Notes 504-587 at article about Thomas, Earl of Lancaster

File:Thomas Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster.jpg
THOMAS 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

[504]

”Well it would seem that shortly after his execution, miracles began to occur both at the site of his execution and at his tomb in Pontefract Priory.”

HISTORY TIMES HISTORY BLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER, AN UNLIKELY SAINT?
12 JANUARY 2012

http://historytimeshistory.blo gspot.nl/2012/01/thomas-of-lan caster-unlikely-saint.html

” Miracles were being reported at the site of Thomas’s execution and at his tomb within weeks of his death and were reported to Edward II at the parliament which began in York in late April 1322”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

”Soon after Thomas’s death, miracles were reported at his tomb at Pontefract, and he became venerated as a martyr and saint.”

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER/LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster# Life

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

”Thomas became venerated as a martyr and saint within a few months of his death.”

NEW WORLD ENCYCLOPEDIA
THOMAS PLANTAGENET, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

http://www.newworldencyclopedi a.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet ,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

”Over a hundred years after his death miracles were said to have been worked at his tomb at Pontefract; thousands visited his effigy in St Paul’s Cathedral, London, and it was even proposed to make him a saint.

LUMINARIUM ENCYCLOPEDIA
THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER

http://www.luminarium.org/ency clopedia/thomasoflancaster.htm

 

 

 

 

 

[505]

HISTORY TIMES HISTORY
THOMAS OF LANCASTER-AN UNLIKELY SAINT?
12 JANUARY 2012

http://historytimeshistory.blo gspot.nl/2012/01/thomas-of-lan caster-unlikely-saint.html

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

[506]

WIKIPEDIA
BRUT CHRONICLE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Brut_Chronicle

[507]

”here’s how the extremely pro-Lancastrian author of the Brut chronicle reports them (the Brut is in English; I’ve modernised the spelling and quoted extensively as it’s such a fascinating insight into the fourteenth-century mindset).”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of- lancaster.html

[508]

HISTORY TIMES HISTORY
THOMAS OF LANCASTER-AN UNLIKELY SAINT?
12 JANUARY 2012

http://historytimeshistory.blo gspot.nl/2012/01/thomas-of-lan caster-unlikely-saint.html

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of- lancaster.html

[509]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of- lancaster.html

[510]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of- lancaster.html

[511]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of- lancaster.html

[512]

”These miracles were reported to the King during the parliament that was held in York during April 1322, so they were supposedly occurring within weeks of Lancaster’s death.”

HISTORY TIMES HISTORY BLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER, AN UNLIKELY SAINT?
12 JANUARY 2012

http://historytimeshistory.blo gspot.nl/2012/01/thomas-of-lan caster-unlikely-saint.html

” Miracles were being reported at the site of Thomas’s execution and at his tomb within weeks of his death and were reported to Edward II at the parliament which began in York in late April 1322”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

[513]

”According to the Brut, when the two Hugh Despensers “heard that God wrought such miracles for his holy martyr, and they would not believe it in no manner wise, but said openly that it was great heresy, such virtue of him to believe.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

[514]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 25

[515]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

”The natural leader of the group was Henry Lacy, Earl of Lincoln. One of the wealthiest men in the country, he was also the oldest of the earls and had proved his loyalty and ableness through long service to Edward I.[12] Lincoln had a moderating influence on the more extreme members of the group, but with his death in February 1311, leadership passed to his son-in-law and heir Thomas of Lancaster.[13] Lancaster – the king’s cousin – was now in possession of five earldoms which made him by far the wealthiest man in the country, save the king.”

WIKIPEDIA
ORDINANCES OF 1311/THE LORDS ORDAINERS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Ordinances_of_1311#The_Lords_O rdainers





ORIGINAL SOURCE


WIKIPEDIA
ORDINANCES OF 1311

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Ordinances_of_1311





DOCUMENTS IN ENGLISH HISTORY
THE ORDINANCES OF 1311


http://historyofengland.typepa d.com/documents_in_english_his t/2013/02/the-ordinances-of-13 11.html

[516]

”The natural leader of the group was Henry Lacy, Earl of Lincoln. One of the wealthiest men in the country, he was also the oldest of the earls and had proved his loyalty and ableness through long service to Edward I.[12] Lincoln had a moderating influence on the more extreme members of the group, but with his death in February 1311, leadership passed to his son-in-law and heir Thomas of Lancaster.[13] Lancaster – the king’s cousin – was now in possession of five earldoms which made him by far the wealthiest man in the country, save the king.”

