Notes 1-250 at article about Thomas, Earl of Lancaster

File:Thomas Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster.jpg
THOMAS 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER
[1]
WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTERhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_LancasterENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

https://www.britannica.com/bio graphy/Thomas-2nd-Earl-of-Lanc aster

 

 

 

 

[2]

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY, 3RD EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry,_3rd_Earl_of_Lancaster

HENRY, 3RD EARL OF LANCASTER

http://www.englishmonarchs.co. uk/plantagenet_75.html

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA
HENRY, 3RD EARL OF LANCASTER

https://www.britannica.com/bio graphy/Henry-3rd-Earl-of-Lanca ster

[3]

WIKIPEDIA
HOUSE OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ House_of_Lancaster

[4]

WIKIPEDIA
HOUSE OF YORK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ House_of_York

[5]

WIKIPEDIA
WARS OF THE ROSES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Wars_of_the_Roses

THE WARS OF THE ROSES/CAUSES OF THE WARS
OF THE ROSES/A TRAVEL TO THE PAST
ASTRID ESSED
3 FEBRUARY 2015

https://www.astridessed.nl/the -wars-of-the-rosescauses-of-th e-wars-of-the-rosesa-travel-to -the-past/

[6]

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD II OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_II_of_England

KING EDWARD II, THE TRAGIC KING’
ASTRID ESSED
11 APRIL 2015

https://www.astridessed.nl/kin g-edward-ii-the-tragic-king/

[7]’

WIKIPEDIA
EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Earl_of_Lancaster

”In 1265 he was granted all the lands of Simon de Montfort and from 1267 he was titled Earl of Leicester. In that year he also began to rule Lancashire, but he did not take the title Earl of Lancaster until 1276”

WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND CROUCHBACK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edmund_Crouchback

”After the defeat and death of Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester at the Battle of Evesham in 1265, Edmund’s father created him Earl of Leicester and of Lancaster.”

EDMUND CROUCHBACK, EARL OF LANCASTER

http://www.englishmonarchs.co. uk/plantagenet_68.html

[8]

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD I OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_I_of_England

EDWARD I LONGSHANKS

http://www.englishmonarchs.co. uk/plantagenet_5.htm

[9]

WIKIPEDIA
ISABELLA OF FRANCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Isabella_of_France

[10]

WIKIPEDIA
FILIP IV OF FRANCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Philip_IV_of_France

SUPPRESSION OF THE KNIGHTS TEMPLARS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Philip_IV_of_France#Suppressio n_of_the_Knights_Templar

[11]

THOMAS OF LANCASTER’S FATHER, EDMUND CROUCHBACK,
MARRIED TWO TIMES
FIRST WITH AVELINE THE FORZ, COUNTESS OF AUMALE

SEE
WIKIPEDIA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Aveline_de_Forz,_Countess_of_A umale

THE SECOND TIME WITH BLANCHE OF ARTOIS, WHO
BECAME THE MOTHER OF THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND
HENRY OF LANCASTER

HOWEVER, FROM HER FIRST MARRIAGE WITH KING
HENRI I OF NAVARRE, SHE ALREADY HAD A DAUGHTER,
JOAN I OF NAVARRE, WHO LATER BECAME THE WIFE
OF KING PHILIP IV AND MOTHER OF ISABELLA OF
FRANCE AND HER BROTHERS, LATER KINGS OF FRANCE

SEE

WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND CROUCHBACK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edmund_Crouchback

BLANCHE OF ARTOIS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Blanche_of_Artois

CHILDREN

[FROM KING HENRI I OF NAVARRE]

WIKIPEDIA
JOAN I OF NAVARRE, WIFE OF KING PHILIP IV

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Joan_I_of_Navarre

[FROM EDMUND CROUCHBACK]

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY, 3RD EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry,_3rd_Earl_of_Lancaster

[12]

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS OF BROTHERTON, 1ST EARL OF NORFOLK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas_of_Brotherton,_1st_Earl _of_Norfolk

[13]

WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND OF WOODSTOCK, 1ST EARL OF KENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edmund_of_Woodstock,_1st_Earl_ of_Kent

[14]

WIKIPEDIA
ELEANOR OF CASTILE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Eleanor_of_Castile

[15]

WIKIPEDIA
MARGARET OF FRANCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Margaret_of_France,_Queen_of_E ngland

[16]

WIKIPEDIA
FILIP IV OF FRANCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Philip_IV_of_France

[17]

WIKIPEDIA
MARGARET OF FRANCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Margaret_of_France,_Queen_of_E ngland

[18]

WIKIPEDIA
FILIP IV OF FRANCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Philip_IV_of_France

[19]

WIKIPEDIA
PAPAL DISPENSATION

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Dispensation_(canon_law)#Papal _dispensation

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
DISPENSATION (CANON LAW)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Dispensation_(canon_law)

[20]

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD II OF ENGLAND/ABDICATION

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_II_of_England#Abdicatio n

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD II OF ENGLAND/DEATH AND AFTHERMATH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_II_of_England#Death_and _aftermath

[21]

A

THE LORD ORDAINERS
THOMAS OF LANCASTER WAS ONE OF THE LEADERS

OF THE LORD ORDAINERS, THE BARONIAN OPPOSITION
AGAINST KING EDWARD II

”At the beginning of the King’s reign, Lancaster openly supported Edward, but as the conflict between the king and the nobles wore on, Lancaster’s allegiances changed. He despised the royal favouritePiers Gaveston, who mocked him as “the Fiddler”[citation needed], and swore revenge when Gaveston demanded that the King dismiss one of Lancaster’s retainers.”
”Lancaster was one of the Lords Ordainers who demanded the banishment of Gaveston and the establishment of a baronial oligarchy. His private army helped separate the King and Gaveston, and Lancaster was one of the “judges” who convicted Gaveston and saw him executed.After the disaster at Bannockburn in 1314, Edward submitted to Lancaster[dubious – discuss], who in effect became ruler of England. He attempted to govern for the next four years, but was unable to keep order or prevent the Scots from raiding and retaking territory in the North. In 1318 a new faction of barons arose, and Lancaster was deposed from office”

”The new leadership, eventually headed by Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester and his son Hugh the younger Despenser, proved no more popular with the Baronage[vague], and in 1321 Lancaster was again at the head of a rebellion. This time, however, he was defeated at the Battle of Boroughbridge, and taken prisoner”

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER/LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster# Life

ORIGINAL SOURCE
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

THE LORDS ORDAINERS

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA
ORDAINER OR LORD ORDAINER

https://www.britannica.com/top ic/Ordainer

”The Ordinances of 1311 were a series of regulations imposed upon King Edward II by the peerage and clergy of the Kingdom of England to restrict the power of the king.[a] The twenty-one signatories of the Ordinances are referred to as the Lords Ordainers, or simply the Ordainers.[b] English setbacks in the Scottish war, combined with perceived extortionate royal fiscal policies, set the background for the writing of the Ordinances in which the administrative prerogatives of the king were largely appropriated by a baronial council.”

WIKIPEDIA
ORDINANCES OF 1311

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Ordinances_of_1311

”In the autumn of 1311, Thomas was one of the men who forced Edward II to accept the Ordinances, forty-one ‘reforms’ which severely limited the king’s powers. The twentieth Ordinance mandated the third, and perpetual, exile of Piers Gaveston; Edward promised to abide by all the others if only the Ordainers would revoke that one, saying “Whatever has been ordained or decided upon, however much they may redound to my private disadvantage, shall be established at your request and remain in force for ever. But you shall stop persecuting my brother Piers, and allow him to have the earldom of Cornwall.” [10] They refused.”
…….
…….
……..

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (1)
19 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

B

THOMAS OF LANCASTER:
UNCROWNED KING

”Edward’s defeat to Robert Bruce put him at Thomas’s mercy, and for the next few years the men were joint rulers of England – or, Edward was king in name and Thomas in reality. ”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (1)
19 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (2)
25 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2010/04/thomas-of- lancaster-and-his_25.html

C

THE LORDS CONTRARIANTS [OR STILL
MENTIONED, LORDS ORDAINERS]

THOMAS OF LANCASTER, ONE OF THE
LEADERS OF THE LORD CONTRARIANTS
[LORDS ORDAINERS], WHO ROSE
AGAINST THE KING, AGAIN

WITH AS ALLIES AMONG ELSE THE ”MARCHER LORDS”,
ROGER DE MORTIMER [LATER ALLY
AND POSSIBLE LOVER OF QUEEN ISABELLA
IN HER REVOLT AGAINST EDWARD II] AND HIS
UNCLE, ROGER MORTIMER THE CHIRK

THE REVOLT WAS ALSO CALLED ”THE DESPENSER WAR”, DIRECTED
AS IT WAS AGAINST EDWARD II AND HIS NEW FAVOURITES,
THE DESPENSERS

WIKIPEDIA
DESPENSER WAR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Despenser_War

”This post is a continuation of the one directly below (or here), and takes up the story of Edward II’s actions in the autumn of 1321 which led to his campaign against the Contrariants – the Marcher lords who had destroyed the lands of Hugh Despenser and his father and forced them into exile, and their ally the earl of Lancaster, Edward’s first cousin and greatest enemy.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SIRE HUGE LE DESPENSER, MALEFACTORS AND
EXTORTIONISTS: SOME EVENTS OF NOVEMBER
1321
30 NOVEMBER 2009

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2009/11/sire-huge-le-desp enser-malefactors-and.html

WIKIPEDIA
ROGER MORTIMER, 1ST EARL OF MARCH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Roger_Mortimer,_1st_Earl_of_Ma rch

WIKIPEDIA
ROGER MORTIMER THE CHIRK, UNCLE OF ROGER
MORTIMER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Roger_Mortimer_de_Chirk

”The Marchers began their attacks on the Despensers on 4 May 1321; according to the Flores Historiarum, the younger Despenser’s men captured during the siege of Cardiff Castle were sent to Thomas of Lancaster. [7] On 28 June, Thomas met the Marchers, or some of them, at Sherburn near Pontefract, where an indenture was drawn up approving the actions against the Despensers. Thomas and his allies had hoped to attract the northern lords to their cause, but they were largely unsuccessful; the twenty-five men who put their seals to the document were mostly Thomas’s own retainers. Subsequently, the Marchers, as per their name, marched towards London – helping themselves to food and provisions wherever they liked and generally creating havoc – to attend the parliament which was due to begin on 15 July and to demand the Despensers’ exile. Thomas remained in the north at his favourite residence of Pontefract, as he usually did. [8]”
…..
….
”Edward II’s campaign against the Marchers went well, and although the Marchers were desperately hoping for the earl of Lancaster’s support, Thomas failed to come to their aid – although he had begun besieging the royal castle of Tickhill near Doncaster by 10 January 1322, presumably because its constable William Aune was Edward’s spy in the north. [15] After the Mortimers, Lord Berkeley and Hugh Audley’s father surrendered to the king, the remaining Contrariants fled to Yorkshire to seek refuge with Thomas, their last hope of defeating Edward.”
…..
…..
”To cut a very long story short, the Contrariants lost the battle, the earl of Hereford died horribly and the great earl of Lancaster was taken by water via York to Pontefract Castle, his own favourite residence, whose constable had surrendered to Edward without a fight.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (3)
2 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

[22]

Since April 1318, a group of barons and prelates had been negotiating with the earl of Lancaster, and trying to persuade Edward and his cousin to overcome their hostility to each other. On 8 June, they came to a preliminary agreement: Edward would uphold the hated Ordinances, govern by the counsel of his magnates, and conciliate Thomas, who was threatened with sanctions if he continued to hold armed assemblies. ”

”Thomas’s violence and lawlessness were thus condoned, as he was too powerful for the king to ignore and his co-operation with Edward was essential if England was ever to find peace.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (2)
25 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his_25.html

Although a coarse, selfish and violent man, without any of the attributes of a statesman, Lancaster won a great reputation for patriotism; and his memory was long cherished, especially in the north of England, as that of a defender of popular liberties.”

LUMINARIUM
ENCYCLOPEDIA
THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER

http://www.luminarium.org/ency clopedia/thomasoflancaster.htm

”His opposition to royal power derived more from personal ambition than from a desire for reform.”

