the newest addition to their brood.

Aside from Archie, the Queen’s other great-grandchildren include Prince William and Kate’s children, Prince George, Princess Charlotte, and Prince Louis, who are the third, fourth, and fifth in line for the throne, respectively. There are also Peter Phillips’ two children, Savannah and Isla, and Zara Phillips’ kids, Mia, Lena, and Lucas. Princess Eugenie also recently welcomed her son, August Brooksbank, to the ever-growing British royal family.

END OF THE ARTICLEVANCOUVER SUNPRINCE WILLIAM REACHES OUT TO PRINCE HARRY, MEGHAN AFTERBIRTH OF A DAUGHTER: REPORT
https://vancouversun.com/entertainment/celebrity/prince-william-reaches-out-to-prince-harry-meghan-after-birth-of-daughter-report/wcm/84e4eeba-a84c-4075-8a34-18ee0389c632


A tweet posted on the Kensington Royal official account read: “We are all delighted by the happy news of the arrival of baby Lili. Congratulations to Harry, Meghan and Archie.”

Prince William and Catherine, Duchess Of Cambridge have reportedly sent a gift to Prince Harry and Meghan, Duchess Of Sussex for their new daughter Lilibet.

According to Us Weekly, the pair were “informed about the birth and have sent Lilibet a gift,” and later offered their congratulations to the Duke and Duchess of Sussex, after it was confirmed that in their second child was born in Santa Barbara on June 4.

The Duke and Duchess admitted they were “delighted” to hear the news that Harry and Meghan have become parents to a little girl, whose full name is Lilibet ‘Lili’ Diana Mountbatten-Windsor.

A tweet posted on the Kensington Royal official account read: “We are all delighted by the happy news of the arrival of baby Lili. Congratulations to Harry, Meghan and Archie.”

While the Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall shared on their page: “Congratulations to Harry, Meghan and Archie on the arrival of baby Lilibet Diana. Wishing them all well at this special time.”

Buckingham Palace officials also issued a statement to reveal the Royal Family were thrilled to hear about the baby’s arrival.

The statement released by the family read: “The Queen, The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall, and The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge have been informed and are delighted with the news of the birth of a daughter for The Duke and Duchess of Sussex.”

The couple’s happy news was confirmed on Sunday by their spokesperson.

They said in a statement: “It is with great joy that Prince Harry and Meghan, The Duke and Duchess of Sussex, welcome their daughter, Lilibet ‘Lili’ Diana Mountbatten-Windsor, to the world. Lili was born on Friday, June 4 at 11:40 a.m. in the trusted care of the doctors and staff at Santa Barbara Cottage Hospital. Both mother and child are healthy and well, and settling in at home.”

END OF THE ARTICLE

https://twitter.com/RoyalFamily/status/1401614927236841474

The Royal Family@RoyalFamilyCongratulations to The Duke and Duchess of Sussex on the birth of Lilibet Diana! The Queen, The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall and The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge are delighted with the news. Lilibet is Her Majesty’s 11th great-grandchild.


The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall@ClarenceHouse·Jun 6Congratulations to Harry, Meghan and Archie on the arrival of baby Lilibet Diana �� Wishing them all well at this special time

The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge@KensingtonRoyal·Jun 6We are all delighted by the happy news of the arrival of baby Lili. Congratulations to Harry, Meghan and Archie.

[6]

TIMEPRINCE HARRY IS HONOURING HIS MOTHER’S WORK INANGOLA. WHAT TO KNOW ABOUT PRINCESS DIANA’S LANDMINES’WALK27 SEPTEMBER 2019

https://time.com/5682006/princess-diana-landmines/

The tour across southern Africa begun Monday by Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex; Meghan, Duchess of Sussex; and their son, Archie Mountbatten-Windsor, will surely be as modern as they are — but Prince Harry’s plan for Thursday and Friday has also echoed the past. Harry is honoring Princess Diana’s advocacy against landmines in Angola by making a trip very similar to the one his mother made in January of 1997, when she walked across a minefield in Huambo in central Angola.

The photographs of Princess Diana wearing protective clothing and equipment, as well as her meeting landmine survivors, raised the profile of the work being done to clear landmines around the world. Her untimely death in August 1997 came only a few months before the United Nations Mine Ban Treaty — a legally binding prohibition on the use, stockpiling, production and transfer of landmines — was opened for signature. Since then, 164 countries have become parties to the agreement, which is informally known as the Ottawa Treaty.

Here’s what to know about Princess Diana’s work on landmines, why it was so significant and how Prince Harry is continuing her legacy.

Why Princess Diana walked across a minefield

At the time of Princess Diana’s visit to Angola in January 1997, Prince William and Prince Harry were 14 and 12 years old, and her divorce from Prince Charles had been finalized the previous year. She was already known for her other charitable endeavors, such as her role in the 1987 opening of the U.K.’s first HIV/AIDS unit in London, which was designed specifically to treat patients with the virus at a time when it was perceived with much stigma.

Princess Diana brought her signature determination to her campaigning against landmines. She had been involved with the British Red Cross for several years before the charity organized and supported her January 1997 trip to Angola. It was there, in Huambo province, that she came across the work of the HALO Trust, which had been working to clear mines in Angola since 1994 amid the then-ongoing civil war there. (The civil war in Angola, which remains one of the world’s most heavily landmine-contaminated countries, ended in 2002 after more than 25 years of intermittent conflict.)

She met children who were landmine survivors, and she was also escorted by HALO students and mine-clearance experts through a cleared lane in one of the active minefields wearing protective armor and headgear. Images from her trip were immediately circulated across international media and provided a striking portrait of the princess among people in a humanitarian context.

“Diana’s visit is something that people in Huambo still talk about today,” says Ralph Legg, program manager of HALO Trust’s operations in Angola. “For the people that were here at that time, which was obviously still a time of conflict, it led to a feeling of acknowledgement, and that their plight was recognized around the world. The people I’ve spoken to who met Diana on that trip have all said how kind, considerate and how genuinely interested she seemed in them.”

After her visit to Angola, Princess Diana wrote a letter to the British Red Cross saying: “If my visit has contributed in any way at all in highlighting this terrible issue, then my deepest wish will have been fulfilled.”