WIKIPEDIA
ORDINANCES OF 1311/THE LORDS ORDAINERS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Ordinances_of_1311#The_Lords_O rdainers





ORIGINAL SOURCE


WIKIPEDIA
ORDINANCES OF 1311

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Ordinances_of_1311





DOCUMENTS IN ENGLISH HISTORY
THE ORDINANCES OF 1311


http://historyofengland.typepa d.com/documents_in_english_his t/2013/02/the-ordinances-of-13 11.html

WIKIPEDIA
BURGESS (TITLE)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Burgess_(title)

THE ORDINANCES’ AND LANCASTER’S STRUGGLE IS
BASED ON THE IDEALS AND STRUGGLE OF
SIMON DE MONTFORT, REBEL AGAINST LANCASTER’S
AND EDWARD II’S GRANDFATHER, KING HENRY III


WIKIPEDIA
SIMON THE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER/RULE
AND PARLIAMENTARY REFORM


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Simon_de_Montfort,_6th_Earl_of _Leicester#Rule_and_parliament ary_reform



ORIGINAL SOURCE


WIKIPEDIA
SIMON THE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Simon_de_Montfort,_6th_Earl_of _Leicester\





[517]




EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 25 AND 26

[518]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

[519]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGES 25 AND 26

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

[520]

”By 1 March, William Melton, archbishop of York, had discovered the treasonable correspondence between the earl of Lancaster and Scotland and sent it to Edward, who ordered him, the archbishop of Canterbury and all his sheriffs to make the letters public – a great public relations coup for the king.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (3)
2 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

”Yet on 1 March 1322, everything changed when William Melton, the archbishop of York, came into possession of letters that had been exchanged between the Scottish Sir James Douglas and a so called ‘King Arthur’.(11) There was no doubt as to who this mysterious King Arthur was: Lancaster. Edward immediately ordered the publication of the letters and any support that Lancaster could have relied on began to quickly fall away as those around him were disgusted by his collusion with the national enemy. ”

THE MORTIMER HISTORY SOCIETY
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS
OF LANCASTER, A GUEST POST BY STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://themortimersblog.wordp ress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-tr aitor-the-life-execution-of-th omas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post -by-stephen-spinks/



SEE ALSO THE WEBLOG OF STEPHEN SPINKS


https://fourteenthcenturyfiend .com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traito r-the-life-execution-of-thomas -of-lancaster/

[521]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 25

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

[522]

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD II OF ENGLAND/EDWARD AND THE DESPENSERS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_II_of_England#Edward_an d_the_Despensers

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD II OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_II_of_England

YOUTUBE.COM
SHE WOLVES: ENGLAND’S EARLY QUEENS: ISABELLA
AND MARGARET

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=192QjemfTh0&t=1050s

There was no delay in the dispatch. Possibly after watching six other rebels receive execution outside the walls of Pontefract, Lancaster following his trial was led out whilst mounted on a mule to meet Edward’s judgement. There in front of the assembled crowd which no doubt included the king and Lancaster’s jury, the earl was forced to kneel facing north towards Scotland; a symbolic reminder of his treason. There he stretched out his head which was subsequently cut off in two or three blows with a sword.(18)

”In that moment something fundamental happened. From here on in opposition to the crown, and Edward II in particular was now a dangerous, all-consuming affair. Should anyone wish to challenge the king or his policies which was previously a right of the nobility, they now risked the ultimate penalty. Lancaster had begun the precedent with the murder of Piers Gaveston in 1312, but this itself was murder and beyond the law. By 1322, Edward II by choosing to execute Lancaster through a legal but dubious process, was changing the law to suit his needs and this set a dangerous and far reaching precedent both for future generations, but more pertinently for Edward himself. Future opposition now meant removing the king because if it failed, the king could and would destroy utterly his enemies. This precedent paved the way to Edward’s own deposition in January 1327.”

THE MORTIMER HISTORY SOCIETY
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS
OF LANCASTER, A GUEST POST BY STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://themortimersblog. wordpress.com/2017/03/22/a- royal-traitor-the-life- execution-of-thomas-of- lancaster-a-guest-post-by- stephen-spinks/



SEE ALSO THE WEBLOG OF STEPHEN SPINKS


https:// fourteenthcenturyfiend.com/ 2017/03/22/a-royal-traitor- the-life-execution-of-thomas- of-lancaster/