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

https://www.britannica.com/bio graphy/Thomas-2nd-Earl-of-Lanc aster

[23]

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD I OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_I_of_England

[24]

WIKIPEDIA
ENGLISH FEUDAL BARONY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ English_feudal_barony

WIKIPEDIA
MAGNA CHARTA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Magna_Carta

WIKIPEDIA
FIRST BARON’S WAR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ First_Barons%27_War

[25]

WIKIPEDIA
DIVINE RIGHTS OF KINGS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Divine_right_of_kings

[26]

WIKIPEDIA
JOHN, KING OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John,_King_of_England

[27]

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY III OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry_III_of_England

[28]

HENRY II OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry_II_of_England

[29]

WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD I OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Richard_I_of_England

[30]

WIKIPEDIA
DIVINE RIGHTS OF KINGS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Divine_right_of_kings

[31]

‘The nature of government under the Angevin monarchs was ill-defined and uncertain. John’s predecessors had ruled using the principle of vis et voluntas, or “force and will”, taking executive and sometimes arbitrary decisions, often justified on the basis that a king was above the law.[81] Both Henry II and Richard had argued that kings possessed a quality of “divine majesty

WIKIPEDIA
JOHN, KING OF ENGLAND/KINGSHIP AND ROYAL ADMINISTRATION

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John,_King_of_England#Kingship _and_royal_administration

ORIGINAL SOURCE
JOHN, KING OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John,_King_of_England

[32]

WIKIPEDIA
JOHN, KING OF ENGLAND/DISPUTE WITH THE POPE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John,_King_of_England#Dispute_ with_the_Pope

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
JOHN, KING OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John,_King_of_England

[33]

WIKIPEDIA
JOHN, KING OF ENGLAND/DISPUTE WITH THE POPE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John,_King_of_England#Dispute_ with_the_Pope
ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
JOHN, KING OF ENGLAND
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John,_King_of_England
”Innocent set a commission in place to try to convince John to change his mind, but to no avail. Innocent then placed an interdict on England in March 1208, prohibiting clergy from conducting religious services, with the exception of baptisms for the young, and confessions and absolutions for the dying”
WIKIPEDIA
JOHN, KING OF ENGLAND/DISPUTE WITH THE POPE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John,_King_of_England#Dispute_ with_the_Pope
ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
JOHN, KING OF ENGLAND
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John,_King_of_England
”In Catholic canon law, an interdict /ˈɪntərdɪkt/ is an ecclesiastical censure that prohibits certain active Church individuals or groups from participating in certain rites.[1]
WIKIPEDIA
INTERDICT
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Interdict

[34]

”By 1209 the situation showed no signs of resolution, and Innocent threatened to excommunicate John if he did not acquiesce to Langton’s appointment.[171] When this threat failed, Innocent excommunicated the king in November 1209.”
WIKIPEDIA
JOHN, KING OF ENGLAND/DISPUTE WITH THE POPE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John,_King_of_England#Dispute_ with_the_Pope
ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
JOHN, KING OF ENGLAND
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John,_King_of_England

[35]

YOUTUBE.COM
KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND: EPISODE I: NORMANS
https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=0PfoYkgoBZQ
”In the early 13th century, John, King of England was under pressure after a quarrel with Pope Innocent III led to England being placed under an interdict, by which all forms of worship and other religious practices were banned. John himself was excommunicated, parts of the country were in revolt and there were threats of a French invasion.Writing two decades after the events, Matthew Paris, a St Albans chronicler of the early thirteenth century, claims that, in desperation, John sent envoys to al-Nâsir asking for his help. In return John offered to convert to Islam and turn England into a Muslim state. Among the delegates was Master Robert, a London cleric. Al-Nâsir was said to be so disgusted by John’s grovelling plea that he sent the envoys away.”
WIKIPEDIA
MUHAMMAD AL-NASIR/RELATIONSHIP WITH KING JOHN OF ENGLAND
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Muhammad_al-Nasir#Relationship _with_King_John_of_England
ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
MUHAMMAD AL-NASIR
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Muhammad_al-Nasir

[36]

The nature of government under the Angevin monarchs was ill-defined and uncertain. John’s predecessors had ruled using the principle of vis et voluntas, or “force and will”, taking executive and sometimes arbitrary decisions, often justified on the basis that a king was above the law.[81] Both Henry II and Richard had argued that kings possessed a quality of “divine majesty“; John continued this trend and claimed an “almost imperial status” for himself as ruler.[81]
WIKIPEDIA
JOHN, KING OF ENGLAND/KINGSHIP AND ROYAL ADMINISTRATION

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John,_King_of_England#Kingship _and_royal_administration

ORIGINAL SOURCE
JOHN, KING OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John,_King_of_England

[37]

WIKIPEDIA
JOHN, KING OF ENGLAND/TENSIONS AND DISCONTENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John,_King_of_England#Tensions _and_discontent

WIKIPEDIA
JOHN, KING OF ENGLAND/PRE WAR TENSIONS AND MAGNA
CHARTA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John,_King_of_England#Pre-war_ tensions_and_Magna_Carta

WIKIPEDIA
JOHN, KING OF ENGLAND/WAR WITH THE BARONS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John,_King_of_England#War_with _the_barons

ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
JOHN, KING OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John,_King_of_England

[38]

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY III OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry_III_of_England

[39]

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY III OF ENGLAND/END OF THE BARON’S WAR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry_III_of_England#End_of_th e_Barons.27_War

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY III OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry_III_of_England

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY III OF ENGLAND/RESTORING ROYAL AUTHORITY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry_III_of_England#Restoring _royal_authority

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY III OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry_III_of_England

[40]

WIKIPEDIA
SIMON DE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Simon_de_Montfort,_6th_Earl_of _Leicester

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY III OF ENGLAND/REVOLUTION

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry_III_of_England#Revolutio n

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY III OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry_III_of_England

[41]

”The most outstanding English personality of his day, Simon is remembered as an early advocate of a limited monarchy, ruling through elected councillors and responsible officials, and of parliaments including county knights and burgesses as well as the great nobles.”

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA
SIMON DE MONTFORT, EARL OF LEICESTER

https://www.britannica.com/bio graphy/Simon-de-Montfort-earl- of-Leicester

[42]

WIKIPEDIA
SIMON DE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER/CRUSADE AND TURNING AGAINST THE KING

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Simon_de_Montfort,_6th_Earl_of _Leicester#Crusade_and_turning _against_the_King

WIKIPEDIA
SIMON DE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER/WAR AGAINST
THE KING

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Simon_de_Montfort,_6th_Earl_of _Leicester#War_against_the_Kin g

Montfort used his victory to set up a government based on the provisions first established at Oxford in 1258. Henry retained the title and authority of King, but all decisions and approval now rested with his council, led by Montfort and subject to consultation with parliament.”

WIKIPEDIA
SIMON DE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER/RULE AND
PARLIAMENTARY REFORM

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Simon_de_Montfort,_6th_Earl_of _Leicester#Rule_and_parliament ary_reform

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
SIMON DE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Simon_de_Montfort,_6th_Earl_of _Leicester

SIMON DE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER

http://www.englishmonarchs.co. uk/plantagenet_58.html

[43]

WIKIPEDIA
KNIGHTS OF THE SHIRE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Knights_of_the_Shire

[44]

WIKIPEDIA
BURGESS (TITLE)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Burgess_(title)

[45]

WIKIPEDIA
SIMON DE MONTFORT’S PARLIAMENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Simon_de_Montfort%27s_Parliame nt

[46]

WIKIPEDIA
SIMON DE MONTFORT’S PARLIAMENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Simon_de_Montfort%27s_Parliame nt

[47]

WIKIPEDIA
SIMON DE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER/FALL FROM
POWER AND DEATH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Simon_de_Montfort,_6th_Earl_of _Leicester#Fall_from_power_and _death

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
SIMON DE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Simon_de_Montfort,_6th_Earl_of _Leicester

[48]

Thomas Plantagenet upheld the principles of Parliamentary oversight of kingly power that had begun to develop in England subsequent to the 1265 Parliament convened by Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester to curb the power of Henry III. These principles included the right of all classes, commoners as well as nobility, to be represented. The rule of law applied equally to low and high alike. A king who failed to rule justly could be deposed. In 1327, Parliament deposed Edward II for failing to keep his coronation oath, which bound him to honor the law. Thomas, who had taken part in Edward’s coronation ceremony, wanted Edward to keep his oath. In trying to hold the king to account, he lost his life. Yet Thomas made a valuable contribution to the development of constraints on kingly power and to defending the rights of parliament to supervise and to limit royal power. In time, these constraints would result in full-blown democratic governme nt.”

NEW WORLD ENCYCLOPEDIA
THOMAS PLANTAGENET, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

http://www. newworldencyclopedia.org/ entry/Thomas_Plantagenet,_2nd_ Earl_of_Lancaster

[49]

WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND CROUCHBACK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edmund_Crouchback

EDMUND CROUCHBACK, EARL OF LANCASTER

http://www.englishmonarchs.co. uk/plantagenet_68.html

[50]

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY III OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry_III_of_England

[51]

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD I OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_I_of_England

[52]

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY, 3RD EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry,_3rd_Earl_of_Lancaster

[53]

WIKIPEDIA
HOUSE OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ House_of_Lancaster

WIKIPEDIA
EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Earl_of_Lancaster

[54]

WIKIPEDIA
BLANCHE OF ARTOIS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Blanche_of_Artois

[55]

WIKIPEDIA
ROBERT I, COUNT OF ARTOIS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Robert_I,_Count_of_Artois

[56]

WIKIPEDIA
LOUIS VIII OF FRANCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Louis_VIII_of_France

[57]

WIKIPEDIA
LOUIS IX OF FRANCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Louis_IX_of_France

[58]

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY I OF NAVARRE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry_I_of_Navarre

[59]

WIKIPEDIA
JOAN I OF NAVARRE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Joan_I_of_Navarre

[60]

WIKIPEDIA
ALICE DE LACY, 4TH COUNTESS OF LINCOLN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Alice_de_Lacy,_4th_Countess_of _Lincoln

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
ABANDONMENT AND ABDUCTION: THE EVENTFUL LIFE
OF ALICE DE LACY
10 JANUARY 2007

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2007/01/abandonment-and-a bduction-eventful-life.html

[61]

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY DE LACY, 3RD EARL OF LINCOLN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry_de_Lacy,_3rd_Earl_of_Lin coln

[62]

Jure uxoris is a Latin term that means “by right of (his) wife”.[1] Jure is the ablative case of jus, meaning a legal right. It is most commonly used to refer to a title of nobility held by a man because his wife holds it suo jure (“in her own right”). Similarly, the husband of an heiress could become the legal possessor of her lands jure uxoris, “by right of [his] wife”, as in England where, until the Married Women’s Property Act 1882, married women were legally incapable of owning real estate”

WIKIPEDIA
JURE UXORIS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Jure_uxoris

[63]

”On the death of her father in February 1311, Alice became the 4th Countess of Lincoln suo jure (in her own right), and her husband Thomas became Earl of Lincoln jure uxoris (by right of his wife). Thomas of Lancaster inherited all her father Henry’s lands by right of his wife, and he paid homage to Edward II of England for them shortly after Henry’s death.”

WIKIPEDIA
ALICE DE LACY, 4TH COUNTESS OF LINCOLN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Alice_de_Lacy,_4th_Countess_of _Lincoln#Countess

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ALICE DE LACY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Alice_de_Lacy,_4th_Countess_of _Lincoln

”Henry’s son-in-law Thomas of Lancaster inherited all his lands, and paid homage to Edward for them shortly after Henry’s death.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
ABANDONMENT AND ABDUCTION: THE EVENTFUL LIFE
OF ALICE DE LACY
10 JANUARY 2007

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2007/01/abandonment-and-a bduction-eventful-life.html

[64]

”From his father Thomas inherited the Earldoms of LancasterLeicester, and a Ferrers earldom of DerbyBy his marriage to Alice de Lacy, Countess of Lincoln, daughter and heiress of Henry de Lacy, 3rd Earl of Lincoln, he became Earl of LincolnEarl of Salisbury, 11th Baron of Halton and 7th Lord of Bowland upon the death of his father-in-law in 1311. Master of five earldoms, he was one of the wealthiest and most powerful men in England.[3]

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS OF LANCASTER, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER/TITLES
AND LANDS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster# Titles_and_lands

ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

” Thomas of Lancaster inherited all her father Henry’s lands by right of his wife, and he paid homage to Edward II of England for them shortly after Henry’s death. With the three Earldoms that he had inherited from his father in 1296, and the control of the two Earldoms of his wife, this made Thomas of Lancaster the richest and most powerful man in England”

WIKIPEDIA
ALICE DE LACY, 4TH COUNTESS OF LINCOLN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Alice_de_Lacy,_4th_Countess_of _Lincoln#Countess

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ALICE DE LACY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Alice_de_Lacy,_4th_Countess_of _Lincoln

[65]

”Unfortunately, it proved to be a disastrous, and childless, match, and Alice left Thomas in 1317.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (2)
19 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

”His marriage to Alice de Lacy was not successful. They had no children together, while he fathered, illegitimately, with another woman, two sons.”

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER/LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster# Life

ORIGINAL SOURCE
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

”Unfortunately, the marriage of Alice and Thomas – which seemed such a splendid match for both – proved completely disastrous. Alice mostly lived alone in her castle of Pickering, Yorkshire, while Thomas took a host of mistresses (“He defouled a great multitude of women and noble wenches”). He fathered at least two illegitimate children, Thomas and John, but Alice remained childless. The two seemed to have detested each other.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
ABANDONMENT AND ABDUCTION: THE EVENTFUL LIFE
OF ALICE DE LACY
10 JANUARY 2007

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2007/01/abandonment-and-a bduction-eventful-life.html

”Thomas, however, was certainly not bereft of female company and fathered at least two illegitimate sons, Thomas and John: John is mentioned in papal letters and various other sources as a Master of Arts, a ‘scholar of theology’ and a canon of Lincoln and Uttoxeter, and Thomas was a knight who requested permission in 1354 to become a Friar Minor.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (1)
19 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

[66]

Unfortunately, the marriage of Alice and Thomas – which seemed such a splendid match for both – proved completely disastrous. Alice mostly lived alone in her castle of Pickering, Yorkshire, while Thomas took a host of mistresses (“He defouled a great multitude of women and noble wenches”). He fathered at least two illegitimate children, Thomas and John, but Alice remained childless. The two seemed to have detested each other.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
ABANDONMENT AND ABDUCTION: THE EVENTFUL LIFE
OF ALICE DE LACY
10 JANUARY 2007

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2007/01/abandonment-and-a bduction-eventful-life.html

”Thomas, however, was certainly not bereft of female company and fathered at least two illegitimate sons, Thomas and John: John is mentioned in papal letters and various other sources as a Master of Arts, a ‘scholar of theology’ and a canon of Lincoln and Uttoxeter, and Thomas was a knight who requested permission in 1354 to become a Friar Minor.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (1)
19 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

”His marriage to Alice de Lacy was not successful. They had no children together, while he fathered, illegitimately, with another woman, two sons.”