Angola wasn’t the only country affected by landmines that Diana visited; in early August 1997, she visited victims of mines in Bosnia and again focused the world’s attention on the issue. Zoran Ješić, now 46, remembers her visit well. Ješić stepped on a landmine in 1994, and now lives and works in Bosnia for the organization UDAS, which supports landmine survivors. “It was a very brave decision for her to come here only two years after the war,” he says. “The situation wasn’t so stable, and I had the feeling that Diana decided to use her popularity to help people in states like mine. Her contribution on the international level was enormous.”

The legacy of her advocacy against landmines

Diana’s Angola trip was reported on all over the world, and the legacy of her humanitarian work with landmines remains long-lasting. “At that time, she was probably the most recognizable person in the world, and so the fact that she went and met with landmine survivors was really quite incredible,” says Paul Hannon, Executive Director of Mines Action Canada, the Canadian member of International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL), which was awarded the 1997 Nobel Peace Prize. “She showed basic humanity to people who don’t normally get that, and I think that was a wake-up call to all of us.”

At the time of her visit at the beginning of 1997, negotiations were ongoing to initiate the Mine Bans Treaty. Diana had vocally appealed for an international ban on landmines during her time in Angola. Yet her efforts sparked criticism from U.K. lawmakers, who called her a “loose cannon” and out of line with government policy on the issue, which took a more cautious approach to negotiations about the use of landmines, which had not yet been banned in the U.K. Despite the controversy, she had a significant impact on the political process that successfully banned landmines.

The exposure she gave the issue on her visit, and her tragic death in August that year, created an added impetus for the treaty process; as TIME reported in September 1997: “[President Bill] Clinton and his wife Hillary had been touched by the Princess of Wales’ poignant visits to young victims of such mines in Bosnia and Angola a few weeks ago. After her death, the [mine bans] treaty being written in Oslo took on the luster of a humanitarian memorial to Diana and her cause.”

“We planned for the treaty signing here in Ottawa, and we would have loved to have had her there,” says Hannon, who volunteered at the signing of the treaty. “She was only involved for a few months, but everyone identifies her with the fight to ban landmines.”

How Prince Harry is continuing Princess Diana’s work

The upcoming visit is not the first time that the Duke of Sussex has visited the projects run by HALO Trust; he went to a minefield in Mozambique in 2010, and previously visited Angola in 2013. During the 10-day trip, Harry will visit other countries in southern Africa, including Malawi and Botswana, where he has connections with several other charities.

Over the past 22 years, several countries have made huge strides on clearing landmines. In 2015, the government in Mozambique declared the country was mine-free after two decades of clearance operations. With the financial support of international donors and the Angolan government, the HALO Trust alone has cleared about 100,000 landmines in the country, and 297 minefields across Huambo province — only one minefield away from the province being declared mine-free. On Friday, Harry detonated a landmine in southern Angola and walked across a minefield in Dirico province, echoing Diana’s 1997 walk in Huambo. However, the minefield area that his mother visited is now home to communities, schools and businesses. “It’s been totally transformed and is unrecognizable today from when she visited in 1997,” says program manager Legg.

However, campaigners are keen to highlight that there is still work to be done. According to the ICBL, some 61 countries and areas around the world are contaminated by landmines and 32 states remain outside of the Mine Ban Treaty. The Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor recorded over 7,200 casualties caused by mines in 2017, and at least two people clearing mines in southwest Bosnia were killed as recently as Aug. 25.

Harry’s visit to Angola, with its focus on landmines, falls two months before a major conference on achieving a mine-free world by 2025 — one of the major ambitions of the Mine Ban Treaty and a cause that the Duke has spoken about in the past. “I’m hoping that Harry provides the same visibility and added momentum from his trip that his mother did, and that he will remind people that this is a human story,” says Hannon. “It’s a success story in progress. I hope he can remind everybody that the job’s not done yet, but it can be finished.”

Landmine survivor Ješić agrees: “In a way, he will continue something that his mother proudly started.”

END OF THE ARTICLE

”Princess Diana took particular interest in the Red Cross’ work overseas, visiting projects in Nepal and Zimbabwe, among others.

Some of Diana’s most notable humanitarian work was around anti-personnel mines.”

THE BRITISH RED CROSS

MEMORIES OF PRINCESS DIANA AND THE BRITISH RED CROSS

https://www.redcross.org.uk/stories/our-movement/our-history/princess-diana-a-strong-supporter-of-the-british-red-cross

Throughout her life, Princess Diana was a dedicated humanitarian who championed causes in the UK and overseas. We look back on her journey with the Red Cross.

Princess Diana was always committed to using her public profile to bring about positive change.

A firm believer in the power of young people, she became patron of the Red Cross Youth in 1983, which gave her an increasingly visible role with the British Red Cross.

In July 1985, Diana visited a Red Cross adventure camp for disabled children at Hindleap Warren, in East Sussex.

Barbara Summerfield, now in her 80s and from Saltdean, was a youth officer at the time and has fond memories of Diana’s visit.

“What went down well, more than anything else, was that Diana was a real person who the children could talk to,” said Barbara.

“They were very excited about her visit. I don’t think they got much sleep the night before. She watched them do their abseiling and other activities.

“They loved showing her what they could do. Some had serious disabilities and Diana was interested in their medical conditions.

THEY SPOKE TO DIANA AS A NORMAL PERSON, A FRIEND EVEN. AND THAT’S THE WAY SHE SPOKE TO THE CHILDREN.

Barbara Summerfield, British Red Cross vice president, Sussex

“The children made two lovely birdhouses for Diana to give to William and Harry, but they didn’t finish them in time. When they gave them to Diana, she said: ‘Don’t worry, they [William and Harry] will finish them off.’”

Barbara, who is currently British Red Cross vice president in Sussex, added: “I thought Diana had a lovely calming manner, soothing.

“You know how when you meet a princess you bow and there are the formalities, well the children didn’t seem to worry about that. They spoke to Diana as a normal person, a friend even. And that’s the way she spoke to the children.”

“She was interested in what we did”

Edith Conn is British Red Cross president for Greater Manchester. Edith met the Princess when she visited Manchester in the mid-1980s to see a youth orchestra perform.

“We spoke about the Red Cross Youth and she was interested in what we did,” recalled Edith.