”By the end of March 1322, Hugh Despenser the younger was all powerful in England and Wales. His father, a friend of Edward II but never at the centre of government, joined him in his triumph. They didn’t allow anyone access to Edward unless at least one of them was present – including, amazingly enough, Queen Isabella, who was not allowed to see her husband alone. To cut a very long story short, the Despensers didn’t dominate the government in the period 1322-26 – they were the government. ”
….
….
”But – they were overwhelmingly avaricious, extorted anyone they could – imprisoning people if they had to, till they handed over their lands – and in a short time made themselves absolutely detested by absolutely everyone”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDWARD II’S OTHER GREAT FAVOURITE, HUGH
DESPENSER THE YOUNGER
5 FEBRUARY 2006

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2006/02/edward-iis-other- great-favourite-hugh.html

[523]

WIKIPEDIA
DESPENSER WAR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Despenser_War

YOUTUBE.COM
DESPENSER WAR

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=JzTNTr-8WJs&t=556s

[524]

”Two Contrariants executed in March 1322 in Bristol were Henry de Montfort and Henry Wilington: in September 1323, miracles were also said to have taken place at their execution site. ”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

[525]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

[526]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

[527]

ATTENTION BEFORE YOU READ THIS WIKIPEDIA
SOURCE ABOUT MARCHER LORD ROGER MORTIMER,
1ST EARL OF MARCH AND ALLY OF THOMAS OF LANCASTER:

The Wikipedia source is good, however some historical facts are
mistaken.

A
Roger Mortimer did NOT fight in the battle of Boroughbridge,
where Thomas of Lancaster was defeated and captured.
Also the battle of Boroughbridge did NOT take place in may
1322, but at 16th march 1322

Wikipedia writes, that Roger Mortimer surrendered to King Edward II
in Shrewsbury in january 1322.
That is correct.
However, Wikipedia writes, that Mortimer fought with Thomas of
Lancaster in the [last] Battle of Boroughbridge.
That is not correct and moreover, nonsense.
After surrendering to the King, Mortimer was imprisoned in the Tower
[where he only escaped in august 1323], so he couldn’t have been
present at the battle of Boroughbridge, which took place in march
1322 and ended with the defeat and captivity of Thomas of Lancaster
[and his execution, within a week]

B
Roger Mortimer was NOT hanged, drawed and quartered in 1330
He was sentenced to it, but King Edward III commuted the punishment
to ”merely” hanging.

WIKIPEDIA
ROGER MORTIMER, 1ST EARL OF MARCH/OPPOSITION TO EDWARD II

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Roger_Mortimer,_1st_Earl_of_Ma rch#Opposition_to_Edward_II

WIKIPEDIA
ROGER MORTIMER, 1ST EARL OF MARCH/INVASION OF ENGLAND

AND DEFEAT OF EDWARD II

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Roger_Mortimer,_1st_Earl_of_Ma rch#Invasion_of_England_and_de feat_of_Edward_II

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ROGER MORTIMER, 1ST EARL OF MARCH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Roger_Mortimer,_1st_Earl_of_Ma rch

[528]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 26

[529]

”In March 1328 Lancster’s sentence was annulled by the King after
it had been discussed in thne first parliament of the new reign
[Fenruary-March 1327] which aimed at undoing the wrongs
of the previous one”

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 27

[530]

”Shortly after this, a representative delegation of barons, clergy and knights was sent to Kenilworth to speak to the King.[290] On 20 January 1327, Henry of Lancaster and the bishops of Winchester and Lincoln met privately with Edward in the castle.[291] They informed Edward that if he were to resign as monarch, his son Prince Edward would succeed him, but if he failed to do so, his son might be disinherited as well, and the crown given to an alternative candidate.[292] In tears, Edward agreed to abdicate, and on 21 January, Sir William Trussell, representing the kingdom as a whole, withdrew his homage and formally ended Edward’s reign.[293] A proclamation was sent to London, announcing that Edward, now known just as Edward of Caernarvon, had freely resigned his kingdom and that Prince Edward would succeed him. The coronation took place at Westminster Abbey on 2 February 1327”

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD II OF ENGLAND/ABDICATION

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_II_of_England# Abdication

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD II OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_II_of_England

[531]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 26

[532]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 26

[533]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 26

[534]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 27

[535]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 28

”Also the young king came into conflict with his guardian. Mortimer knew his position in relation to the king was precarious and subjected Edward to disrespect. The tension increased after Edward and Philippa, who had married at York Minster on 24 January 1328, had a son on 15 June 1330.[18] Eventually, Edward decided to take direct action against Mortimer. Aided by his close companion William Montagu and a small number of other trusted men, Edward took Mortimer by surprise at Nottingham Castle on 19 October 1330. Mortimer was executed and Edward III’s personal reign began”

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD III OF ENGLAND/EARLY LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_III_of_England#Early_li fe

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD III OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_III_of_England

[536]

”Thomas was put on trial in the great hall of his own castle, the justice Robert Malberthorpe, Edward, the Despensers, the earls of Kent, Pembroke, Richmond, Surrey, Arundel and the Scottish earls of Angus and Atholl sitting in judgement on him.”
…..
……
” Thomas was sentenced to death by hanging, drawing and quartering, though Edward commuted the sentence to mere beheading.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II
2 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

”On 17 March 1322, Lancaster was captured after his defeat at the Battle of Boroughbridge, and brought to Pontefract.[15] Here, Edmund was on the jury that condemned him to death for treason.”

WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND OF WOODSTOCK, 1ST EARL OF KENT/CIVIL WAR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edmund_of_Woodstock,_1st_Earl_ of_Kent#Civil_war

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND OF WOODSTOCK, 1ST EARL OF KENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edmund_of_Woodstock,_1st_Earl_ of_Kent

[537]

”Edward’s half-brother the earl of Kent – one of the men who condemned Thomas to death
……
……
– visited Pope John XXII in 1329 to ask him to canonise Thomas.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2010/05/saint- thomas-of-lancaster.html

[538]

”Yet on 1 March 1322, everything changed when William Melton, the archbishop of York, came into possession of letters that had been exchanged between the Scottish Sir James Douglas and a so called ‘King Arthur’.(11) There was no doubt as to who this mysterious King Arthur was: Lancaster. Edward immediately ordered the publication of the letters and any support that Lancaster could have relied on began to quickly fall away as those around him were disgusted by his collusion with the national enemy. ”

THE MORTIMER HISTORY SOCIETY
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS
OF LANCASTER, A GUEST POST BY STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://themortimersblog.wordp ress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-tr aitor-the-life-execution-of-th omas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post -by-stephen-spinks/



SEE ALSO THE WEBLOG OF STEPHEN SPINKS


https://fourteenthcenturyfiend .com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traito r-the-life-execution-of-thomas -of-lancaster/

[539]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 26

[540]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 27

[541]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 27

[542]

WIKIPEDIA
HAGIOGRAPHY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hagiography

[543]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 28

[544]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 28

[545]

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS BECKET

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas_Becket

[546]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

[547]

Thomas was put on trial in the great hall of his own castle, the justice Robert Malberthorpe, Edward, the Despensers, the earls of Kent, Pembroke, Richmond, Surrey, Arundel and the Scottish earls of Angus and Atholl sitting in judgement on him. Four of these men – Edward, Kent, Richmond and Pembroke – were Thomas’s first cousins, while Surrey, Atholl and Angus had once served in his retinue. The result was a foregone conclusion, and Thomas was not allowed to speak in his own defence as his crimes were deemed ‘notorious’

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (3)
2 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

”Lancaster was tried by a tribunal consisting of, among others, the two DespensersEdmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel, and King Edward. Lancaster was not allowed to speak in his own defence, nor was he allowed to have anyone to speak for him.”

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER/LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster# Life

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

[548]

”The natural leader of the group was Henry Lacy, Earl of Lincoln. One of the wealthiest men in the country, he was also the oldest of the earls and had proved his loyalty and ableness through long service to Edward I.[12] Lincoln had a moderating influence on the more extreme members of the group, but with his death in February 1311, leadership passed to his son-in-law and heir Thomas of Lancaster.[13] Lancaster – the king’s cousin – was now in possession of five earldoms which made him by far the wealthiest man in the country, save the king.”

WIKIPEDIA
ORDINANCES OF 1311/THE LORDS ORDAINERS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Ordinances_of_1311#The_Lords_O rdainers





ORIGINAL SOURCE


WIKIPEDIA
ORDINANCES OF 1311

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Ordinances_of_1311





DOCUMENTS IN ENGLISH HISTORY
THE ORDINANCES OF 1311


http://historyofengland.typepa d.com/documents_in_english_his t/2013/02/the-ordinances-of-13 11.html

WIKIPEDIA
BURGESS (TITLE)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Burgess_(title)

THE ORDINANCES’ AND LANCASTER’S STRUGGLE IS
BASED ON THE IDEALS AND STRUGGLE OF
SIMON DE MONTFORT, REBEL AGAINST LANCASTER’S
AND EDWARD II’S GRANDFATHER, KING HENRY III


WIKIPEDIA
SIMON THE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER/RULE
AND PARLIAMENTARY REFORM


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Simon_de_Montfort,_6th_Earl_of _Leicester#Rule_and_parliament ary_reform



ORIGINAL SOURCE


WIKIPEDIA
SIMON THE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Simon_de_Montfort,_6th_Earl_of _Leicester\