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER/LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster# Life

ORIGINAL SOURCE
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

[67]

WIKIPEDIA
JOHN DE WARENNE, 7TH EARL OF SURREY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John_de_Warenne,_7th_Earl_of_S urrey

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER/LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster# Life

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

[68]

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER/LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster# Life

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

[69]

”Thomas of Lancaster now possessed five earldoms, and was by the richest and most powerful man in England. His annual income was a huge eleven thousand pounds.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
ABANDONMENT AND ABDUCTION: THE EVENTFUL LIFE
OF ALICE DE LACY
10 JANUARY 2007

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2007/01/abandonment-and-a bduction-eventful-life.html

[70]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
ALICE DE LACY, COUNTESS OF LINCOLN, AND IPMs
19 NOVEMBER 2014

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2014/11/alice-de-lacy-cou ntess-of-lincoln-and.html

[71]

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY DE LACY, 3RD EARL OF LINCOLN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry_de_Lacy,_3rd_Earl_of_Lin coln

[72]

WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND CROUCHBACK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edmund_Crouchback

[73]

”Marriage to Alice was an extremely advantageous match for Thomas, who would one day add Alice’s earldoms of Lincoln and Salisbury to the three, Lancaster, Leicester and Derby, he would inherit from his father Edmund. ”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
ALICE DE LACY, COUNTESS OF LINCOLN, AND IPMs
19 NOVEMBER 2014

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2014/11/alice-de-lacy-cou ntess-of-lincoln-and.html

”From his father Thomas inherited the Earldoms of LancasterLeicester, and a Ferrers earldom of DerbyBy his marriage to Alice de Lacy, Countess of Lincoln, daughter and heiress of Henry de Lacy, 3rd Earl of Lincoln, he became Earl of LincolnEarl of Salisbury, 11th Baron of Halton and 7th Lord of Bowland upon the death of his father-in-law in 1311. Master of five earldoms, he was one of the wealthiest and most powerful men in England.[3]

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER/TITLES AND LAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster# Titles_and_lands

ORIGINAL SOURCE:

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

[74]

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER/LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster# Life

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

[75]

”He was present at the Battle of Falkirk in 1298 as part of Edward I’s wing of the army.”

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER/LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster# Life

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

WIKIPEDIA
BATTLE OF FALKIRK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Battle_of_Falkirk

[76]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II
19 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

[77]

”He served in the coronation of his cousin, King Edward II of England, on 25 February 1308, carrying Curtana, the sword of St Edward the Confessor.”

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER/LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster# Life

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

WIKIPEDIA
CURTANA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Curtana

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD THE CONFESSOR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_the_Confessor

[78]

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_ Cornwall

[79]

”There is no evidence of an argument between the king and his powerful cousin in any chronicle, but for some reason Thomas, who had previously been on amicable terms with Piers Gaveston, became implacably opposed to Piers’ return from Ireland, and when Thomas and the earls of Pembroke, Warwick and Hereford visited Edward at Kennington in May 1309, they asked for safe-conducts, which were guaranteed by the earls of Lincoln, Richmond, Gloucester and Arundel – evidence of how little Thomas now trusted the king.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (1)
19 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

”Significantly, though, Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, who had not been involved in the campaign to exile Gaveston, seems to have become disaffected at this time”

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/IRELAND
AND RETURN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_ Cornwall#Ireland_and_return

ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_ Cornwall

[80]

”Significantly, though, Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, who had not been involved in the campaign to exile Gaveston, seems to have become disaffected at this time”

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/IRELAND
AND RETURN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_ Cornwall#Ireland_and_return

ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_ Cornwall

”In fact, Thomas was in almost constant attendance on Edward for the first sixteen months or so of his reign, and he was one of only a handful of men, who included the king’s and Thomas’s first cousin the earl of Richmond, Hugh Despenser the Elder and his retainer Sir John Haudlo, who remained loyal to Edward II in the spring of 1308 when the majority of the barons were pressing for Piers Gaveston’s exile.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (1)
19 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

[81]

”In November 1308, however, Thomas appears to have abruptly left court; he witnessed no more charters after this date until March 1310, and the constant flow of grants and favours to him from Edward also ceased. [6] There is no evidence of an argument between the king and his powerful cousin in any chronicle,…….”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (1)
19 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

[82]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (1)
19 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

[83]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (1)
19 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

[84]

”Claramonde de Marsan was the daughter of Arnaud-Guillaume de Marsan, and she shared the estates of her father with her brother Fortaner de Lescun. Her marriage to Arnaud de Gabeston made him a substantial landowner.”

PIERSPERROTGAVESTONBLOGSPOT
PIERS GAVESTON-BIRTH AND FAMILY

http://piersperrotgaveston.blo gspot.nl/2008/08/piers-gavesto n-birth-and-family.html

[85]

”One of the most common myths about Piers’ mother Claramonde was that she was a witch and burned at the stake. In fictional accounts of Piers’ life, this story is a common thread – but there is not a shred of evidence for it.”

PIERSPERROTGAVESTONBLOGSPOT
PIERS GAVESTON-BIRTH AND FAMILY

http://piersperrotgaveston.blo gspot.nl/2008/08/piers-gavesto n-birth-and-family.html

[86]

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/FAMILY BACKGROUND
AND EARLY LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_ Cornwall#Family_background_ and_early_life

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_ Cornwall

[87]

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/FAMILY BACKGROUND
AND EARLY LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_ Cornwall#Family_background_ and_early_life

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_ Cornwall

[88]

EDWARD II, SON OF KING EDWARD I, WAS THE
FIRST ENGLISH PRINCE, WHO WAS INVESTED WITH
THE TITLE ”PRINCE OF WALES”, WHICH BECAME THE TITLE
OF THE ENGLISH HEIR APPARENT

SEE

”One of the last Welsh princesLlywelyn ap Gruffudd, was killed in battle in 1282 by Edward I, King of England, whose son Edward, born in Caernarfon Castle, was invested as Prince of Wales: the first English person to claim the title.”

WIKIPEDIA
PRINCE OF WALES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Prince_of_Wales

AND

”The tradition of conferring the title “Prince of Wales” on the heir apparent of the monarch is usually considered to have begun in 1301, when King Edward I of England invested his son Edward of Caernarfon with the title at a Parliament held in Lincoln. According to legend, the king had promised the Welsh that he would name “a prince born in Wales, who did not speak a word of English” and then produced his infant son, who had been born at Caernarfon, to their surprise.”

WIKIPEDIA
PRINCE OF WALES/AS TITLE OF HEIR APPARENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Prince_of_Wales#As_title_of_ heir_apparent

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PRINCE OF WALES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Prince_of_Wales

[89]

”On 26 February 1307, Edward I announced that the prince’s favourite had to leave the realm shortly after 30 April that year.”

WIKIPEDIA

PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/FIRST
EXILE AND RETURN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_ Cornwall#First_exile_and_ return

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_ Cornwall

[90]

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD II OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_II_of_England

[91]

WIKIPEDIA

PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/FIRST
EXILE AND RETURN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall#First_exile_and_return

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall

[92]

WIKIPEDIA

PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/EARL OF
CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall#Earl_of_Cornwall

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall

[93]

”Gaveston came from relatively humble origins, and his rise to the highest level of the peerage was considered improper by the established nobility. ”

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/EARL OF
CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall#Earl_of_Cornwall

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall

[94]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
25 FEBRUARY 1308: CORONATION OF EDWARD II
25 FEBRUARY 2008

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2008/02/25- february-1308-coronation-of- edward.html

[95]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
25 FEBRUARY 1308: CORONATION OF EDWARD II
25 FEBRUARY 2008

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2008/02/25- february-1308-coronation-of- edward.html

[96]

”He did this first at the tournament at Wallingford in December 1307, when the Earls of Warenne, Hereford and Arundel were all defeated. ”

PIERSPERROTGAVESTONBLOGSPOT
THOSE INSULTING NICKNAMES……
1 SEPTEMBER 2011

http://piersperrotgaveston. blogspot.nl/2011/09/those- insulting-nicknames.html

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE TOURNAMENT OF WALLINGFORD, 1307]
28 JANUARY 2014

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2014/01/the-tournament-of-wallingford-1307.html

[97]

”She was married to Piers Gaveston, the favourite of her uncle Edward II on 7 November 1307.[3][2][4] At the time of her marriage she was 14 years of age. According to the Vita Edwardi Secundi, this marriage was arranged by the King “to strengthen Piers and surround him with friends“. Lord Gaveston celebrated the marriage with a lavish tournament at Wallingford Castle. The marriage of such a high-born heiress to a foreigner did not please the English nobility and engendered a great deal of unpopularity.”

WIKIPEDIA
MARGARET DE CLARE/MARRIAGE TO PIERS GAVESTON

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Margaret_de_Clare#Marriage_to_ Piers_Gaveston

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
MARGARET DE CLARE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Margaret_de_Clare

STRIKING FACT:

PIERS GAVESTON AND MARGARET DE CLARE HAD A DAUGHTER.

INTERESTING  IS, THAT ACCORDING TO ONE WIKIPEDIA SOURCE,
THAT DAUGHTER WAS AMY [”OR AMIE] DE GAVESTON, BORN IN 1312 [BEFORE THE
EXECUTION/MURDER OF PIERS GAVESTON] BUT THAT THEY
POSSIBLY HAD ANOTHER DAUGHTER, JOAN

WHILE ANOTHER WIKIPEDIA SOURCE, AND HISTORIAN KATHRYN WARNER,
[WHO HAS A BLOG ”ÉDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT”]
CLAIM, THAT JOAN  WAS THE ONLY LEGITIMATE  DAUGHTER, BORN IN
1312 AND THAT AMY [OR AMIE]  POSSIBLY WAS AN ILLEGITIMATE DAUGHTER BY A MISTRESS

SEE THE WIKIPEDIA SOURCE, CLAIMING THAT AMY [OR AMIE] WAS THE
LEGITIMATE ONE [AND THAT THEY PERHAPS HAD ANOTHER DAUGHTER,
JOAN]

”Their daughter, Amy de Gaveston, was born on 6 January 1312 in Tonbridge Castle, Kent, England.[3][2] It is alleged that they had another child named Joan de Gaveston born around 1310, but there is little evidence outside of hearsay to validate this claim. There are also claims that Amy was born to a mistress of Piers Gaveston.[5] However, the evidence is circumstantial and the official records list Amy de Gaveston as born to Lord de Gaveston and Lady de Clare thus, it is fancy speculation.[

WIKIPEDIA
MARGARET DE CLARE/MARRIAGE TO PIERS GAVESTON

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Margaret_de_Clare#Marriage_to_ Piers_Gaveston

ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
MARGARET DE CLARE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Margaret_de_Clare

THEN THE OTHER WIKIPEDIA SOURCE, WHICH CLAIMS
THAT JOAN WAS THE LEGITIMATE DAUGHTER AND
AMY WAS [POSSIBLY] THE ILLEGITIMATE ONE


Piers Gaveston
Earl of Cornwall
Spouse(s)Margaret de Clare
Issue
Joan Gaveston
Amie Gaveston (illegitimate)
Detail
Titles and styles
The Earl of Cornwall
FatherArnaud de Gabaston
MotherClaramonde de Marsan
Bornc. 1284
Died19 June 1312
Blacklow Hill near Warwick, Warwickshire
Buried51.71559°N 0.45692°W

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall

THIS INFORMATION [JOAN THE LEGITIMATE ONE
AND AMY THE POSSIBLY ILLEGITIMATE ONE] IS
CONFIRMED BY EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT AND ANOTHER
HISTORIAN SOURCE
SEE BELOW:

”Piers Gaveston’s only legitimate child, Joan, was born in York on or around 12 January 1312 (the Bridlington chronicler says his (unnamed) daughter was born “not long after Epiphany,” 6 January, and her mother Margaret de Clare was churched on 20 February, which usually took place forty days after childbirth). ”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
JOAN GAVESTON, PIERS’ DAUGHTER
1 JULY 2012

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2012/07/joan-gaveston-pie rs-daughter.html

”Edward’s great favourite Piers Gaveston fathered a daughter, Joan, by his wife Margaret de Clare (Edward II’s niece). She was born in York in the second week of January 1312, after Piers had returned illegally from his third exile, presumably anxious about his wife and keen to see his child. Edward spent forty pounds (in modern money, hundreds of thousands of pounds) on the week-long celebration of Joan’s birth in February, after Margaret’s churching. Joan was only 5 months old when her father was killed.”
……
……
”Piers also fathered an illegitimate daughter called Amie, mentioned in a document of the 1330s when she married John de Driby. She is described as the daughter of Piers Gaveston, and was apparently a damsel in the household of Queen Philippa, wife of Edward III. As with Edward II’s illegitimate son, the mother of Amie is unknown, as is Amie’s (even approximate) birth date. Amie has descendants alive today.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
PIERS GAVESTON AND HIS DAUGHTERS JOAN AND’
AMIE
5 MARCH 2006

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2006/03/piers-gaveston-an d-his-daughters-joan.html

”Gaveston too performed his marital duties, fathering a daughter, Joan, by his wife Margaret de Clare, a birth that was lavishly celebrated by the King. Gaveston also appears to have fathered an illegitimate daughter, Amie, who appears sporadically in the records of the reign of Edward III.”