“Then we just chatted about everyday things. The funny thing about it was I said to her: ‘What happens when you go home, do you go to another engagement?’

“She said: ‘Oh no I’m going home to have beans on toast and I’m going to watch EastEnders.’ That has always stuck in my mind!”

Diana later sent Edith a trinket for auction at a Red Cross gala ball.

“It was a real privilege to meet her”

“When she spoke to you she looked directly at you,” continued Edith. “You felt as though she was really very interested in what you did and what you had to say. She was lovely.

“I think I am very lucky to have met her. And to think back … that we chatted about beans on toast!

“It was a real privilege to have met her and this … should be a time to celebrate her life.”

In 1993, Diana became a vice president of the British Red Cross, and two years later she became patron of our 125th Birthday Appeal.

The Princess resigned her positions with the British Red Cross in July 1996, but continued to engage with the organisation until shortly before her death.

Princess Diana in Angola

Princess Diana took particular interest in the Red Cross’ work overseas, visiting projects in Nepal and Zimbabwe, among others.

Some of Diana’s most notable humanitarian work was around anti-personnel mines.

She famously travelled to Angola in January 1997, a trip organised and supported by the British Red Cross.

In 1995, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) launched its international ‘Landmines must be stopped’ campaign in a bid to bring about the total ban on the use of anti-personnel mines.

Angola was littered with landmines, a deadly legacy from its civil war.

Estimates put the number of landmines in the country between nine and fifteen million. 

Between 1979 and 1996, the ICRC fitted 9,200 amputees with false limbs in Angola, and manufactured 12,800 prostheses in total.

A lasting impact

During her time in Angola, Princess Diana visited active minefields, met local victims of landmine violence and spoke in favour of a ban on anti-personnel mines.

After her visit, she wrote a letter to the British Red Cross saying: “If my visit has contributed in any way at all in highlighting this terrible issue, then my deepest wish will have been fulfilled.”

Diana’s visit to Angola brought unprecedented attention to the landmine issue and sparked international discussion.

The Ottawa Treaty, which placed a ban on anti-personnel mines, was signed by 122 countries in December 1997 – less than a year after Diana’s Angola visit and a few months after her death. Today, 162 UN member states are parties to the treaty.

Dr Helen Durham, director of international law and policy at the ICRC, believes Diana’s visit to Angola highlighted the problems of using anti-personnel landlines to a broader audience.

“The glamour and global appeal of Princess Diana added another layer to the voices of lawyers, humanitarian workers and medical staff who were raising their concerns about weapons that cannot distinguish between children and combatants,” said Durham.

The treaty, also known as the Mine Ban Convention, has undoubtedly saved lives. Twenty years ago, the ICRC estimated that anti-personnel landmines maimed or killed 20,000 people every year.

In 2015, that number had dropped to 6,461 casualties, according to a report from the International Campaign to Ban Landmines.

However, due to conflicts in Syria, Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, Ukraine and Yemen, that figure actually represented a ten-year high of new casualties.

Durham added: “It is wonderful to see the progress today, but sadly we still have a long way to go to ensure that these weapons stop destroying the lives and livelihoods of thousands. Applying the Ottawa Treaty is the first step.”

END OF THE ARTICLE

WIKIPEDIA

DIANA, PRINCESS OF WALES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diana,_Princess_of_Wales

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My Earl Thomas of Lancaster article in Chapters!

File:Thomas Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster.jpg

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet,_2nd_Earl_of_LancasterTHOMAS 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

Thomas of Lancaster’s main possessions (Maddicott).THOMAS OF LANCASTER’S MAIN POSSESSIONShttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

7626ba0b19e62826ef9090c93b10a11b.jpg

MURDER OF PIERS GAVESTON,INTIMATE FRIEND ANS[POSSIBLE] LOVER OF KING EDWARD II, UNDER THE DIRECT RESPONSIBILITYOF THE EARLS OF LANCASTER, WARWICK, HEREFORD AND ARUNDELMURDER OF PIERS GAVESTON,INTIMATE FRIEND ANS[POSSIBLE] LOVER OF KING EDWARD II, UNDER THE DIRECT RESPONSIBILITYOF THE EARLS OF LANCASTER, WARWICK, HEREFORD AND ARUNDELhttps://themortimersblog.wordpress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traitor-the-life-execution-of-thomas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post-by-stephen-spinks/

File:Pontefract Castle.JPG

PONTEFRACT CASTLE, THOMAS OF LANCASTER’S FAVOURITECASTLE [INHERITED FROM HIS FATHER IN LAW, HENRY DE LACY, 3TH EARL OFLINCOLN, AT HIS DEATH IN 1311]IN HIS FAVOURITE CASTLE HIS SOCALLED ”TRIAL” TOOKPLACE AND NEAR HIS FAVOURITE CASTLE,  IRONICALLY,  HE WAS EXECUTEDhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontefract_Castle#Historyhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontefract_Castle

manuscript-images-medieval-castles
Edward was twice jeered by Lancaster’s garrison at Pontefract in 1317 & 1320 as he passed from north to south 

EDWARD II WAS TWICE JEERED BY THOMAS OF LANCASTERAND HIS HOUSEHOLD, IN AT PONTEFRACT IN 1317 AND 1320, WHEN HEPASSED FROM NORTH TO SOUTH…..https://themortimersblog.wordpress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traitor-the-life-execution-of-thomas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post-by-stephen-spinks/

Image result for thomas 2nd earl of lancaster

THE EXECUTION OF THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTERhttp://www.luminarium.org/encyclopedia/thomasoflancaster.htm

Thomas, Earl of Lancaster

THE EXECUTION OF THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTERhttp://www.englishmonarchs.co.uk/plantagenet_74.html

File:Edmund Crouchback Arms.svg

PLANTAGENETCOAT OF ARMS OF EDMUND CROUCHBACK [SON OFKING HENRY III, BROTHER OF KING EDWARD I ANDFATHER OF THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER], THOMAS,EARL OF LANCASTER AND HIS SUCCESSORShttp://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet,_2nd_Earl_of_LancasterVENERATION CULTUS OF THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER”SAINT THOMAS” [THOMAS THE MARTYR]PICTURE BELOW:

DEVOTIONAL PANEL OF THOMAS OF LANCASTER, PICTURINGHIS BEHEADING OUTSIDE OF PONTEFRACT CASTLEA DEVOTIONAL PANEL WAS A RELIGIOUS OBJECT, SOLDON PILGRIMAGE TO COMMEMORATE AND VENERATESAINTS AND MARTYRShttp://www.culture24.org.uk/history-and-heritage/archaeology/art522182-devotional-panel-of-beheaded-rebel-14th-century-martyr-surfaces-on-shore-of-river-thames

A photo of a small dark silver religious panel depicting the beheading of a medieval man

The beheading of the Earl is portrayed within the panel© MOLA / Andy Chopping

MY EARL THOMAS OF LANCASTER ARTICLE IN CHAPTERS!
READERS!