[549]






EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

[550]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

[551]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 28

[552]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 28

[553]

Thomas of Lancaster was ”double” royal, as well from his
father’s as his mother’s side:
His father, Edmund Crouchback, was the son of
King Henry III and therefore the younger brother of his [ Henry III’s] son and
successor
King Edward I [the father of King Edward II]

Thomas of Lancaster’s mother was Blanche of Artois,
member of the French Capetian Royal House.
Her father, Robert I, Count of Artois, was the son of
the French King, Louis VIII of France and therefore the
brother of his [Louis VIII’s] son, Louis IX, ”Saint Louis” [officially
canonized]
That made Blanche of Artois the granddaughter of a King [Louis VIII]
and the niece of King Louis IX, ”the Saint”

SO:

Thomas of Lancaster was from father’s side the grandson of
King Henry III, the nephew of King Edward I [Hammer of
the Scots] and the cousin of King Edward II, who eventually had him
executed near Pontefract.

From mother’s side Thomas was the greatgrandson of the
French King Louis VIII and the halfbrother of
Queen Joan I of Navarre [who was the daughter of a former
marriage of his mother with King Henry I of Navarre].
He was also the uncle of Queen Isabella of France,
since Isabella of France was the daughter of Queen Joan I
of Navarre.
And to finish the story:
Thomas of Lancaster also was the brother in law
of King Philip IV, the Fair, who was married
with Joan I of Navarre and therefore the father of
Isabella of France!

A nice curriculum vitae, isn’t it?

The parents of Thomas of Lancaster:

WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND CROUCHBACK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edmund_Crouchback

WIKIPEDIA
BLANCHE OF ARTOIS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Blanche_of_Artois

[554]

”His marriage to Alice de Lacy was not successful. They had no children together, while he fathered, illegitimately, with another woman, two sons. In 1317 she was abducted from her manor at CanfordDorset by Richard de St Martin, a knight in the service of John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey. This incident caused a feud between Lancaster and Surrey; Lancaster divorced his wife and seized two of Surrey’s castles in retaliation. King Edward then intervened, and the two Earls came to an uneasy truce.”

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER/LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster# Life

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

[555]

”On 9 June, Pembroke left Gaveston at the rectory at Deddington in Oxfordshire, while he himself left to visit his wife.[79] When Warwick found out about Gaveston’s whereabouts, he immediately rode out to capture him. The next morning he appeared at the rectory, where he took Gaveston captive and brought him back to his castle at Warwick.[80] Pembroke, whose honour had been affronted, appealed for justice both to Gaveston’s brother-in-law Gloucester and to the University of Oxford, but to no avail.[81][82] At Warwick, Gaveston was condemned to death for violating the terms of the Ordinances, before an assembly of barons, including Warwick, Lancaster, Hereford and Arundel.[83] On 19 June, he was taken out on the road towards Kenilworth as far as Blacklow Hill, which was on the Earl of Lancaster’s land. Here, two Welshmen ran him through with a sword and beheaded him”

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/RETURN AND DEATH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_ Cornwall#Return_and_death

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_ Cornwall

[556]

”Whatever Henry said, it was interpreted as a royal command, and four knights,[10] Reginald FitzUrseHugh de MorvilleWilliam de Tracy and Richard le Breton,[1] set out to confront the Archbishop of Canterbury.
On 29 December 1170 they arrived at Canterbury. According to accounts left by the monk Gervase of Canterbury and eyewitness Edward Grim, they placed their weapons under a tree outside the cathedral and hid their mail armour under cloaks before entering to challenge Becket. The knights informed Becket he was to go to Winchester to give an account of his actions, but Becket refused. It was not until Becket refused their demands to submit to the king’s will that they retrieved their weapons and rushed back inside for the killing.[14] Becket, meanwhile, proceeded to the main hall for vespers. The four knights, wielding drawn swords, caught up with him in a spot near a door to the monastic cloister, the stairs into the crypt, and the stairs leading up into the quire of the cathedral, where the monks were chanting vespers”

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS BECKET/ASSASSINATION

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas_Becket#Assassination

”Following Becket’s death, the monks prepared his body for burial.[1] According to some accounts, it was discovered that Becket had worn a hairshirt under his archbishop’s garments—a sign of penance.[16] Soon after, the faithful throughout Europe began venerating Becket as a martyr, and on 21 February 1173—little more than two years after his death—he was canonised by Pope Alexander III in St Peter’s Church in Segni

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS BECKET/AFTER BECKET’S DEATH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas_Becket#After_Becket.27s _death

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS BECKET

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas_Becket

[557]