HISTORY TODAY
MENAGE A ROI: EDWARD II AND PIERS
GAVESTON
J.S. HAMILTON
6 JUNE 1999

http://www.historytoday.com/js -hamilton/menage-roi-edward-ii -and-piers-gaveston

WELL, I DON’T KNOW, ALTOUGH THE MAJORITY OF THE
SOURCES MENTION
JOAN AS THE LEGITIMATE ONE
BUT LET THE SCHOLARS FIGHT ABOUT THAT………

[98]

WIKIPEDIA
JOAN OF ACRE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Joan_of_Acre

[99]

Margaret de Clare, Countess of Gloucester, Countess of Cornwall (12 October 1293 – 9 April 1342), was an English noblewoman, heiress, and the second eldest of the three daughters of Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford and his wife, Joan of Acre, making her a granddaughter of King Edward I of England

WIKIPEDIA
MARGARET DE CLARE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Margaret_de_Clare

MARGARET DE CLARE’S BROTHER, THE 8TH EARL OF GLOUCESTER

WIKIPEDIA
GILBERT DE CLARE, 8TH EARL OF GLOUCESTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Gilbert_de_Clare,_8th_Earl_of_ Gloucester

[100]

WIKIPEDIA
AYMER DE VALENCE, 2ND EARL OF PEMBROKE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Aymer_de_Valence,_2nd_Earl_of_ Pembroke

[101]

WIKIPEDIA
GUY DE BEAUCHAMP, 10TH EARL OF WARWICK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Guy_de_Beauchamp,_10th_Earl_of _Warwick

[102]

PIERSPERROTGAVESTONBLOGSPOT

THOSE INSULTING NICKNAMES
1 SEPTEMBER 2011

http://piersperrotgaveston.blo gspot.nl/2011/09/those-insulti ng-nicknames.html

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT

PIERS GAVESTON’S INSULTING NICKNAMES
AND AN ILLEGITIMATE SQUIRE
2 MARCH 2008

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2008/03/piers-gavestons-i nsulting-nicknames-and.html

[103]

”The most controversial of Piers’ nicknames is given as filz a puteyne or ‘whoreson’ in the French Brut, and rendered as ‘cuckold’s bird’ in the French Chronicle. This name is generally assumed to refer to Gilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester, nephew of Edward II, because his mother Joan of Acre made a secret marriage in early 1297 to her late husband’s squire, Ralph de Monthermer, against her father’s wishes.”
”However, there are problems with this identification. Firstly, Gloucester’s mother was also the mother of Gaveston’s wife Margaret de Clare, and secondly and probably more importantly, Joan of Acre was Edward II’s sister.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
PIERS GAVESTON’S INSULTING NICKNAMES AND
AN ILLEGITIMATE SQUIRE
2 MARCH 2008

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2008/03/piers-gavestons-i nsulting-nicknames-and.html

[104]

WIKIPEDIA
HUGH DESPENSER THE YOUNGER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hugh_Despenser_the_Younger

[105]

”Gaveston came from relatively humble origins, and his rise to the highest level of the peerage was considered improper by the established nobility. ”

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall#Earl_of_Cornwall

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall

[106]

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/QUESTION OF
SEXUALITY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_ Cornwall#Questions_of_ sexuality

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_ Cornwall

[107]

”Edward swore revenge on the men responsible. At first, he mostly blamed the earl of Warwick, and the Vita says that Edward swore either to have Warwick’s head, or to banish him from the kingdom. Later on, though, the earl of Lancaster became the main focus for Edward’s rage and need for revenge.”
…..
…..’
Revenge would have to wait a while longer. But Edward never forgot his promise. In September 1319, during the siege of Berwick, he said “When this wretched business is over, we will turn our hands to other matters. For I have not forgotten the wrong that was done to my brother Piers.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE DEATH OF PIERS GAVESTON
19 JUNE 2008

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2008/06/death-of- piers-gaveston.html

[108]

”Edward II, to his great credit, never forgot Piers Gaveston. He had his friend buried at Langley Priory, which Edward himself had founded in 1308, in early January 1315 (Piers was excommunicated at the time of his death and thus couldn’t be buried in consecrated ground. Even after Edward managed to get this lifted, he was evidently hugely reluctant to bury his friend.) The funeral was vastly expensive and obviously a very emotional occasion for Edward. He paid £300 for three cloths of gold to dress Piers’ embalmed body for burial and ordered 23 tuns of wine (something like 22,000 litres, or 5800 gallons). Edward later endowed Langley with 500 marks per year. He was deeply concerned with the well-being of Piers’ soul and bodily remains: between October 1315 and October 1316 he ordered every Augustinian house in England and Ireland to celebrate a daily mass for Piers’ soul; in 1319 he paid for a Turkish cloth to be placed over the tomb, which was replaced later by gold cloth; in 1324 he sent his confessor to Langley to mark the anniversary of Piers’ death, and in 1325 he sent a man there with 100 shillings to give to each friar, so they would remember Piers. In 1326, the last year of his reign, he made provision for numerous clerks at numerous houses to pray for the soul of his lost love.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
A NOTORIOUS ROYAL FAVOURITE: PIERS
GAVESTON
10 FEBRUARY 2007

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2007/02/notorious-royal-f avourite-piers.html

[109]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
25 FEBRUARY 1308: CORONATION OF
EDWARD II
25 FEBRUARY 2008

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2008/02/25-february-1308- coronation-of-edward.html

[110]

”When Edward II left the country early in 1308 to marry the French king’s daughter Isabella, he appointed Gaveston regent in his place. This was a responsibility that would normally be given to a close family member of the reigning king”

WIKIPEDIA

PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/EARL OF
CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall#Earl_of_Cornwall

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall

[111]

”Edward’s obsession with his friend was such that he refused to see any of his barons unless Piers was also present, and rudely ignored them, talking only to Piers.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
PIERS GAVESTON’S SECOND EXILE
16 MARCH 2008

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2008/03/piers- gavestons-second-exile.html

[112]

”The collective grievances first found expression in the so-called ‘Boulogne agreement‘ of January 1308, in which the earls of Warenne, Hereford, Lincoln and Pembroke expressed concern about oppression of the people and attacks on the honour of the crown. Though not mentioned by name, Gaveston was the implied target of this document.[32] Later that year, in the April parliament, the so-called Declaration of 1308 demanded the renewed exile of Gaveston, again without explicitly mentioning the favourite by name.[33] The King initially resisted, but had to give in to the demand once it became clear that the barons had the support of King Philip IV of France, who was offended by Edward’s treatment of his daughter.[34] On 18 May, Edward consented to sending Gaveston into exile.[35]

WIKIPEDIA

PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_ Cornwall#Earl_of_Cornwall

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_ Cornwall

[113]

”Edward had ordered tapestries bearing his own arms, and those of Piers Gaveston, to adorn the walls of the hall, as though Gaveston was his consort and not Isabella. Even by Edward’s standards, this was astonishingly tactless. He then made matters worse by sitting next to Gaveston and ignoring everyone else, including Isabella, talking and laughing with his friend. Isabella’s uncles were, not unreasonably, grievously offended.”
……
……
EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
25 FEBRUARY 1308: THE CORONATION OF EDWARD II
25 FEBRUARY 2008

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2008/02/25-february-1308- coronation-of-edward.html

[114]

Edward had few allies at this time. One of them was, surprisingly, his cousin the earl of Lancaster (Lincoln’s son-in-law) who would later become his greatest enemy, and another their cousin the earl of Richmond, who was politically insignificant.

Others were: Roger Mortimer (yes, that Roger Mortimer), Hugh Despenser the Elder, John, Lord Hastings, Edward’s former tutor Guy Ferre, William Latimer, John Haudlo, John Cromwell, and John de Sulleye – a few lords and knights who were no match for the grand opposition to Edward and Piers, who were supported to some extent by Edward’s powerful father-in-law the king of France.

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
PIERS GAVESTON’S SECOND EXILE
16 MARCH 2008

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2008/03/piers-gavestons-s econd-exile.html

”The King initially resisted, but had to give in to the demand once it became clear that the barons had the support of King Philip IV of France, who was offended by Edward’s treatment of his daughter.[34] On 18 May, Edward consented to sending Gaveston into exile.[35]

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON.1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall#Earl_of_Cornwall

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall

[115]

”Philip and his sister Margaret, Edward I’s widow, were said to have sent 40,000 livres to the earls of Lincoln and Pembroke to encourage them to proceed against Gaveston.”

HISTORY TODAY
MENAGE A ROI: EDWARD II AND PIERS
GAVESTON
6 JUNE 1999

http://www.historytoday.com/js -hamilton/menage-roi-edward-ii -and-piers-gaveston

[116]

Edward had few allies at this time. One of them was, surprisingly, his cousin the earl of Lancaster (Lincoln’s son-in-law) who would later become his greatest enemy, and another their cousin the earl of Richmond, who was politically insignificant”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
PIERS GAVESTON’S SECOND EXILE
16 MARCH 2008

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2008/03/piers- gavestons-second-exile.html

[117]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
PIERS GAVESTON’S SECOND EXILE
16 MARCH 2008

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2008/03/piers-gavestons-s econd-exile.html

”Edward used the intervening period to provide for his favourite’s continued prosperity and political importance. As a compensation for the loss of the earldom of Cornwall, which was another condition of the exile, Gaveston was granted land worth 3,000 marks annually in Gascony, and land amounting to the same value in England.”

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/EARL OF CROMWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall#Earl_of_Cornwall

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall

[118]

” Further to this, he was appointed the King’s Lieutenant of Ireland, so that a certain amount of honour could be maintained despite the humiliation of the exile.[38] The appointment came the day after Richard de Burgh, Earl of Ulster, had been given the same position, indicating that it was an improvised measure.[39] Gaveston’s appointment came with wider authority than Ulster’s, however, for he had full regal powers to appoint and dismiss any royal officers.[40]Gaveston’s lieutenancy was primarily of a military nature; by the early 14th century, Ireland had become a rebellious and unruly dominion for the English crown. In this capacity Gaveston had considerable success, killing or defeating several major insurgents. He fortified the town of Newcastle McKynegan and Castle Kevin, and rebuilt the road from Castle Kevin to Glendalough. This helped pacify the county at least as far as the Wicklow Mountains, west of Dublin

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALLL/IRELAND AND
RETURN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall#Ireland_and_return

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall

[119]

”Through distribution of patronage and concessions to political demands, he won over several of the earls who had previously been of a hostile disposition.”

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALLL/IRELAND AND
RETURN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall#Ireland_and_return

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall

‘[120]

”Gaveston was not exiled immediately; he did not have to leave the realm until 25 June, but faced excommunication by the Archbishop of CanterburyRobert Winchelsey, should he return”

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALLL/IRELAND AND
RETURN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall#Ireland_and_return

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall

”Even before Piers’ departure, Edward was exerting himself to get the exile overturned. On 16 June, he granted the castle of Blanquefort in Gascony to the Pope’s nephew and namesake Bertrand de Got, candidly explaining that he hoped the grant would encourage the Pope to look on Edward’s affairs, i.e., Piers Gaveston, more favourably. It took a while, but a few months later, Pope Clement agreed to nullify the archbishop of Canterbury’s threat to excommunicate Piers.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
PIERS GAVESTON’S SECOND EXILE
16 MARCH 2008

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2008/03/piers-gavestons-s econd-exile.html

[121]

”Edward II reluctantly agreed and sent Gaveston to Ireland as his Lieutenant there (June 1308). He immediately began to scheme for Gaveston’s return – implementing a policy of “divide and rule”, buying off some of the magnates (including Henry of Lincoln) with favors and agreeing to the “Statute of Stamford” (1309) which promised to redress baronial grievances.”

HISTORY FACULTY
EDWARD II
J.P. SOMMERVILLE

https://faculty.history.wisc.e du/sommerville/123/123%20151%2 0Edward%20II.htm

”At the parliament that met at Stamford in July, Edward had to agree to a series of political concessions. The so-called Statute of Stamford was based on a similar document Edward I had consented to in 1300, called the articuli super carta, which was in turn based on Magna Carta

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/IRELAND AND
RETURN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall#Ireland_and_return

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall

[122]

PIERSPERROTGAVESTONBLOGSPOT

THOSE INSULTING NICKNAMES
1 SEPTEMBER 2011

http://piersperrotgaveston.blo gspot.nl/2011/09/those-insulti ng-nicknames.html

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT

PIERS GAVESTON’S INSULTING NICKNAMES
AND AN ILLEGITIMATE SQUIRE
2 MARCH 2008

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2008/03/piers-gavestons-i nsulting-nicknames-and.html

[123]

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/ORDINANCES
AND FINAL EXILE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall#Ordinances_and_final_ex ile

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall

[124]

”The Ordinances of 1311 were a series of regulations imposed upon King Edward II by the peerage and clergy of the Kingdom of England to restrict the power of the king.[a] The twenty-one signatories of the Ordinances are referred to as the Lords Ordainers, or simply the Ordainers.[b]

WIKIPEDIA
ORDINANCES OF 1311

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Ordinances_of_1311

WIKIPEDIA
ORDINANCES OF 1311/LORDS ORDAINERS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Ordinances_of_1311#The_Lords_ Ordainers

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ORDINANCES OF 1311

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Ordinances_of_1311

”By now the Ordainers had drawn up their Ordinances for reform and Edward had little political choice but to give way and accept them in October.[132] The Ordinances of 1311 contained clauses limiting the King’s right to go to war or to grant land without parliament’s approval, giving parliament control over the royal administration, abolishing the system of prises, excluding the Frescobaldi bankers, and introducing a system to monitor the adherence to the Ordinances”

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD II OF ENGLAND/ORDINANCES OF 1311

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_II_of_England# Ordinances_of_1311

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD II OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_II_of_England

[125]

WIKIPEDIA

SIMON DE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER/RULE AND PARLIAMENTARY REFORM

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Simon_de_Montfort,_6th_Earl_of _Leicester#Rule_and_parliament ary_reform

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
SIMON DE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Simon_de_Montfort,_6th_Earl_of _Leicester

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA
SIMON DE MONTFORT, EARL OF LEICESTER

https://www.britannica.com/bio graphy/Simon-de-Montfort-earl- of-Leicester

NEW WORLD ENCYCLOPEDIA
SIMON DE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER

http://www.newworldencyclopedi a.org/entry/Simon_de_Montfort, _6th_Earl_of_Leicester

[126]

”Warenne was one of the nobles who captured Gaveston. He was however unhappy about Gaveston’s execution at the behest of the earl of Warwick, which pushed him back into the king’s camp”
…..
……
”The baronial opposition was led by the king’s cousin Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, and he and Warenne became bitter enemies. Private war erupted between the two, and over the new few years Warenne lost a good part of his estates to Lancaster”

WIKIPEDIA
JOHN DE WARENNE, 7TH EARL OF SURREY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John_de_Warenne,_7th_Earl_of_ Surrey