As I promised, I have divided my extended article ”Thomas of Lancaster, rebel cousin of king Edward II, from warlord to Saint” [1] in Chapters, easier for you to readHereby the whole overview:It was nice to travel with you to fourtheenth century England.Until next time……

[1]
THOMAS OF LANCASTER, REBEL COUSIN OF KING EDWARD II, FROM WARLORD TO SAINTASTRID ESSED
https://www.astridessed.nl/thomas-of-lancaster-rebel-cousin-of-king-edward-iifrom-warlord-to-saint/

OVERVIEW IN CHAPTERS:

ASTRID ESSED
SEE AND ENJOY THE CHAPTERS
CHAPTER ONE
IN GENERAL/
FAMILY TIES/HISTORICAL CONFLICTS BETWEEN
KINGS AND BARONS/PERSONAL LIFE/POWER AND WEALTH

CHAPTER TWO
BEGINNING OF HIS CAREER/SERVICE UNDER HIS
UNCLE KING EDWARD I

CHAPTER THREE
THOMAS OF LANCASTER/CONFLICT WITH HIS COUSIN,
KING EDWARD II
From day one?

CHAPTER FOURTHOMAS OF LANCASTER AND KING EDWARD II
OUTBURST OF THE CONFLICT/PIERS GAVESTON,
THE ROYAL FAVOURITE

CHAPTER FIVEDANCE FOR POWER
THOMAS OF LANCASTER, THE UNCROWNED KING

CHAPTER SIX

OPEN WAR

DESPENSER WAR/FIRST PHASE
[February-August 1321]

CHAPTER SEVEN

OPEN WAR

DESPENSER WAR/SECOND PHASE
[October 1321[March 1322]

CHAPTER EIGHT

THE END

The travel
Revenge of the King
Reception
Trial
The others
Last passage

CHAPTER NINESAINT THOMAS

CHAPTER TEN

AFTERMATH

WHAT HAPPENED TO THE MAJOR PLAYERS IN THIS DRAMA

I

King Edward II

II

The Despensers

III

Roger Mortimer

IV

Queen Isabella

V

Henry of Lancaster

EPILOGUEWHO WAS THOMAS OF LANCASTER?

Reacties uitgeschakeld voor My Earl Thomas of Lancaster article in Chapters!

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Thomas of Lancaster, rebel cousin of king Edward II, from warlord to Saint/Epilogue

THOMAS OF LANCASTER, REBEL COUSIN OF KING EDWARD II, FROMWARLORD TO SAINT/EPILOGUE

File:Thomas Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster.jpg

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet,_2nd_Earl_of_LancasterTHOMAS 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

Thomas of Lancaster’s main possessions (Maddicott).THOMAS OF LANCASTER’S MAIN POSSESSIONShttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

7626ba0b19e62826ef9090c93b10a11b.jpg

MURDER OF PIERS GAVESTON,INTIMATE FRIEND ANS[POSSIBLE] LOVER OF KING EDWARD II, UNDER THE DIRECT RESPONSIBILITYOF THE EARLS OF LANCASTER, WARWICK, HEREFORD AND ARUNDELMURDER OF PIERS GAVESTON,INTIMATE FRIEND ANS[POSSIBLE] LOVER OF KING EDWARD II, UNDER THE DIRECT RESPONSIBILITYOF THE EARLS OF LANCASTER, WARWICK, HEREFORD AND ARUNDELhttps://themortimersblog.wordpress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traitor-the-life-execution-of-thomas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post-by-stephen-spinks/

File:Pontefract Castle.JPG

PONTEFRACT CASTLE, THOMAS OF LANCASTER’S FAVOURITECASTLE [INHERITED FROM HIS FATHER IN LAW, HENRY DE LACY, 3TH EARL OFLINCOLN, AT HIS DEATH IN 1311]IN HIS FAVOURITE CASTLE HIS SOCALLED ”TRIAL” TOOKPLACE AND NEAR HIS FAVOURITE CASTLE,  IRONICALLY,  HE WAS EXECUTEDhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontefract_Castle#Historyhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontefract_Castle

manuscript-images-medieval-castles
Edward was twice jeered by Lancaster’s garrison at Pontefract in 1317 & 1320 as he passed from north to south 

EDWARD II WAS TWICE JEERED BY THOMAS OF LANCASTERAND HIS HOUSEHOLD, IN AT PONTEFRACT IN 1317 AND 1320, WHEN HEPASSED FROM NORTH TO SOUTH…..https://themortimersblog.wordpress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traitor-the-life-execution-of-thomas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post-by-stephen-spinks/

Image result for thomas 2nd earl of lancaster

THE EXECUTION OF THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTERhttp://www.luminarium.org/encyclopedia/thomasoflancaster.htm

Thomas, Earl of Lancaster

THE EXECUTION OF THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTERhttp://www.englishmonarchs.co.uk/plantagenet_74.html

File:Edmund Crouchback Arms.svg

PLANTAGENETCOAT OF ARMS OF EDMUND CROUCHBACK [SON OFKING HENRY III, BROTHER OF KING EDWARD I ANDFATHER OF THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER], THOMAS,EARL OF LANCASTER AND HIS SUCCESSORShttp://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet,_2nd_Earl_of_LancasterVENERATION CULTUS OF THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER”SAINT THOMAS” [THOMAS THE MARTYR]PICTURE BELOW:

DEVOTIONAL PANEL OF THOMAS OF LANCASTER, PICTURINGHIS BEHEADING OUTSIDE OF PONTEFRACT CASTLEA DEVOTIONAL PANEL WAS A RELIGIOUS OBJECT, SOLDON PILGRIMAGE TO COMMEMORATE AND VENERATESAINTS AND MARTYRShttp://www.culture24.org.uk/history-and-heritage/archaeology/art522182-devotional-panel-of-beheaded-rebel-14th-century-martyr-surfaces-on-shore-of-river-thames

A photo of a small dark silver religious panel depicting the beheading of a medieval man

The beheading of the Earl is portrayed within the panel© MOLA / Andy Chopping


READERS

And now it’s the END of our fascinating Historical Document aboutThomas of Lancaster, cousin of king Edward II!
You have travelled with me to the first half of fourteenth century England,have watched with me, as Digital Eyewitnesses, how a big Feud rose betweenking Edward II and his cousin, Earl Thomas of Lancaster, initially loyalto his cousin the king, then fell out with him for personal and political reason,rose against him in an open rebellion and finally was executed for treason.
You watched it all in here
CHAPTERS
ONE
https://www.astridessed.nl/thomas-of-lancaster-rebel-cousin-of-king-edward-ii-from-warlord-to-saint-chapter-one/

TWO

THREE

FOUR

FIVE

SIX

SEVEN

EIGHT

NINE

TEN

https://www.astridessed.nl/thomas-of-lancaster-rebel-cousin-of-king-edward-ii-from-warlord-to-saint-chapter-ten/
SAINT THOMAS!
And what was the most amazing in this Story was the fact, that this grand nobleman, adversary and enemy of his cousin the King, who was all but”Holy”, was declared ”A Saint” [although not officially by Holy Church], who wasvenerated as a Saint by 250 years until Reformation in England destroyed it
SEE CHAPTER NINE!
https://www.astridessed.nl/thomas-of-lancaster-rebel-cousin-of-king-edward-ii-from-warlord-to-saint-chapter-nine/

For me and I don’t doubt for you Readers also, that was very fascinating.

THE END
And now we are at the End of this Story and in the Epilogue it isquestioned:
WHO REALLY WAS THOMAS OF LANCASTERWHAT WERE HIS GOALS/IDEALS?WHERE DID HE STAND FOR?
Travel with me Readers, to the Life and Times of this interesting noblemanfor one last time……

EPILOGUE
WHO WAS THOMAS OF LANCASTER?

In defence of Thomas of Lancaster
TO SET THE RECORDS STRAIGHT……

Finally, I have come to the end of my travel
to fourtheenth century England and the life and times of Thomas,
2nd Earl of Lancaster, who was double royal and first cousin
of King Edward II.

THOMAS OF LANCASTER/HIS JOURNEY

The facts are known and described by me in the earlier chapters:

First Edward II’s close ally [939], he later moved into
opposition because of king’s favourite Piers Gaveston,,
killing the poor man together with his baron
allies in 1312 [940] , which set, of course
a deadly enmity between
him and Edward II. [941]
Simultaneously, Thomas and his allies pleaded for a set of reforms,
limiting the king’s power, the so called Ordinances.[942]
Then, after the desastrous defeat against the Scots at the battle
of Bannockburn in 1314 [943],
being the de facto ruler in England from 1314-1318,
battling new favourites of the King [944] and finally
droven into armed rebellion against the King because
of his most dangerous, favourite, Hugh Despenser the Younger [945],
with the Ordinances as one of his playing cards [which gave Thomas
rightly or wrongly, a sort of heroism], leading to his execution in 1322. [946]

And being a warlord during his later life, became a Saint
after his death! [947]

Fascinating.

And although his many faults and injustices [having
Piers Gaveston executed and having summarily executed
men who rebelled in Lancastershire against
him in the Banastre rebellion in 1315] [948]
, yet IT IS SOMETHING
to be ten years  in constant opposition against your king,
trying to limit his powers, gathering allies ansd adherents….

Some of those adherents were that loyal to Lancaster,
that years later they killed men, who had betrayed him….[949]

Or, like die his hard Lancaster ally Sir William Trussell, who was seething with
resentment against  the Despensers, to read out the
charges [and the verdict] against the captured Hugh  Despenser the Younger at his mock trial in 1326….[950]

That’s immediately debunking the often heard story, that Lancaster
couldn’t keep friends and allies…..[951]
Of course Lancaster lost allies, since it was a time of continually switching alliances, but the loyalty of some of his adherents, as described above, was striking.

And let’s not forget in this story the ”mystery man”,
Lancaster’s  often underestimated brother Henry of Leicester

[952], who sided with the Isabella and Mortimer invasion in 1326, stabbing a
dagger in the back of
Edward II , which lead to a general desertion of Edward II’s cause [953],
the execution of the Despensers and eventually, the deposition of Edward II
himself…….[954]
Henry, who would do whatever was in his power to restore the honour
of his brother by promoting him as a Saint [955] and did not
forget or forgive the ones who did his brother harm [The Despensers
and their enmity with Thomas of Lancaster,
see the Chapters, six, seven, eight and ten], or committed treason
against him, like Thomas’ close adherent and ally, Sir Robert Holland
, who deserted him, when he needed him most. [956]

But when everything is said and done, I raise one major question

WHO WAS THOMAS OF LANCASTER?
WHAT DROVE HIM?

A

THOMAS OF LANCASTER
WHAT SOME SOURCES/HISTORIANS SAY ABOUT HIM:

There is much said about him:

I pick some examples:

Edwardthesecondblogspot [the great Blog of historian Kathryn Warner, writer
of a book about Edward II and Isabella of France and Edward II
expert] writes

”Whatever some of Thomas’s contemporaries may have thought of him – the extremely pro-Lancastrian Brut called him the ‘gentle earl’, for example – it’s hard to find a modern historian with a good word to say about him, and hard, for me at least, to find much sympathy for a man who did his utmost to thwart his cousin Edward II at every turn.”
[957]

Luminarium Encyclopedia describes him as a
”coarse, selfish and violent man, without any attributes of
a statesman”
[958]

Encyclopedia Britannica writes

”His opposition to royal power derived more from personal ambition than from a desire for reform.” [959]

Website ”English monarchs” described Thomas of
Lancaster as someone initially loyal, who was forced into opposition
because of the King’s favourite policies [960]