A GRIP FROM THE MARCHER LORD’S CRIMES

‘……..’the Marchers’ attacks of May 1321 may have been aimed at the Despensers, but it was the innocent and the poor who suffered most, as numerous petitions and inquisitions attest – held castles against him, and had stolen from him personally, “because they had taken for their own use and wasted the goods of the exiles, which ought rather to have gone to the treasury,” as the Vita Edwardi Secundi says. [11] In November and December 1321, the Marchers reverted to their appalling behaviour of a few months earlier, and began extorting money and stealing goods from those who could least afford it. Roger Mortimer, the one who later became Isabella of France’s favourite, and his followers seized wheat, grain, livestock and other goods worth more than £140 from villagers in Herefordshire, while Maurice, Lord Berkeley demanded that the inhabitants of Lydney in Gloucestershire send him three pounds to support the rebels, or he would burn the village. Not surprisingly, the unfortunate villagers gave him the money. [12] Henry Lynet, one of Roger Damory’s adherents, attacked a Gloucestershire manor belonging to Peter Montfort because Montfort refused to join the Contrariants, while other men travelled through Gloucestershire seizing goods and chattels from villagers and selling them to raise money. [13] A group of John, Lord Mowbray’s adherents stole provisions worth forty pounds from a boat belonging to the merchant John Kygge of Grantham on 25 November 1321; Mowbray had, a few months earlier, stolen livestock, goods and chattels from the villagers of Laughton-en-le-Morthern in Yorkshire, and even robbed the church. [14] Roger Mortimer’s uncle Roger Mortimer of Chirk “violently ejected” William la Zouche from his manor of Elmley Lovett and stole goods worth 100 marks from him, because Zouche refused, despite Chirk’s threats, to join the rebels.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SIRE HUGE LE DESPENSER, MALEFACTORS AND
EXTORTIONISTS: SOME EVENTS OF NOVEMBER
1321
30 NOVEMBER 2009

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2009/11/sire-huge-le- despenser-malefactors-and.html

[558]

”A text written in Latin probably in the late 1320s laments Thomas as “the blessed martyr” and “flower of knights,” and says “the pouring out of prayers to Thomas restores the sick to health; the pious earl comes immediately to the aid of those who are feeble.”
…..
……
”Who when he perceived that the whole commons were falling into wreck, did not shrink from dying for the right, in the fatal commerce…he is delivered to dire death, on account of which England mourns. Alas! he is beheaded for the aid of the commons…”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2010/05/saint- thomas-of-lancaster.html

[559]

”But one of fastest routes to swift canonisation was if miracles were reported occurring at your tomb, when your relics were present, at where you were killed or if something miraculous occurred when you were being implored in prayer to intercede with God on someone’s behalf.”

HISTORY TIMES HISTORY
THOMAS OF LANCASTER-AN UNLIKELY SAINT?
12 JANUARY 2012

http://historytimeshistory.blo gspot.nl/2012/01/thomas-of-lan caster-unlikely-saint.html

[560]

”Although Thomas was never actually canonised, his hat and belt preserved at Pontefract were used as remedies in childbirth and for headaches as late as the Reformation”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

[561]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGES 25 AND 26

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

[562]

”In 1323, 2000 people, some of them from as far away as Kent, gathered to pray and make oblations at Thomas of Lancaster’s tomb.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

[563]

WIKIPEDIA
KENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Kent

WIKIPEDIA
PONTEFRACT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Pontefract

WIKIPEDIA
PONTEFRACT CASTLE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Pontefract_Castle

[564]

YOURDICTIONARY.COM

LOSER

”A person who has bad luck in life, who is unsuccessful and unpopular is an example of a loser.”

http://www.yourdictionary.com/ loser

[565]

Thomas was put on trial in the great hall of his own castle, the justice Robert Malberthorpe, Edward, the Despensers, the earls of Kent, Pembroke, Richmond, Surrey, Arundel and the Scottish earls of Angus and Atholl sitting in judgement on him.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (3)
2 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

[566]

”Lancaster was tried by a tribunal consisting of, among others, the two DespensersEdmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel, and King Edward. Lancaster was not allowed to speak in his own defence, nor was he allowed to have anyone to speak for him. He was convicted of treason and sentenced to death. Because of their kinship and Lancaster’s royal blood, the King commuted the sentence to mere beheading (as opposed to being drawn, quartered, and beheaded) and Lancaster was executed near Pontefract Castle.”