[127]

WIKIPEDIA
ROBERT THE BRUCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Robert_the_Bruce

[128]

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/ORDINANCES
AND FINAL EXILE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall#Ordinances_and_final_ex ile

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall

[129]

”The King held out for as long as he could, but eventually had to agree to the Ordinances, which were published on 27 September.[69] On 3 November, two days after the allotted deadline, Gaveston left England for the last time”

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/ORDINANCES
AND FINAL EXILE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall#Ordinances_and_final_ex ile

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
PIERS GAVESTON”S THIRD EXILE
23 MARCH 2008

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2008/03/piers-gavestons-t hird-exile.html

[130]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (1)
19 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

[131]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (1)
19 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

[132]

”At Warwick, Gaveston was condemned to death for violating the terms of the Ordinances, before an assembly of barons, including Warwick, Lancaster, Hereford and Arundel.[83] On 19 June, he was taken out on the road towards Kenilworth as far as Blacklow Hill, which was on the Earl of Lancaster’s land. Here, two Welshmen ran him through with a sword and beheaded him”

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/RETURN AND DEATH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall#Return_and_death

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall

[133]

WIKIPEDIA
JOHN OF ELTHAM, EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John_of_Eltham,_Earl_of_Cornwa ll

[134]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (2)
25 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2010/04/thomas-of- lancaster-and-his_25.html

[135]

”Edward and Thomas’s relationship hit a low point in the summer of 1316: the two men met and had a furious row in York….”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (2)
25 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancaster-and-his_25.html

”Edward and Thomas met in York in the summer of 1316 and had a furious row, apparently over Edward’s ongoing reluctance to accept the Ordinances, to which Thomas – who saw himself as a second Simon de Montfort – was devoted.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (1)
19 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancaster-and-his.html

[136]

”Sometime in early January 1312, Edward left Windsor and headed north to Yorkshire, collecting his niece Margaret de Clare from Wallingford on the way. From Wallingford to York is 200 miles, a dreadful journey for the very pregnant Margaret, especially on winter roads.
Presumably, Edward knew that Piers was on his way back, and wanted to get Margaret out of the way of the Ordainers, who, furious at Piers’ return, might use her as a hostage – or to ensure that Margaret gave birth far away from the Ordainers, so that Piers could slip into the country to see her and his child.

Margaret gave birth to Piers’ daughter Joan, named after her mother and Edward II’s sister Joan of Acre, on or around 12 January (so she was close to nine months pregnant when dragged on the long journey north, poor thing, and the timing suggests that they travelled very fast). Edward seems to have met Piers at Knaresborough on 13 January, and the two men rushed the seventeen miles to York that same day, almost certainly so Piers could see his wife and baby.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
GAVESTON’S RETURN TO ENGLAND
30 MARCH 2008

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2008/03/gavestons-return- to-england-1312.html

PIERSPERROTBLOGSPOT
FEBRUARY 1312
2 FEBRUARY 2017

http://piersperrotgaveston.blogspot.nl/2017/02/february-1312.html

February 1312February 1312 saw Piers Gaveston reunited with Edward II – and his wife, Margaret de Clare.  Piers was returning from his third exile.  It was his shortest exile – a matter of a couple of months.    There were even rumours he had not left the country at all, and was in fact in hiding.  Was this because he expected Edward to defy his nobles and gain the upper hand and allowing him back as soon as possible?   More likely is the fact that Piers was expecting his first child with his wife Margaret.   It may have been that because of her condition that Margaret could not follow Piers into exile – she had certainly accompanied him when he had been sent to Ireland.   We don’t know if the pregnancy was a difficult one, but surely Piers would have wanted to be as close to his wife as possible, so that when she went into labour, he could quickly reach her and see his child.   It would make sense for him to lie low in England.   It’s doubtful he would have been safe in France, and Flanders may have just been too far.

Piers and Margaret’s daughter was born in mid-January.   Piers was quickly at her side – after meeting up with Edward first, naturally.   Edward had taken Margaret North in late pregnancy.   There must have been a plan in which Edward thought the North would be the safest place for Piers to return.   There was surely great celebrating when Joan Gaveston was born – named for Margaret ’s mother, Edward’s sister.  Joan would never know her father, for within months of Piers return from his third exile disaster would strike – Piers would fall into the hands of his enemies and face death.   Whether Edward had a genuine plan/idea to ensure the safety of Piers or they both acted recklessly, we’ll never know.   However, February 1312 would be a time of celebration for Piers, his wife and Edward.

[137]

”On 18 January, Edward declared the judgement against Gaveston unlawful, and restored all lands to him”

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/RETURN AND DEATH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_ Cornwall

”On 18 January 1312, Edward revoked his friend’s exile: Gaveston, “who was lately exiled contrary to law and custom, in which exile he was named as other than good and loyal, has returned to the kingdom by the king’s order and is ready to justify himself before the king, wherefore the king holds him good and loyal.” (Close Rolls/Foedera).”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
GAVESTON’S RETURN
30 MARCH 2008

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2008/03/gavestons-return-to-england-1312.html

[138]

”In March, Gaveston settled at Scarborough, and began to fortify the castle.[73] Around the same time, he was pronounced excommunicate by Archbishop Winchelsey at St Paul’s

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/RETURN AND DEATH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Cornwall#Return_and_death

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Cornwall

CONOR BYRNE
19 JUNE 1312: THE DEATH OF GAVESTON
21 JUNE 2014

http://conorbyrnex.blogspot. nl/2014/06/19-june-1312-death- of-piers-gaveston.html

[139]

”Edward, Isabella and Gaveston left for Newcastle, pursued by Lancaster and his followers”

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD II OF ENGLAND/DEATH OF GAVESTON

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD II OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_II_of_England

YOUTUBE.COM
SHE WOLVES, ENGLAND’S EARLY QUEENS, ISABELLA
AND MARGARET

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=192QjemfTh0&t=1896s

CONOR BYRNE
19 JUNE 1312: THE DEATH OF GAVESTON
21 JUNE 2014

http://conorbyrnex.blogspot. nl/2014/06/19-june-1312-death- of-piers-gaveston.html

[140]

”Incredibly, Edward made overtures to Robert Bruce, and offered to acknowledge him as king of Scots if Bruce would agree to protect Piers. ”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
GAVESTON’S RETURN TO ENGLAND, 1312
30 MARCH 2008

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2008/03/gavestons-return-to-england-1312.html

[141]

MEDIEVAL CHRONICLE
VITA EDWARDI SECUNDI

WIKIPEDIA
VITA EDWARDI SECUNDI

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vita_Edwardi_Secundi

[142]

WIKIPEDIA
AYMER DE VALENCE, 2ND EARL OF PEMBROKE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Aymer_de_Valence,_2nd_Earl_of_ Pembroke

[143]

WIKIPEDIA
JOHN DE WARENNE, 7TH EARL OF SURREY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John_de_Warenne,_7th_Earl_of_S urrey

[144]

” Pembroke and Warenne were given the responsibility of capturing Gaveston”

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/RETURN
AND DEATH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_ Cornwall#Return_and_death

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA

PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_ Cornwall

[145]

”Gaveston then returned to Scarborough, while the King left for York.”

WIKIPEDIA

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/RETURN
AND DEATH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_ Cornwall#Return_and_death

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA

PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_ Cornwall

YOUTUBE.COM
SHE WOLVES, ENGLAND’S EARLY QUEENS, ISABELLA
AND MARGARET

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=192QjemfTh0&t=322s

[146]

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY DE PERCY, 1ST BARON PERCY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_de_Percy,_1st_Baron_Percy

[147]

WIKIPEDIA
ROBERT DE CLIFFORD, 1ST BARON DE CLIFFORD

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_de_Clifford,_1st_Baron_de_Clifford

[148]

”Aymer was the son of William de Valence, son of Hugh X, Count of La Marche and Isabella of Angoulême.[2] William was Henry III’s half-brother through his mother’s prior marriage to King John, and as such gained a central position in the Kingdom of England”

WIKIPEDIA
AYMER DE VALENCE, 2ND EARL OF PEMBROKE/FAMILY
AND EARLY YEARS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Aymer_de_Valence,_2nd_Earl_of_ Pembroke#Family_and_early_year s

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
AYMER DE VALENCE, 2ND EARL OF PEMBROKE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Aymer_de_Valence,_2nd_Earl_of_ Pembroke

[149]

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON,1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/RETURN AND
DEATH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall#Return_and_death

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall

[150]

As far as Pembroke is concerned, the seizing and execution of a prisoner in his custody was a breach of the most fundamental chivalric codes, and a serious affront to his honour. The event must therefore be seen as pivotal in turning his sympathies away from the rebels and towards the King”

WIKIPEDIA
AYMER DE VALENCE, 2ND EARL OF PEMBROKE/THE
ORDINANCES AND PIERS GAVESTON

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Aymer_de_Valence,_2nd_Earl_of_ Pembroke#The_Ordinances_and_Pi ers_Gaveston

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
AYMER DE VALENCE, 2ND EARL OF PEMBROKE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Aymer_de_Valence,_2nd_Earl_of_ Pembroke

” Piers’ death strengthened Edward’s position, especially as the earls of Surrey and Pembroke came back to his side, appalled by the murder.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE DEATH OF PIERS GAVESTON
19 JUNE 2008

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2008/06/death-of- piers-gaveston.html

[151]

”His marriage to Elizabeth of Rhuddlan (Elizabeth Plantagenet), daughter of King Edward I of England and his first wife, Eleanor of Castile, on 14 November 1302, at Westminster gained him the lands of Berkshire.”

WIKIPEDIA
HUMPHREY DE BOHUN, 4TH EARL OF HEREFORD/MARRIAGE
AND CHILDREN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Humphrey_de_Bohun,_4th_Earl_of _Hereford#Marriage_and_childre n

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HUMPHREY DE BOHUN, 4TH EARL OF HEREFORD

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Humphrey_de_Bohun,_4th_Earl_of _Hereford

[152]

WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND FITZALAN, 9TH EARL OF ARUNDEL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edmund_FitzAlan,_9th_Earl_of_A rundel

[153]

On 19 June, he was taken out on the road towards Kenilworth as far as Blacklow Hill, which was on the Earl of Lancaster’s land. Here, two Welshmen ran him through with a sword and beheaded him”

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/RETURN AND DEATH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall#Return_and_death

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall

[154]

They at least gave him the honour of beheading, the nobleman’s death, because he was the brother-in-law of the earl of Gloucester.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
A NOTORIOUS ROYAL FAVOURITE: PIERS
GAVESTON
10 FEBRUARY 2007

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2007/02/notorious-royal-favourite-piers.html

[155]

”Joan Gaveston was only five months old when her father was killed at Blacklow Hill on 19 June 1312.”

EDWARDTHSECONDBLOGSPOT
JOAN GAVESTON, PIERS’ DAUGHTER
1 JULY 2012

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2012/07/joan-gaveston-piers-daughter.html

EDWARDTHSECONDBLOGSPOT
PIERS GAVESTON AND HIS DAUGHTERS JOAN
AND AMIE
5 MARCH 2006

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2006/03/piers-gaveston-and-his-daughters-joan.html

[156]

”18) Edward referred to his friend in speech as “my brother Piers” and addressed him in writing as “our dear and faithful brother” (nostre cher frere et foial) – exactly the same way as he addressed his real brothers Thomas and Edmund and his brother-in-law the earl of Hereford.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
NINETEEN THINGS YOU NEVER KNEW ABOUT
PIERS GAVESTON
10 FEBRUARY 2009

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2009/02/nineteen-things-y ou-never-knew-about.html

”Revenge would have to wait a while longer. But Edward never forgot his promise. In September 1319, during the siege of Berwick, he said “When this wretched business is over, we will turn our hands to other matters. For I have not forgotten the wrong that was done to my brother Piers.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE DEATH OF PIERS GAVESTON
19 JUNE 2008

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2008/06/death-of-piers-ga veston.html

[157]

”As for Edward, from his later actions it is clear that his primary reaction to Piers’ murder was utter rage.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE DEATH OF PIERS GAVESTON
19 JUNE 2008

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2008/06/death-of-piers-ga veston.html

”The Vita and several other chronicles, such as Lanercost, Scalacronica and Anonimalle, point out that Edward swore revenge for Piers’ death…..”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
WHAT HAPPENED AFTER THE BARONS
KILLED PIERS GAVESTON
3 AUGUST 2009

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2009/08/what-happened-aft er-barons-killed-piers.html

”Edward’s initial reaction to the news of Gaveston’s execution was rage; according to the Vita Edwardi he swore to avenge the act”

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/AFTERMATH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall#Aftermath

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall

[158]

”At the same time, the barons’ extralegal action had alienated many of their former associates; the Earl of Pembroke in particular became strongly tied to the King’s cause after the affront to his honour.”

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/AFTERMATH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall#Aftermath

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall

”To say that ‘all the inhabitants’ rejoiced is an exaggeration. Many did, but others were horrified at the earls’ brutal act and the violent illegality of it, and a groundswell of sympathy for the king swept the country. Piers’ death strengthened Edward’s position, especially as the earls of Surrey and Pembroke came back to his side, appalled by the murder.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE DEATH OF PIERS GAVESTON
19 JUNE 2008

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2008/06/death-of-piers-ga veston.html

”This criminal act had the effect of garnering support for the King, and marginalising the rebellious earls”

WIKIPEDIA
AYMER DE VALENCE, 2ND EARL OF PEMBROKE/THE ORDINANCES
AND PIERS GAVESTON

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Aymer_de_Valence,_2nd_Earl_of_ Pembroke#The_Ordinances_and_ Piers_Gaveston

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
AYMER DE VALENCE, 2ND EARL OF PEMBROKE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Aymer_de_Valence,_2nd_Earl_of_ Pembroke

[159]

WIKIPEDIA
HUGH DESPENSER THE YOUNGER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hugh_Despenser_the_Younger

[160]

”As far as Pembroke is concerned, the seizing and execution of a prisoner in his custody was a breach of the most fundamental chivalric codes, and a serious affront to his honour. The event must therefore be seen as pivotal in turning his sympathies away from the rebels and towards the King.”