Website the Lady Despenser’s Scribery writes

”Despite his seemingly high ideals about the poor and oppressed, fair patronage and justice, records show that Thomas was actually as vicious, ruthless and corrupt as those he opposed. He was well known for ignoring the matter of the law, especially when he wanted to take land and manors and his harshness as a landlord was also legendary.” [961]

Historian Stephen Spinks, wrote in a very interesting
article about Thomas of Lancaster
about his ”weakness” , describing him as
following:

”In short, he had no aptitude for government and once he was in a position to enact reform, the earl quickly found he did not understand nor was capable of achieving what he had long since demanded. Shouting about the Ordinances was one thing, but once he had them, enacting change was too arduous for him.” [962]

In his dissertation ”Lancashire in the reign of Edward II,
about the lordship of Thomas
of Lancaster in relation to the gentry in his county
[after which he and his family is named] Lancastrershire,
historian Gunnar A. Welle writes about Thomas
of Lancaster as ”avariciousness” and accuses him
of ”bad lordship”, at least referring to Lancashire
[the county Lancaster] [963]
FUNNY
Not one of the mentioned sources or writers was very
pleased with the Earl, therefore it was interesting to read
a less aphrehensive comment
on the website ”Lady Despenser’s Scribery, which is
very fair, given her less complimentary comments above


To be fair, Lancaster did his best to implement the Ordinances in full, purging the royal household and local government of men thought to be bad for the running of the country (in other words hostile to Lancaster), and he also attempted to get the country’s finances back into shape by limiting spending. ” [964]

AND

”Edward II certainly had his faults as a king and many of Lancaster’s Ordinances were indeed worthy suggestions for much needed reform.” [965]

And now the following, very

complimentary comment on the New World Encyclopedia:

”……
His instinct, however, was to uphold the law and, notwithstanding his faults, he can not be accused of pure self-interest. He saw himself as answerable to Parliament, which, unlike Edward, he did not ignore or manipulate.”

…….
…….
”As an admirer of De Montford, Thomas would have subscribed to the principles that had developed subsequent to his Parliament of 1265, that all classes should be represented there, that all taxes except “those sanctioned by custom” must be approved by Parliament and that the “common man” was also entitled to protection, security and justice……….
……
…..
”Edward had vowed to “maintain the laws and rightful customs which the community of the realm shall have chosen,” as well as to “maintain peace and do justice” and Thomas had heard this promise. This development of the law was a shared responsibility—through their representatives, the “community of the realm”[14] would have a say in framing these laws for the common good. Thomas Plantagenet did his best to hold the king accountable to his oath. He can be said to have made a valuable contribution to the development of constraints on kingly power. In time, these constraints would result in full-blown democratic government.” [966]

READERS, DID YOU LET THOSE COMMENTS ABOVE

SINK IN?
GOOD.
I will come to that later

First this:

B

SOME THOMAS OF LANCASTER’S ACTIONS UNDER THE LOUPE
”NO INTEREST IN GOVERNMENT”/NOT ATTENDING
PARLIAMENT

Now people are complex natures, as in their relations to
others, as in their ”playing the game of thrones”, the
highest level power play of the Middle Ages.
Sometimes their actions are easy to understand, but in most
cases more complicated than expected af first sight.

Often there is written, that Thomas regularly didn’t attend
parliament and generally didn’t took part in government
at all, as if done to undermine the King’s orders and
position [967] and that may true to some extent:
On the other hand it may be possible, that illness played
a major part too.
In two letters of Edward II, the first to Lancaster himself
in 1305 [when they were still on very good terms] and the
second, in 1311 [when they already were in conflict because of
Piers Gaveston and the Ordinances], directed to Lancaster’s
close ally Sir Robert Holland, there was a reference to an
unknown] illness of Lancaster.
Historian Gunnar A Welles wrote in his dissertation that
the reason Lancaster preferred his Castle Pontefract in his
later  years was perhaps due to ill health. [968]

But why not Lancaster sent a message to his king like:

”To my Lord Edward, by the grace of God King of England, Lord of Ireland and Duke of Aquitaine…..[969]
Your Grace,
I can’t attend parliament, due to illness ……”
Your faithful subject and cousin, Thomas, Earl of Lancaster” [”faithful”? HMMMMM……]
Well, of course Lancaster couldn’t and wouldn’t do that because
of the growing enmity and power struggle between him and Edward II, thus undermining his own position by referring to some illness.

No, better to seem ”defiant” [and for a great part he was,
of course], than weakening his position by admitting
an ”ill health”……

Except for [possible] illness there was an other plausible
explanation for Lancaster not to attend parliament.
Since his unlawful execution of Edward II’s favourite
Piers Gaveston [970] there was an obvious enmity
between him and his cousin Edward II.
Doubtless Edward II would have taken revenge on
Lancaster, were it not because that was quite impossible,
since the great power of Lancaster [you remember,
readers, due to Lancaster’s five Earldoms] [971]
The king more or less uttered his desire to
revenge, during the siege of Berwick [to which
Lancaster for once took part], when anncouncing:
”When this wretched business is over, we will turn our hands to other matters. For I have not forgotten the wrong that was done to my brother Piers.” [972]
Perhaps understandable from Edward II’s point of view,
but likewise understandable, that Thomas of Lancaster
not only left the battlefield in Berwick [973], but did not
trust the king anymore. [not that he trusted him
before, but things grew worse]
What if he attended parliament and was arrested?

To make matters worse, the 1315-1318
three favourites of Edward II, Roger Damory, Hugh
Audley and William Montacute did their utmost
best to undermine any reconciliation between Edward II
and his cousin Thomas and even threatened him
by openly calling him a traitor [974 and see also
chapter V]
It is even possible that Damory had persuaded the
king to attack Lancaster at his castle of Pontefract
in october 1317,
which  was prevented by the Earl of Pembroke
at the last moment. [975]
Of course it was understandable then, that Thomas
refused to come to parliament, or to meet the king
[who summoned him to come], as long as those three favourites
were at Court…..[976]
A very tense political situation.

So there some possible reasons why Lancaster
didn’t attend parliament or took much participation
in governmental affairs.