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER/LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster# Life

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

[567]

”Hugh Despenser the Younger lived and ruled in grand style, playing a leading role in Edward’s government, and executing policy through a wide network of family retainers.[227] Supported by Robert Baldock and Walter Stapledon, Edward’s chancellor and lord treasurer, the Despensers accumulated land and wealth, using their position in government to provide superficial cover for what historian Seymour Phillips describes as “the reality of fraud, threats of violence and abuse of legal procedure”.[228] Meanwhile, Edward faced growing opposition. Miracles were reported around the late Earl of Lancaster’s tomb, and at the gallows used to execute members of the opposition in Bristol.[229] Law and order began to break down, encouraged by the chaos caused by the seizure of lands”

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD II OF ENGLAND/EDWARD AND THE DESPENSERS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_II_of_England#Edward_an d_the_Despensers

ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD II OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_II_of_England

”Finally the barons prevailed upon King Edward and forced Despenser and his father into exile in August 1321. Following the exile of the Despensers, the barons who opposed them fell out among themselves, and the King summoned the two men back to England. Early in the following year, King Edward took advantage of these divisions to secure the surrender of Marcher Lord Roger Mortimer, and the defeat and execution of the Earl of Lancaster, the Despensers’ chief opponents. The pair returned and King Edward quickly reinstated Despenser as royal favourite. The time from the Despensers’ return from exile until the end of Edward II’s reign was a time of uncertainty in England. With the main baronial opposition leaderless and weak, having been defeated at the Battle of Boroughbridge, and Edward willing to let them do as they pleased, the Despensers were left unchecked. This maladministration caused hostile feeling for them and, by proxy, Edward II”

WIKIPEDIA
HUGH DESPENSER THE YOUNGER/POLITICAL MANOEUVRINGS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hugh_Despenser_the_Younger#Pol itical_manoeuverings

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HUGH DESPENSER THE YOUNGER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hugh_Despenser_the_Younger

”To cut a very long story short, the Despensers didn’t dominate the government in the period 1322-26 – they were the government. ”
….
….
”But – they were overwhelmingly avaricious, extorted anyone they could – imprisoning people if they had to, till they handed over their lands – and in a short time made themselves absolutely detested by absolutely everyone.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDWARD II’S OTHER GREAT FAVOURITE, HUGH
DESPENSER THE YOUNGER
5 FEBRUARY 2006

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2006/02/edward-iis-other- great-favourite-hugh.html

[568]

”After a period of longstanding opposition to King Edward II and his advisors, including joining two open rebellions, Henry’s brother Thomas was convicted of treason, executed and had his lands and titles forfeited in 1322. Henry did not participate in his brother’s rebellions; he later petitioned for his brother’s lands and titles, and on 29 March 1324 he was invested as Earl of Leicester.”

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY, 3RD EARL OF LANCASTER/PETITION FOR
SUCCESSION AND INHERITANCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry,_3rd_Earl_of_Lancaster#P etition_for_succession_and_inh eritance

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY, 3RD EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry,_3rd_Earl_of_Lancaster

[569]

” In June 1319, Edward excused Henry from attending the siege of Berwick as he was “beyond the seas on important business.”  Henry appears to have spent much if not all of the next few years in France, to judge from the number of times Edward granted him permission and protection to remain overseas (he was still out of England in January 1322 and perhaps even later). ”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
HENRY, EARL OF LANCASTER
8 MAY 2011

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2011/04/henry-of-lancaste r.html

[570]

”On the other hand, Henry’s relationship with his elder brother Thomas was, according to Thomas’s biographer John Maddicott, a distant one [4]”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
HENRY, EARL OF LANCASTER
8 MAY 2011

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2011/04/henry-of-lancaste r.html

”The pope wrote to Henry several times in 1318 as a close kinsman of both the king and the earl of Lancaster, and “bound to pay them reverence and affection,” asking him to promote accord between them “so that the realm may be freed from disturbance” (Edward and Thomas of Lancaster were, to cut a very long story short, feuding endlessly).  [11]  I wonder how effective Henry’s intervention was, assuming he even attempted one, given that he was not close to his brother and had little if any influence over his cousin Edward II.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
HENRY, EARL OF LANCASTER
8 MAY 2011

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2011/04/henry-of-lancaste r.html

[571]

DICTIONARY CAMBRIDGE

BE THAT AS IT MAY

”used to mean that you accept that a piece of information is true   but it does not change your opinion of the subject you are discussing:”

http://dictionary.cambridge.or g/dictionary/english/be-that-a s-it-may






[572]


An invasion of England was launched and Edward II’s forces deserted him completely. The king was forced to relinquish the throne to his son on 25 January 1327. The new king was crowned as Edward III on 1 February 1327”

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD III OF ENGLAND/EARLY LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_III_of_England#Early_li fe