WIKIPEDIA
AYMER DE VALENCE, 2ND EARL OF PEMBROKE/THE ORDINANCES
AND PIERS GAVESTON

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Aymer_de_Valence,_2nd_Earl_of_ Pembroke#The_Ordinances_and_ Piers_Gaveston

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
AYMER DE VALENCE, 2ND EARL OF PEMBROKE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Aymer_de_Valence,_2nd_Earl_of_ Pembroke

[161]

WIKIPEDIA
JOHN DE WARENNE, 7TH EARL OF SURREY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John_de_Warenne,_7th_Earl_of_S urrey

[162]

”He was however unhappy about Gaveston’s execution at the behest of the earl of Warwick, which pushed him back into the king’s camp”

WIKIPEDIA
JOHN DE WARENNE, 7TH EARL OF SURREY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John_de_Warenne,_7th_Earl_of_S urrey

[163]

”The baronial opposition was led by the king’s cousin Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, and he and Warenne became bitter enemies. Private war erupted between the two, and over the new few years Warenne lost a good part of his estates to Lancaster.”

WIKIPEDIA
JOHN DE WARENNE, 7TH EARL OF SURREY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John_de_Warenne,_7th_Earl_of_ Surrey

”His marriage to Alice de Lacy was not successful. They had no children together, while he fathered, illegitimately, with another woman, two sons. In 1317 she was abducted from her manor at CanfordDorset by Richard de St Martin, a knight in the service of John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey. This incident caused a feud between Lancaster and Surrey; Lancaster divorced his wife and seized two of Surrey’s castles in retaliation. King Edward then intervened, and the two Earls came to an uneasy truce.”

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER/LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster# Life

ORIGINAL SOURCE
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

[164]

”His marriage to Elizabeth of Rhuddlan (Elizabeth Plantagenet), daughter of King Edward I of England and his first wife, Eleanor of Castile, on 14 November 1302, at Westminster gained him the lands of Berkshire.”

WIKIPEDIA
HUMPHREY DE BOHUN, 4TH EARL OF HEREFORD/MARRIAGE
AND CHILDREN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Humphrey_de_Bohun,_4th_Earl_of _Hereford#Marriage_and_childre n

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HUMPHREY DE BOHUN, 4TH EARL OF HEREFORD

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Humphrey_de_Bohun,_4th_Earl_of _Hereford

[165]

Hertfordshire (i/ˈhɑːrtfərdʃ ɪər/[n 1]; often abbreviated Herts) is a county in southern England, bordered by Bedfordshire to the north, Cambridgeshire to the north-east, Essex to the east, Buckinghamshire to the west and Greater London to the south.”

WIKIPEDIA
HERTFORDSHIRE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hertfordshire

[166]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
WHAT HAPPENED AFTER THE BARONS KILLED
PIERS GAVESTON
3 AUGUST 2009

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2009/08/what- happened-after-barons-killed- piers.html

[167]

”When Gaveston once more returned from exile, however, Gloucester sided with the baronial opposition.[22] The earls divided the country into different parts for defence, and Gloucester was given charge of the south.[23] In June 1312, Gaveston was captured by Guy de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, who was working in cooperation with Lancaster. Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, who had the custody of Gaveston and had guaranteed his safety to the king, appealed to Gloucester, as Gaveston’s kinsman, for assistance.[24] Gloucester, however, refused to help, and Gaveston was killed”

WIKIPEDIA

GILBERT DE CLARE, 8TH EARL OF GLOUCESTER/WSCALATION
OF THE NATIONAL CONFLICT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Gilbert_de_Clare,_8th_Earl_of_ Gloucester#Escalation_of_the_n ational_conflict

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
GILBERRT DE CLARE, 8TH EARL OF GLOUCESTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Gilbert_de_Clare,_8th_Earl_of_ Gloucester

”On 9 June, Pembroke left Gaveston at the rectory at Deddington in Oxfordshire, while he himself left to visit his wife.[79] When Warwick found out about Gaveston’s whereabouts, he immediately rode out to capture him. The next morning he appeared at the rectory, where he took Gaveston captive and brought him back to his castle at Warwick.[80] Pembroke, whose honour had been affronted, appealed for justice both to Gaveston’s brother-in-law Gloucester and to the University of Oxford, but to no avail.”

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/RETURN AND DEATH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall#Return_and_death

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall

[168]

WIKIPEDIA
LOUIS, COUNT OF EVREUX

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Louis,_Count_of_%C3%89vreux

[169]

WIKIPEDIA
POPE CLEMENT V

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Pope_Clement_V

[170]

”John then travelled to France for diplomatic negotiations, before returning to England. Gaveston was exiled by the Ordainers but later made an irregular return. Gaveston was killed in June 1312 by Thomas of Lancaster and other nobles.
‘It fell upon John, together with Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, to reconcile the two parties after this event”

WIKIPEDIA
JOHN OF BRITANNY, EARL OF RICHMOND/LORD ORDAINERS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John_of_Brittany,_Earl_of_Rich mond#Lord_Ordainers

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
JOHN OF BRITANNY, EARL OF RICHMOND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John_of_Brittany,_Earl_of_Rich mond

[171]

”Edward was born at Windsor Castle on 13 November 1312, and was often referred to as Edward of Windsor in his early years”

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD III OF ENGLAND/EARLY LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_III_of_England#Early_li fe

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD III OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_III_of_England

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE BIRTH OF EDWARD III, 1312
13 NOVEMBER 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/11/birth-of-edward- iii-1312.html

[172]

”Isabella of France sent a letter (in French) to the city of London, announcing her son’s birth:

“Isabella, by the grace of God queen of England, lady of Ireland, and duchess of Aquitaine, to our well-beloved the mayor and aldermen and the commonalty of London, greeting. Forasmuch as we believe that you would willingly hear good tidings of us, we do make known to you that our Lord, of His grace, has delivered us of a son, on the 13th day of November, with safety to ourselves, and to the child. May our Lord preserve you.”

Cited in Alison Weir, Isabella, She-Wolf of France, Queen of England, p. 71

WIKIPEDIA
ISABELLA OF FRANCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Isabella_of_France

[173]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
DECEMBER 1312/OCTOBER 1313: EDWARD II
MAKES PEACE WITH PIERS GAVESTON’S KILLERS
1 FEBRUARY 2015

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2015/02/december-1312october-1313-edward-ii.html

[174]

”On 4 May 1312, Edward II, a pregnant Queen Isabella and Piers Gaveston fled ninety miles by sea from Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Tynemouth down the coast to Scarborough, in order to escape Edward’s cousin, Thomas, earl of Lancaster, who was slowly making his way north in order to capture Piers after his return to England from his third exile.
……..
……..
……..
The king, taken entirely by surprise, was forced to leave behind his baggage train in Newcastle, and Thomas of Lancaster seized possession of it when he arrived in the town.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDWARD II’S PRECIOUS GOODS AT NEWCASTLE,
MAY 1312
1 APRIL 2013

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2013/04/edward-iis-precious-goods-at-newcastle.html

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDWARD II AND PIERS GAVESTON’S TREASURE, 1312
13 JULY 2008

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2008/07/edward-ii-and-piers-gavestons-treasure.html

[175]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
DECEMBER 1312/OCTOBER 1313: EDWARD II
MAKES PEACE WITH PIERS GAVESTON’S KILLERS
1 FEBRUARY 2015

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2015/02/december-1312october-1313-edward-ii.html

”Over 350 men were pardoned (all the names are listed in the Patent Rolls and Foedera)”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE DEATH OF PIERS GAVESTON
19 JUNE 2008

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2008/06/death-of-piers-gaveston.html

[176]

”A proper burial could not be arranged while Gaveston was still excommunicate, and it was not until 2 January 1315, after the King had secured a papal absolution for his favourite, that he could have his body buried in an elaborate ceremony at the Dominican foundation of King’s Langley Priory; the tomb is now lost”

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/AFTERMATH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_ Cornwall#Aftermath

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_ Cornwall

”Having died excommunicated, Edward II would not bury him until this had been revoked.  It was almost 2 years before Edward could secure a papal dispensation.  The body was cared for by the Dominican Friars at Oxford.  An elaborate funeral was held at the Dominican Friary at Kings Langley, where Edward and Piers had spent many happy times.”

PIERSPERROTGAVESTONBLOGSPOT
HOW ABOUT THE HUNT FOR THE REMAINS OF PIERS
GAVESTON
5 FEBRUARY 2013

http://piersperrotgaveston. blogspot.nl/2013/02/how-about- hunt-for-remains-of-piers.html

[177]

”Among those who attended Piers Gaveston’s funeral were: Queen Isabella (how did she feel, I wonder?); the king’s fourteen-year-old half-brother Thomas of Brotherton, earl of Norfolk; the king’s brother-in-law Humphrey de Bohun, earl of Hereford (very bravely, considering he was one of the men who put Piers to death);”
…..
…..
”the two Hugh Despensers; Edward’s kinsmen Aymer de Valence, earl of Pembroke and Henry, Lord Beaumont; Walter Reynolds, archbishop of Canterbury; Bartholomew, Lord Badlesmere; the mayor of London; four bishops; fourteen abbots; fifty knights; and large numbers of Dominican friars. The list of important non-attendees is far longer, and includes the earls of Lancaster and Warwick, who had had Piers killed.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
2 OR 3 JANUARY 1315: PIERS GAVESTON’S
FUNERAL
3 JANUARY 2015

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2015/01/2-or-3- january-1315-piers-gavestons. html

[178]

”The king nevertheless emerged strengthened from the events, while Warwick and Lancaster were largely marginalised.[34] This all changed in 1314, when the king decided to stage his first major campaign against the Scots. Warwick and Lancaster refused to participate in the campaign, which ended in a humiliating English defeat at the Battle of Bannockburn on 24 June.”

WIKIPEDIA
GUY DE BEACHAMP, 10TH EARL OF WARWICK/GAVESTON”S
DEATH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Guy_de_Beauchamp,_10th_Earl_of _Warwick#Gaveston.27s_death

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
GUY DE BEACHAMP, 10TH EARL OF WARWICK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Guy_de_Beauchamp,_10th_Earl_of _Warwick

WIKIPEDIA
BATTLE OF BANNOCKBURN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Battle_of_Bannockburn

[179]

”In mid-July Warwick had to withdraw from government to his estates, due to illness.[36] Political leadership was soon left almost entirely to Lancaster, when Warwick died on 12 August 1315. ”

WIKIPEDIA
GUY DE BEAUCHAMP, 10TH EARL OF WARWICK/DEATH AND
HISTORICAL ASSESSMENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Guy_de_Beauchamp,_10th_Earl_of _Warwick#Death_and_historical_ assessment

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA

GUY DE BEACHAMP, 10TH EARL OF WARWICK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Guy_de_Beauchamp,_10th_Earl_of _Warwick

[180]

”The chronicler Thomas Walsingham reported rumours that the king had him poisoned”

WIKIPEDIA
GUY DE BEAUCHAMP, 10TH EARL OF WARWICK/DEATH AND
HISTORICAL ASSESSMENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Guy_de_Beauchamp,_10th_Earl_of _Warwick#Death_and_historical_ assessment

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA

GUY DE BEACHAMP, 10TH EARL OF WARWICK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Guy_de_Beauchamp,_10th_Earl_of _Warwick

Guy Beauchamp, earl of Warwick, son of the former and enemy of Edward II, wrote his will at Warwick Castle on 28 July 1315 and died on 12 August, probably in his early forties. He asked to be buried at Bordesley Abbey in Worcestershire “without any funeral pomp,” and left his wife Alice Toeni “a proportion of plate, with a crystal cup and half my bedding, and also all the vestments and books belonging to my chapel.” Two sons are mentioned: Thomas, the elder and future earl of Warwick, then only eighteen months old, received Guy’s “best coat of mail, armour and suit of harness, with all that belongs thereto,” and John was bequeathed the second best. Two daughters, Maud and Elizabeth, are mentioned, bequeathed half of their father’s beds, rings and jewels; Maud also received a crystal cup and Elizabeth “the marriage of Astley’s heir” (Thomas Astley, her future husband).”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
BASINS, CRYSTALL CUPS AND ILLEGITIMATE
CHILDREN: FOURTEENTH CENTURY WILLS
29 JUNE 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/06/wills.html

[181]

”Hereford fought throughout the day, leading a large company of Welsh and English knights and archers. The archers might have had success at breaking up the Scots schiltrons until they were overrun by the Scots cavalry. When the battle was lost Bohun retreated with the Earl of Angus and several other barons, knights and men to Bothwell Castle, seeking a safe haven. However, all the refugees who entered the castle were taken prisoner by its formerly pro-English governor Walter fitz Gilbert who, like many Lowland knights, declared for Bruce as soon as word came of the Scottish King’s victory. Humphrey de Bohun was ransomed by Edward II, his brother-in-law, on the pleading of his wife Isabella”

WIKIPEDIA
HUMPHREY DE BOHUN, 4TH EARL OF HEREFORD/BATTLE
OF BANNOCKBURN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Humphrey_de_Bohun,_4th_Earl_ of_Hereford#Battle_of_ Bannockburn

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HUMPHREY DE BOHUN, 4TH EARL OF HEREFORD

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Humphrey_de_Bohun,_4th_Earl_ of_Hereford

[182]

WIKIPEDIA
HUMPHREY DE BOHUN, 4TH EARL OF HEREFORD/DEATH

AT BOUROUGHBRIDGE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Humphrey_de_Bohun,_4th_Earl_ of_Hereford#Death_at_ Boroughbridge

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HUMPHREY DE BOHUN, 4TH EARL OF HEREFORD