On the other hand he seemed to have done his best to
implement the Ordinances [977] which led to a serious
row between him and Edward II. [978]

So summarized:
Lancaster’s reluctance to attend
to parliament or to participate in the government is
not only simply explained as obstructing the king or indifference
and incompetence
in governmental affairs, but could also stem
from illness and Lancaster’s not imaginary
fear of the malicious intentions from Edward II’s 1315-1318
favourites, who intrigued against him [Thomas].
Add to that the [likely understandable] enmity of
Edward II because of Thomas’ involvement in the
murder of his great favourite Piers Gaveston and you
have a good explanation for Thomas’ ”reluctance”
It is a pity that that’s often overseen by some sources.

C

THOMAS OF LANCASTER’S CHARACTER

”VIOLENCE”, ”ARROGANCE”/”DIFFICULTY TO
KEEP FRIENDS AND ALLIES”

Thomas of Lancaster is called ”coarse, selfish and violent” [979] , ”arrogant”, [980], having a ”seeming desire for power” [981]
and a
”bad lord” in the sense of not meeting the needs and wishes
of his retainers , as some sources state [here limited
to his retainers in Lancashire] [982]

That may be true and I found it confirmed in what
I read about him, but so were the other nobles, who

were no peaches either, without of course justifying Lancaster’s behaviour and attitudes.

Let’s be honest:

During the Edward II reign, there  was a constant dance for power and switching of alliances
and but few nobles, among who was Hugh Despenser the Elder
[to be fair!] stayed where they were:
In this case:
Loyal to the King. [983]

There has also been stated, that Thomas of Lancaster
”found it difficult to keep friends and allies”
[984].
However, he managed to bind men to him,
who stayed diehard allies, even though they could not
benefit from him anymore.

A man like Sir William Trussell, his loyal adherent since the
beginning of the Lancaster/Edward II conflict, stayed loyal
to him, fought at his side at the battle of Bouroughbridge
,was imprisoned, later escaped and fled
to France, joining the Isabella and Mortimer invasion
and reading out the charges against Hugh Despenser. [985]
Lancaster had allies who were prepared to kill those,
who had betrayed him, years after his execution. [986]

And he WAS capable
of true friendship, for example to his close adherent, Sir Robert
Holland, whom he favoured that much, that an uprising
in Lancashire took place against Lancaster and Holland,
the Banastre rebellion….[987]

Yes, that same Sir Robert Holland, who deserted Lancaster in his hour
of need [988], something his brother Henry, the later Earl of
Lancaster, would never forgive or forget….[989]

D

THOMAS OF LANCASTER/”DESIRE FOR PERSONAL
POWER AND STRUGGLE WITH THE KING
PERSONAL AND BROADER HISTORICAL VIEW

Describing Thomas of Lancaster only as the one

”who did his utmost to thwart his cousin Edward II at every turn”
[990],  a ”coarse, selfish and violent man” [991]
, ”that his opposition to royal power derived more from personal ambition than from a desire for reform [992],
is too one-sided.

On the other hand:
To pose him as ”having made a valuable contribution to the development of constraints on kingly power, which constraints
would, in time ” result in full-blown democratic government”
[993] thus making from the Earl a sort of pioneer of later
democratic developments, as the New World Encyclopedia
does [994], is, to my opinion, unbalanced either and a little
anachronistic, because it is somewhat dangerous to
compare the thoughts and opinions of a medieval
royal Earl with views about democracy that would
emerge much, much later.

Life and history are more complicated then that.

The sources, which gave Lancaster a bad press, calling him
”coarse and selfish”, ”a bad lord”, ”arrogant” and ”having a
desire for personal ambition”, etc fail to see, that be as it may.
looking this game of power only at the personal level is denying
one of the important historical developments, which rippled through Middle Ages, namely the struggle
between centralization and decentralization.

In Chapter one I pointed out, that, apart from the personal
matters, the Edward II/Thomas of Lancaster conflict stood in
a tradition of the struggle between centralization
[absolute royal power] amd decentralization [king’s liegemen/
nobles who tried to take as personal power for themselves
as possible]
See it not only as a power struggle, but also
as a fight for more equality:
Not all power concentrated in the hands of one man, but
influence for other groups too.

In this centralization-decentralizatio n game Edward II’s
great grandfather king John Lackland got trouble
with his barons, resulting in the Magna Charta [995]
John Lackland’s son King Henry III [father of Edward I and grandfather
of Edward II], got troubles with his brother in law, the
French noble Simon de Montfort with
English roots [6th Earl of Leicester by inheritance,
officially invested in the Earldom in 1239,
after coming to England and initially
in the favour of Henry III, marrying his siter
Eleanor of England with Henry’s approval]
a man of substance, who rose into open rebellion
against Henry and had far reached ideas about
more freedom for other groups.
In fact, he was the de facto ruler of England
for about a year and is known to have
established a Parliament [some refer to it as
the first English parliament] which stripped
the king of unlimited authority and a second, included
not only barons and knights, but also the burgesses of
the major towns. [996].

So in that light, the struggle between Edward II and
Thomas of Lancaster must be seen and in that light
I find it interesting to answer my final question:

WHO WAS THOMAS OF LANCASTER/
A TROUBLEMAKING AND POWERSEEKING
REBEL OR A SECOND SIMON DE MONTFORT

”Coarse”, ”selfish”, ”arrogant”, a troublemaker, a rebel, ”contributor to
later democratic developments”, ”droven by personal ambitions”
Was he merely a troublemaking rebel or a second Simon de
Montfort, as the New World Encyclopedia seems to think. [997]

There are many connections between Lancaster and England’s first great
”parliamentary” rebel, Simon de Montfort and o irony, one
connection between Lancaster and de Montfort is often overlooked.
They possessed the same Earldom:

After Simon de Montfort was killed in the battle of Evesham in
1265, fighting against the royalist troops under the command
of Prince Edward [eldest son and heir of Henry III, the latter Edward I].
his lands and title were forfeited, being a traitor [rebel against
his king] [998]
Then Henry III created the Earldom of Leicester for his second
son Edmund Crouchback [999], father of Thomas of Lancaster and his
brother Henry.
SO THAT’S THE WAY THE EARLDOM OF LEICESTER CAME INTO
THOMAS’ FAMILY!