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Humphrey_de_Bohun,_4th_Earl_ of_Hereford

Humphrey de Bohun, earl of Hereford and Essex (c. 1276 – 16 March 1322)
Married Edward I’s daughter Elizabeth in 1302, and was killed horribly at the battle of Boroughbridge on 16 March 1322, during the Contrariant rebellion against his brother-in-law Edward II.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
DEATHS OF ENGLISH EARLS 1307-1330
22 NOVEMBER 2012

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2012/11/deaths-of-english -earls-1307-1330.html

[183]

WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND FITZALAN, 9TH EARL OF ARUNDEL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edmund_FitzAlan,_9th_Earl_of_A rundel

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
17 NOVEMBER 1326: THE EXECUTION OF
THE EARL OF ARUNDEL
17 NOVEMBER 2011

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2011/11/17-november-1326- execution-of-earl-of.html

[184]

”On 9 June, Pembroke left Gaveston at the rectory at Deddington in Oxfordshire, while he himself left to visit his wife.[79] When Warwick found out about Gaveston’s whereabouts, he immediately rode out to capture him. The next morning he appeared at the rectory, where he took Gaveston captive and brought him back to his castle at Warwick.[80] Pembroke, whose honour had been affronted, appealed for justice both to Gaveston’s brother-in-law Gloucester and to the University of Oxford, but to no avail”

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON. 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/RETURN AND DEATH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_ Cornwall#Return_and_death

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_ Cornwall

”As far as Pembroke is concerned, the seizing and execution of a prisoner in his custody was a breach of the most fundamental chivalric codes, and a serious affront to his honour. The event must therefore be seen as pivotal in turning his sympathies away from the rebels and towards the King”

WIKIPEDIA
AYMER DE VALENCE, 2ND EARL OF PEMBROKE/THE ORDINANCES

AND PIERS GAVESTON

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Aymer_de_Valence,_2nd_Earl_of_ Pembroke#The_Ordinances_and_ Piers_Gaveston

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
AYMER DE VALENCE, 2ND EARL OF PEMBROKE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Aymer_de_Valence,_2nd_Earl_of_ Pembroke

[185]

WIKIPEDIA
AYMER DE VALENCE, 2ND EARL OF PEMBROKE/LATER
YEARS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Aymer_de_Valence,_2nd_Earl_of_ Pembroke#Later_years

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
AYMER DE VALENCE, 2ND EARL OF PEMBROKE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Aymer_de_Valence,_2nd_Earl_of_ Pembroke

[186]

WIKIPEDIA
AYMER DE VALENCE, 2ND EARL OF PEMBROKE/LATER
YEARS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Aymer_de_Valence,_2nd_Earl_of_ Pembroke#Later_years

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
AYMER DE VALENCE, 2ND EARL OF PEMBROKE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Aymer_de_Valence,_2nd_Earl_of_ Pembroke

[187]

WIKIPEDIA
JOHN DE WARENNE, 7TH EARL OF SURREY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John_de_Warenne,_7th_Earl_of_S urrey

[188]

WIKIPEDIA’
HENRY DE PERCY, 1ST BARON PERCY/IMPRISONMENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry_de_Percy,_1st_Baron_ Percy#Imprisonment

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA’
HENRY DE PERCY, 1ST BARON PERCY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry_de_Percy,_1st_Baron_ Percy

[189]

WIKIPEDIA’
HENRY DE PERCY, 1ST BARON PERCY/THE FINAL YEAR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry_de_Percy,_1st_Baron_ Percy#The_final_year

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA’
HENRY DE PERCY, 1ST BARON PERCY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry_de_Percy,_1st_Baron_ Percy

[190]

WIKIPEDIA
ROBERT DE CLIFFORD, 1ST BARON DE CLIFFORD

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Robert_de_Clifford,_1st_Baron_ de_Clifford

[191]

WIKIPEDIA
GILBERT DE CLARE, 8TH EARL OF G;LOUCESTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Gilbert_de_Clare,_8th_Earl_of_ Gloucester

[192]

”His heir was his oldest son, whom he had named Thomas after the earl of Lancaster.”

WIKIPEDIA
GUY DE BEAUCHAMP, 10TH EARL OF WARWICK/DEATH AND
HISTORICAL ASSESSMENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Guy_de_Beauchamp,_10th_Earl_of _Warwick#Death_and_historical_ assessment

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
GUY DE BEAUCHAMP, 10TH EARL OF WARWICK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Guy_de_Beauchamp,_10th_Earl_of _Warwick

[193]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
DECEMBER 1312/OCTOBER 1313: EDWARD II
MAKES PEACE WITH PIERS GAVESTON’S KILLERS
1 FEBRUARY 2015

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2015/02/december-1312octo ber-1313-edward-ii.html

[194]

””When this wretched business is over, we will turn our hands to other matters. For I have not forgotten the wrong that was done to my brother Piers.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS
RELATIONSHIP WITH EDWARD II (3)
2 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2010/05/thomas-of-lancaster-and-his.html

[195]

WIKIPEDIA
ROBERT THE BRUCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Robert_the_Bruce

[196]

”In June 1314, Thomas refused to accompany his cousin to Scotland for the Bannockburn campaign, and sent only four knights and four men-at-armsto fulfil his feudal obligations.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (1)
19 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2010/04/thomas-of- lancaster-and-his.html

[197]

WIKIPEDIA
BATTLE OF BANNOCKBURN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bannockburn

YOUTUBE.COM
SHE WOLVES, ENGLAND’S EARLY QUEENS, ISABELLA AND
MARGARET

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=192QjemfTh0&t=551s

DE RE MILITARY
THE BATTLE OF NANNOCKBURN (1314), ACCORDING TO
THE VITA EDWARDI SECUNDI

http://deremilitari.org/2014/06/the-battle-of-the-bannockburn-1314-according-to-the-vita-edwardi-secundi/

[198]

WIKIPEDIA
GILBERT DE CLARE, 8TH EARL OF GLOUCESTER/DEATH AT
BANNOCKBURN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Gilbert_de_Clare,_8th_Earl_of_ Gloucester#Death_at_Bannockbur n

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
GILBERT DE CLARE, 8TH EARL OF GLOUCESTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Gilbert_de_Clare,_8th_Earl_of_ Gloucester

[199]

”For all Edward’s incompetence as a general, his personal courage in the battle is beyond question, and the chronicler Trokelowe says that he fought like a lion. At one point, his horse was killed beneath him, and Scottish soldiers rushed forward to capture him. Edward’s knights surrounded him, beating them off, and Edward managed to mount another horse, from the many running around the battlefield. Again, Scottish soldiers pressed forward to try to capture him, grabbing hold of his horse’s trappings. Edward “struck out so vigorously behind him with his mace there was none whom he touched that he did not fell to the ground” according to the Scalacronica of Sir Thomas Gray, whose father was captured at the battle.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
BANNOCKBURN
24 JUNE 2008

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2008/06/bannockburn.html

”After some hours, the ground wet with blood, dead bodies of horses and men underfoot, the earl of Pembroke realised the battle was lost. He grabbed Edward’s reins and dragged, him, protesting, from the field.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
BANNOCKBURN
24 JUNE 2008

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2008/06/bannockburn.htm

[200]

WIKIPEDIA
JOHN II OF FRANCE/BATTLE OF POITIERS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John_II_of_France#Battle_of_Po itiers

”King John surrendered by handing him his glove. That night King John dined in the red silk tent of his enemy. The Black Prince attended to him personally. He was then taken to Bordeaux, and from there to England.”

WIKIPEDIA
JOHN II OF FRANCE/SURRENDER AND CAPTURE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John_II_of_France#Surrender_an d_capture

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
JOHN II OF FRANCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John_II_of_France

[201]

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II
19 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

[202]

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

YOUTUBE.COM
SHE WOLVES, ENGLAND’S EARLY QUEENS,
ISABELLA AND MARGARET

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=192QjemfTh0&t=814s

[203]

””Whatever pleases the lord king, the earl’s servants try to upset; and whatever pleases the earl, the king’s servants call treachery…and their lords, by whom the land ought to be defended, are not allowed to rest in harmony.”

VITA EDWARDI SECUNDI, PP 75-76

[204]

WIKIPEDIA
CHIVALRY/TEN COMMANDMENTS OF CHIVALRY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chivalry#Ten_Commandments_of_chivalry

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
CHIVALRY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chivalry

[205]

WIKIPEDIA
GREAT FAMINE OF 1315-17

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Great_Famine_of_1315%E2%80% 9317

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE GREAT FAMINE, 1315 TO 1317
28 JANUARY 2009

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2009/01/great- famine-1315-to-1317.html

[206]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE GREAT FAMINE, 1315 TO 1317
28 JANUARY 2009

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2009/01/great- famine-1315-to-1317.html

[207]

”A number of documented incidents show the extent of the famine. Edward IIKing of England, stopped at St Albans on 10 August 1315 and had difficulty finding bread for himself and his entourage; it was a rare occasion in which the King of England was unable to eat”

WIKIPEDIA
GREAT FAMINE OF 1315-17/GREAT FAMINE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Great_Famine_of_1315%E2%80% 9317#Great_Famine

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
GREAT FAMINE OF 1315-17

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Great_Famine_of_1315%E2%80%931 7

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE GREAT FAMINE, 1315 TO 1317
28 JANUARY 2009

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2009/01/great- famine-1315-to-1317.html

[208]

WIKIPEDIA
GREAT FAMINE OF 1315-17

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Great_Famine_of_1315%E2%80%931 7

[209]

WIKIPEDIA
JOHN OF ELTHAM, EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John_of_Eltham,_Earl_of_Cornwa ll

[210]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (2)
25 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2010/04/thomas-of- lancaster-and-his_25.html

[211]

”Edward and Thomas’s relationship hit a low point in the summer of 1316: the two men met and had a furious row in York….”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (2)
25 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his_25.html

”Edward and Thomas met in York in the summer of 1316 and had a furious row, apparently over Edward’s ongoing reluctance to accept the Ordinances, to which Thomas – who saw himself as a second Simon de Montfort – was devoted.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (1)
19 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

[212]

”'”When this wretched business is over, we will turn our hands to other matters. For I have not forgotten the wrong that was done to my brother Piers.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE SIEGE OF BERWICK AND THE CAPTURE OF MYTON
18 MAY 2009

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2009/05/siege-of-berwick- and-chapter-of-myton.html

[213]

‘ This threat to avenge Piers Gaveston’s death was clearly aimed at Lancaster, and may have been a reason for his departure from Berwick”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE SIEGE OF BERWICK AND THE CAPTURE OF MYTON
18 MAY 2009

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2009/05/siege-of- berwick-and-chapter-of-myton. html

[214]

” Through the arbitration of the Earl of Gloucester and others, a settlement was finally reached on 14 October 1313, whereby the barons were given a pardon and the horses and jewels were returned to the King”

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/AFTERMATH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_ Cornwall#Aftermath

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_ Cornwall

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
DECEMBER 1312/OCTOBER 1313: EDWARD II
MAKES PEACE WITH PIERS GAVESTON’S KILLERS
1 FEBRUARY 2015

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2015/02/december-1312octo ber-1313-edward-ii.html

[215]

”As bad as Edward II and Thomas of Lancaster’s relationship had become, it was set to deteriorate even further as the king’s new court favourites did their best to hinder a reconciliation”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (1)
19 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancaster-and-his.html

[216]

‘To Edward’s great annoyance, parliament appointed Lancaster as his chief counsellor, and the earl thus finally gained an official position in the government he had unofficially dominated since the parliament of September 1314. Parliament requested of the king’s “dear cousin” that “he might be pleased to be chief of his [Edward’s] council, in all the great or weighty matters concerning him and his realm,” and Lancaster, “for the great love which he bears towards his said lord the king,” (ha!) graciously agreed”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
YOUR PARLIAMENTARY REPORT TODAY:
PUNCHES IN THE FACE, AN ILLEGAL
MARRIAGE, A TWENTY MONTH PRRGNANCY
AND THE PRICE OF A FAT SHORN SHEEP
12 JANUARY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/01/your-parliamentar y-report-today-punches.html

The Lincoln parliament of early 1316 – at which Thomas of Lancaster finally deigned to show up more than two weeks late – requested of the king’s “dear cousin” that “he might be pleased to be chief of his council, in all the great or weighty matters concerning him [Edward] and his realm,”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (1)
19 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

[217]

”In 1315 he took command of the forces raised to fight the Scots, and was soon appointed to the “chief place in the council,”

LUMINARIUM ENCYCLOPEDIA
THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER
(c 1277-1322}

http://www.luminarium.org/ency clopedia/thomasoflancaster.htm

”After the disaster at Bannockburn in 1314, when he was defeated by Robert I of Scotland, Edward submitted to Lancaster, who in effect became ruler of England. In 1416, Parliament appointed him Chief Councilor.”

NEW WORLD ENCYCLOPEDIA
THOMAS PLANTAGENET, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

[218]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (1)
19 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

”In 1311 the castle passed by marriage to the estates of the House of LancasterThomas, Earl of Lancaster (1278–1322) was beheaded outside the castle walls six days after his defeat at the Battle of Boroughbridge, a sentence placed on him by King Edward II himself in the great hall. This resulted in the earl becoming a martyr with his tomb at Pontefract Priory becoming a shrine.[3] It next went to Henry, Duke of Lancaster and subsequently to John of Gaunt, third son of King Edward III. He made the castle his personal residence, spending vast amounts of money improving it.”

WIKIPEDIA
PONTRFRACT CASTLE/HISTORY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontefract_Castle#History

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PONTEFRACT CASTLE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontefract_Castle

[219]

May McKisack, The Fourteenth Century 1307-1399, p. 47

[220]

THE LORDS ORDAINERS

”Ordainer, in full Lord Ordainer, one of a committee of 21 nobles and prelates who opposed Edward II and framed a body of “Ordinances” intended to regulate his household and power.”
ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA
ORDAINER OR LORD ORDAINER

https://www.britannica.com/top ic/Ordainer

”The Ordinances of 1311 were a series of regulations imposed upon King Edward II by the peerage and clergy of the Kingdom of England to restrict the power of the king.[a] The twenty-one signatories of the Ordinances are referred to as the Lords Ordainers, or simply the Ordainers.[b] English setbacks in the Scottish war, combined with perceived extortionate royal fiscal policies, set the background for the writing of the Ordinances in which the administrative prerogatives of the king were largely appropriated by a baronial council.”

WIKIPEDIA
ORDINANCES OF 1311

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Ordinances_of_1311

[221]

LEGACY

”Thomas Lancaster’s reputation improved with age. He has been described as “a coarse, selfish and violent man, without any of the attributes of a statesman”[11] and as “vindictive, greedy and cruel, and lethargic when presented with real power.”[12] His instinct, however, was to uphold the law and, notwithstanding his faults, he can not be accused of pure self-interest. He saw himself as answerable to Parliament, which, unlike Edward, he did not ignore or manipulate.”
……
……
”As an admirer of De Montford, Thomas would have subscribed to the principles that had developed subsequent to his Parliament of 1265, that all classes should be represented there, that all taxes except “those sanctioned by custom” must be approved by Parliament and that the “common man” was also entitled to protection, security and justice”

NEW WORLD ENCYCLOPEDIA
THOMAS PLANTAGENET, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

http://www. newworldencyclopedia.org/ entry/Thomas_Plantagenet,_2nd_ Earl_of_Lancaster

[222]

” In the autumn of 1311, Thomas was one of the men who forced Edward II to accept the Ordinances, forty-one ‘reforms’ which severely limited the king’s powers.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATION
WITH EDWARD II (2)
19 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancaster-and-his.html

[223]

EDWARD TOOK HIS OATH IN FRENCH


Edward II’s coronation oath, 25 February 1308Sire, volez vous graunter, è garder, &, par vostre serment, confermer au poeple d’Engleterre les leys, & les custumes, à eux grauntees par les auntiens Rois d’Engleterre, voz predecessours droitures & devotz a DIEU; & nomement les lois, les custumes, & les fraunchises, grantez au clerge, è au poeple par le glorieus Roi seint Edward, vostre predecessour? Jeo les grante & promette. Sire, garderez vous à DIEU, & seinte eglise, & au clerge, & au poeple paes, & acord en DIEU entierment, solonc vostre poer? Jeo les garderai. Sire, freez vous faire, en touz voz jugementz, ovele & droit justice & discretion, en misericorde & verite, à vostre poer? Jeo le frai. Sire, graunte vous à tenir & garder les loys & les custumes droitureles, les quiels la communaute de vostre roiaume aura esleu, & les defendrez & afforcerez, al honour de DIEU, à vostre poer? Jeo les graunte & promette.Edward II’s coronation oath: translationSire, will you grant and keep and by your oath confirm to the people of England the laws and customs given to them by the previous just and god-fearing kings, your ancestors, and especially the laws, customs, and liberties granted to the clergy and people by the glorious king, the sainted Edward, your predecessor? I grant and promise them. Sire, will you in all your judgments, so far as in you lies, preserve to God and Holy Church, and to the people and clergy, entire peace and concord before God? I will preserve them.Sire, will you, so far as in you lies, cause justice to be rendered rightly, impartially, and wisely, in compassion and in truth? I will do so. Sire, do you grant to be held and observed the just laws and customs that the community of your realm shall determine, and will you, so far as in you lies, defend and strengthen them to the honour of God? I grant and promise them.”

[EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT]
EDWARD II’S CORONATION OATH, 25 FEBRUARY 1308

https://www.astridessed.nl/edwardthesecondblogspotedward-iis-coronation-oath-25-february-1308-2/

[224]

LEGACY

”Edward had vowed to “maintain the laws and rightful customs which the community of the realm shall have chosen,” as well as to “maintain peace and do justice” and Thomas had heard this promise. This development of the law was a shared responsibility—through their representatives, the “community of the realm”[14] would have a say in framing these laws for the common good. Thomas Plantagenet did his best to hold the king accountable to his oath.”

NEW WORLD ENCYCLOPEDIA
THOMAS PLANTAGENET, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

http://www. newworldencyclopedia.org/ entry/Thomas_Plantagenet,_2nd_ Earl_of_Lancaster

[225]

WIKIPEDIA
WILLIAM MONTEGU, 2ND BARON MONTEGU

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ William_Montagu,_2nd_Baron_ Montagu

”His namesake son and heir, a close friend of Edward III, became earl of Salisbury in 1337. ”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
WILLIAM MONTECUTE, ANOTHER ROYAL FAVOURITE (1)
6 JANUARY 2011

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2011/01/william- montacute-another-royal.html

[226]

”Roger was, by the way, the ancestor of Walt Disney, Richard III’s friend Francis Lovell, and Henry Norris, executed in 1536 supposedly for committing adultery with Queen Anne Boleyn.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE RISE AND FALL OF A ROYAL FAVOURITE,
ROGER DAMORY (1)
24 JANUARY 2010

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2010/01/rise-and- fall-of-royal-favourite-roger. html

[227]

” Still, Damory obviously realised that his influence with Edward was over, and he “could have no affection for his deadly rival,” Despenser. [8] He joined the coalition of the earl of Hereford, Roger Mortimer and the rest – even the earl of Lancaster, who managed to overcome his hatred for the former royal favourite in his eagerness to join the growing opposition to his cousin the king.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE RISE AND FALL OF A ROYAL FAVOURITE,
ROGER DAMORY (2)
28 JANUARY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2010/01/rise-and-fall-of-royal-favourite-roger_28.html

[228]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE RISE AND FALL OF A ROYAL FAVOURITE,
ROGER DAMORY (1)
24 JANUARY 2010

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2010/01/rise-and- fall-of-royal-favourite-roger. html

WIKIPEDIA
ROGER D’AMORY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_d%27Amory

[229]

”As bad as Edward II and Thomas of Lancaster’s relationship had become, it was set to deteriorate even further as the king’s new court favourites did their best to hinder a reconciliation”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (1)
19 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

[230]

”Pope John XXII often wrote to Edward in 1317 and 1318 about his extravangance and much else which concerned the pontiff, and advised the king to “remove those friends whose youth and imprudence injure the affairs of the realm.””

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE RISE AND FALL OF A ROYAL FAVOURITE:
ROGER DAMORY (1)
24 JANUARY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/01/rise-and-fall-of- royal-favourite-roger.html

[231]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE RISE AND FALL OF A ROYAL FAVOURITE,
ROGER DAMORY (1)
24 JANUARY 2010

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2010/01/rise-and- fall-of-royal-favourite-roger. html

WIKIPEDIA
ELISABETH DE CLARE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Elizabeth_de_Clare

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
WOMEN OF EDWARD II’S REIGN: ELIZABETH
DE CLARE
18 OCTOBER 2007

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2007/10/women-of- edward-iis-reign-elizabeth-de. html

[232]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
FROM FAVOURITE TO REBEL: THE CAREER OF
HUGH AUDLEY
4 NOVEMBER 2008

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2008/11/from- favourite-to-rebel-career-of- hugh.html

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
28 APRIL 2017: THE WEDDING OF MARGARET DE CLARE AND HUGH AUDLEY
28 APRIL 2013

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2013/04/28-april- 1317-wedding-of-margaret-de. html

WIKIPEDIA
HUGH DE AUDLEY, 1ST EARL OF GLOUCESTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugh_de_Audley,_1st_Earl_of_Gloucester

”Earls of Gloucester, 3rd Creation (1337)[edit]

WIKIPEDIA
EARLS OF GLOUCESTER, 3RD CREATION

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earl_of_Gloucester#Earls_of_Gloucester.2C_3rd_Creation_.281337.29

SEE ALSO

”Earls of Gloucester, 2nd Creation (1299)[edit]

WIKIPEDIA
EARL OF GLOUCESTER, 2ND CREATION

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earl_of_Gloucester#Earls_of_Gloucester.2C_2nd_Creation_.281299.29

ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
EARL OF GLOUCESTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earl_of_Gloucester

[233]

WIKIPEDIA
WILLIAM MONTEGU, 2ND BARON MONTAGU

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ William_Montagu,_2nd_Baron_Mon tagu

HIS SON WAS ONE OF THE CLOSEST FRIENDS OF EDWARD III

SEE

WIKIPEDIA
WILLIAM MONTAGU, 1ST EARL OF SALISBURY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ William_Montagu,_1st_Earl_of_S alisbury

”Montagu was created Earl of Salisbury on 16 March 1337”

WIKIPEDIA
WILLIAM MONTAGU, 1ST EARL OF SALISBURY/TH E HUNDRED
YEARS’ WAR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ William_Montagu,_1st_Earl_of_S alisbury#The_Hundred_Years.27_ War

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
WILLIAM MONTAGU, 1ST EARL OF SALISBURY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ William_Montagu,_1st_Earl_of_S alisbury

[234]

”On or around 18 November, Edward appointed William steward of the royal household, replacing John Cromwell, and in January 1317 William contracted to serve Edward for life, in return for an annual salary of 200 marks.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
WILLIAM MONTECUTE, ANOTHER ROYAL FAVOURITE
(2)
17 JANUARY 2011

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2011/01/william-montacute -another-royal_17.html

WIKIPEDIA
WILLIAM MONTEGU, 2ND BARON MONTAGU

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ William_Montagu,_2nd_Baron_Mon tagu

[235]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
WILLIAM MONTECUTE, ANOTHER ROYAL FAVOURITE (1)
6 JANUARY 2011

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2011/01/william- montacute-another-royal.html

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
WILLIAM MONTECUTE, ANOTHER ROYAL FAVOURITE (2)
17 JANUARY 2011

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2011/01/william- montacute-another-royal_17. html

[236]

”Roger and his fellow court favourites – or rather, rivals – Hugh Audley and William Montacute hated and feared Thomas, earl of Lancaster, Edward II’s cousin and great enemy, and went out of their way to anger him: at a meeting of the king’s council at the palace of Clarendon in the spring of 1317, the three of them publicly condemned Lancaster as a traitor.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE RISE AND FALL OF A ROYAL FAVOURITE:
ROGER DAMORY (1)
24 JANUARY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/01/rise-and-fall-of- royal-favourite-roger.html

”Audley and Montacute were doing their best to hinder any reconciliation between the king and the earl, and at a meeting of the king’s council at Clarendon in the spring of 1317, the three openly called Thomas a traitor. ”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (2)
25 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his_25.html

[237]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (2)
25 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his_25.html

[238]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE RISE AND FALL OF A ROYAL FAVOURITE: ROGER
DAMORY (1)
24 JANUARY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/01/rise-and-fall-of- royal-favourite-roger.html

[239]

””I will avenge the despite done to the earl when I can; I refuse to expel my household; for the abduction of his wife let him seek a remedy in law only.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE RISE AND FALL OF A ROYAL FAVOURITE: ROGER
DAMORY (1)
24 JANUARY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/01/rise-and-fall-of- royal-favourite-roger.html

[240]

”Pope John XXII tried to heal the breach between the king and his cousin in 1317 and 1318, begging Edward not to allow any “backbiter or malicious flatterer” to bring about disunity between himself and Thomas, and to send away from court those men who offended the earl”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (2)
25 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his_25.html

[241]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE RISE AND FALL OF A ROYAL FAVOURITE: ROGER
DAMORY (1)
24 JANUARY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/01/rise-and-fall-of- royal-favourite-roger.html

[242]

”The pope also asked Thomas to “separate himself” from those who displeased Edward and to reject “suggestions of whisperers and double-tongued men.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (2)
25 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his_25.html

[243]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
HENRY, EARL OF LANCASTER
8 MAY 2011

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2011/04/henry-of-lancaste r.html

[244]

”Henry’s younger brother John died childless in 1317, and in May 1318 Edward II granted him permission to travel to France to “obtain the inheritance in that land which by the death of John de Lancastre, his brother, descended to him.”  In June 1319, Edward excused Henry from attending the siege of Berwick as he was “beyond the seas on important business.”  Henry appears to have spent much if not all of the next few years in France, to judge from the number of times Edward granted him permission and protection to remain overseas (he was still out of England in January 1322 and perhaps even later). ”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
HENRY, EARL OF LANCASTER
8 MAY 2011

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2011/04/henry-of-lancaste r.html

[245]

” In July 1318, Edward summoned a meeting of his great council at Northampton, and he and Isabella left Woodstock to travel there on 27 June, only nine days after she had given birth to their daughter, Eleanor. Thomas of Lancaster did not attend the meeting, and the Vita says that the earl of Surrey, Roger Damory, Hugh Audley, William Montacute and both Hugh Despensers arrived at Northampton “in great strength, so that you would have thought they had not come to parliament, but to battle.” The author gives this as the reason for Thomas’s non-attendance, as “he counted all the aforenamed as his deadly enemies.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (2)
25 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his_25.html

[246]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (2)
25 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his_25.html

[247]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (2)
25 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his_25.html

[248]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (2)
25 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his_25.html

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE RISE AND FALL OF A ROYAL FAVOURITE: ROGER
DAMORY (1)
24 JANUARY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/01/rise-and-fall-of- royal-favourite-roger.html

[249]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE RISE AND FALL OF A ROYAL FAVOURITE: ROGER
DAMORY (1)
24 JANUARY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/01/rise-and-fall-of- royal-favourite-roger.html

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (2)
25 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his_25.html

[250]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE RISE AND FALL OF A ROYAL FAVOURITE: ROGER
DAMORY (1)
24 JANUARY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/01/rise-and-fall-of- royal-favourite-roger.html

 

 

 

Reacties uitgeschakeld voor Notes 1-250 at article about Thomas, Earl of Lancaster

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