New World Encyclopedia writes, that Thomas of Lancaster”based his policies on a strict adherence to the ordinances and an appeal to the work of Simon de Montfort” [1000]
In each case, with his implementing the Ordinances, limiting
royal power, he was building upon a tradition of baronial
opposition, for which de Montfort has given his life. [1001]

In their histories and lives, both men had many parallels.

Starting with royal favour, they fell out with their kings,
developed reform ideas, eventuallty rose in open rebellion
and died fighting their Kings, de Montfort in battle in 1265
and Lancaster, executed in 1322.
And, amazingly:
After their death both men were venerated as martyrs and attempts
were made to canonize them. [1002]

One of them, de Montfort, is now honoured as one of the founders
of modern parliament [1003], while Lancaster has got a
bad press, being a rebel, troublemaker etc
I don’t think that’ s completely fair and both men had more
in common then modern historians seem or are prepared to admit.

Because who was Simon de Montfort?

Reading about his life and times,
he seems to me an adventurer, who firstly enjoyed royal

favour, then fell out with his king,
sided with the already existing baronial opposition [inheritence from king Henry III’s father John
Lackland] and in the process developed radical
reform ideas [for that time] and at the end gave his life defending them..[1004]
And in contrary to Thomas of Lancaster, he had the chance to form
two parliaments to implement his ideas [1005], since he defeated
the king in battle and ruled England more than a year. [1006]
That’s why de Montfort did make a great impression and Lancaster was merely
seen as a troublemaking rebel.

Admittedly, Lancaster was the de facto ruler in England between 1314-1318, but he had much against him, what made it difficult to implement
the Ordinances, although he surely tried.
He had to deal with the Scottish raids in North England, with the Great famine [1007], and with the fact, that
after his execution of Piers Gaveston, he was politically isolated,
especially after the death of his main ally, the 10th Earl of Warwick in 1315. [1008]
And admittedly::
De Montfort was a better soldier and statesman

The nature of the reforms of de Montfort and Lancaster differed, but had in
common, curbing royal power:
De Montfort focused on the installation of a parliament, to which not
only the barons had access, but also the knights and even the burgesses.
[1009].
But the whole thing got further and was quite radical:
Because [according to Simon de Montfort’s ideas] although Henry III retained the
title and authority of King,  all decisions and approval now rested with his council, led by Montfort and subject to consultation with parliament. [1010]

The Ordinances, promoted by Lancaster and allies, focused on
curbing the royal power to raise armies and go to war, collecting taxation
and going abroad.
The Lords Ordainers had to give their consent for those royal plans.
[1011]
However, contrary to the  Simon de Montfort reforms,
the Lord Ordainers were especially
involved in giving more power to their own social
class, not to the ”lower classes” as the commoners.
But curbing the royal power like that was quite radical too
and in fact building on the ideas of Simon de Montfort.

But was it all ”noble”?

De Montfort’s end was tragic, dying for his ideals, but it was also a
struggle for power between him and king Henry III, no different
from the fight between Lancaster and Edward II.

For let’s be frank:
Would de Montfort really have grown out to a reform rebel, when
not falling out with Henry III, due to political circumstances?

Or would Thomas of Lancaster have developed his love for
the Ordinances, when he did not fall out with his king and cousin?
I doubt it.

Because neither de Montfort, neither Lancaster, seemed to have manifested
those high ideals when still in royal favour.

Both men suddenly ”discovered” those ideals, when falling out with their kings….

Both men developed ideals, but loved power likewise.

And stripped off the personal elements:
There we go again:

The Simon de Montfort/Henry III fight and the Thomas of Lancaster/.
Edward II fight is part of the greater struggle between centralization and
decentralization.

And without forgetting the injustices they committed [1012], they both were
reformers and at the end prepared and compelled [there was no way back!]
to pay the highest price.

It’s important, that de Montfort’s contribution is appreciated and honoured.

But it is also important, to see Lancaster in a more positive light and
acknowledge, that he made an important contribution to curbing
absolute monarchy and implementing the parliamentary rights.

It is high time for someone to write  this down, giving Lancaster,
with all his faults [but so had Simon de Montfort] a far better press than
he got untill now.

He held to the Ordinances [1013] against all odds and fought a king, who,
although certainly generous [1014] and sometimes unexpectedly forgiving [1015],
was a tool in the hands of ambitious and ruthless favourites
and therefore turned into a bad and even desastrous ruler.
And although rising against his king WAS treason and he had his own selfish motives,
Lancaster also fought to implement those Ordinances.
That deserves appreciation, which I want to
give him posthumously, 695 years after his execution, not closing
my eyes for his faults and injustices.

Readers, when you really read all those chapters out, KUDOS!

Hereby a bottle of champaign, out of appreciation.

It was nice to travel with you to the past.

Perhaps I’ll travel with you, again……

ASTRID ESSED

AND HERE COMES YOUR BOTTLE OF CHAMPAIGN!

Image result for A bottle of sparkling champagne/Images
Image result for A bottle of sparkling champagne/Images
Image result for A bottle of sparkling champagne/Images
Image result for A bottle of sparkling champagne/Images

NOTESNOTES 1-1015https://www.astridessed.nl/notes-1-1015-at-article-about-thomas-earl-of-lancaster/SPECIFIED1-250https://www.astridessed.nl/notes-1-250-at-article-about-thomas-earl-of-lancaster/251-347https://www.astridessed.nl/notes-251-347-at-article-about-thomas-earl-of-lancaster/348-400https://www.astridessed.nl/notes-348-400-at-article-about-thomas-earl-of-lancaster/401-451https://www.astridessed.nl/notes-401-451-at-article-about-thomas-earl-of-lancaster/452-503https://www.astridessed.nl/notes-452-503-at-article-about-thomas-earl-of-lancaster/504-587https://www.astridessed.nl/notes-504-587-at-article-about-thomas-earl-of-lancaster/588-666https://www.astridessed.nl/notes-588-666-at-article-about-thomas-earl-of-lancaster/667-761https://www.astridessed.nl/notes-667-761-at-article-about-thomas-earl-of-lancaster/762-806https://www.astridessed.nl/notes-762-806-at-article-about-thomas-earl-of-lancaster/807-938https://www.astridessed.nl/notes-807-938-at-article-about-thomas-earl-of-lancaster/939-1015https://www.astridessed.nl/notes-939-1015-at-article-about-thomas-earl-of-lancaster/

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