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD III OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_III_of_England

[573]

”Yet on 1 March 1322, everything changed when William Melton, the archbishop of York, came into possession of letters that had been exchanged between the Scottish Sir James Douglas and a so called ‘King Arthur’.(11) There was no doubt as to who this mysterious King Arthur was: Lancaster. Edward immediately ordered the publication of the letters and any support that Lancaster could have relied on began to quickly fall away as those around him were disgusted by his collusion with the national enemy. ”

THE MORTIMER HISTORY SOCIETY
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS
OF LANCASTER, A GUEST POST BY STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://themortimersblog.wordp ress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-tr aitor-the-life-execution-of-th omas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post -by-stephen-spinks/



SEE ALSO THE WEBLOG OF STEPHEN SPINKS


https://fourteenthcenturyfiend .com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traito r-the-life-execution-of-thomas -of-lancaster/

[574]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 26

[575]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 27

[576]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 26

”Henry was appointed “chief advisor” for the new king Edward III of England,[2] and was also appointed captain-general of all the king’s forces in the Scottish Marches.[3]

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY, 3RD EARL OF LANCASTER/FULL RESTORATION
AND REWARD

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry,_3rd_Earl_of_Lancaster# Full_restoration_and_reward

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY, 3RD EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry,_3rd_Earl_of_Lancaster

[577]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 27

[578]

”Eventually, Edward decided to take direct action against Mortimer. Aided by his close companion William Montagu and a small number of other trusted men, Edward took Mortimer by surprise at Nottingham Castle on 19 October 1330. Mortimer was executed and Edward III’s personal reign began.[19]

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD III OF ENGLAND/EARLY LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_III_of_England#Early_ life

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD III OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_III_of_England

[579]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 28

[580]

”He also helped the young king to put an end to Mortimer’s regency and tyranny, also had him declared a traitor and executed in 1330.”

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY, 3RD EARL OF LANCASTER/FULL RESTORATION AND
REWARD

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry,_3rd_Earl_of_Lancaster# Full_restoration_and_reward

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY, 3RD EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry,_3rd_Earl_of_Lancaster

[581]

” He accompanied Edward III to France in April 1331 and took part in the famous jousting tournament at Cheapside in September that year, and in March 1332 Edward III granted him 500 marks a year “for the special affection which the king bears him, and because his father Henry earl of Lancaster has not yet made such provision for him as becomes his estate.” [2] ‘Affection’ is usually a pretty formulaic phrase, yet it is apparent that Edward III genuinely had a great fondness for Henry, who was near his own age and a close relative, a second cousin through Edward II and a first cousin once removed through Isabella of France. ”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
A VERRAY PARFIT GENTIL KNYGHT: [OLD ENGLISH,
ASTRID ESSED’S ADDITION]
HENRY OF GROSMONT, DUKE OF LANCASTER (1)
21 AUGUST 2009

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2009/08/verray- parfit-gentil-knyght-henry-of. html

”In 1345, while Grosmont was in France, his father died. The younger Henry was now Earl of Lancaster – the wealthiest and most powerful peer of the realm. After participating in the Siege of Calais in 1347, the king honoured Lancaster by including him as a founding knight of the Order of the Garter in 1348.[12] A few years later, in 1351, Edward bestowed an even greater honour on Lancaster when he created him Duke of Lancaster. The title of duke was of relatively new origin in England; only one other ducal title existed previously”

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY OF GROSMONT, 1ST DUKE OF LANCASTER/DUKE OF
LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry_of_Grosmont,_1st_Duke_ of_Lancaster#Duke_of_Lancaster

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY OF GROSMONT, 1ST DUKE OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry_of_Grosmont,_1st_Duke_ of_Lancaster

”On 6 March 1351, Edward III created Henry the first duke of Lancaster, and “granted to the duke that for his life he shall have within the same county his chancery and writs under a seal to be deputed for the office of chancellor, his justices for pleas of the crown and pleas of common law, and cognisance of the same, and execution of such writs by his ministers and all other liberties and royal rights pertaining to an earl palatine.” [2] Until Richard II’s reign, the only other English dukes were Edward III’s sons, an indication of the extremely high regard in which Edward held his kinsman.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
A VERRAY PARFIT GENTIL KNYGHT: [OLD ENGLISH,
ASTRID ESSED’S ADDITION]
HENRY OF GROSMONT, DUKE OF LANCASTER (2)
2 NOVEMBER 2009

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2009/11/verray- parfit-gentil-knyght-henry-of. html

”Edward was born on 15 June 1330 at Woodstock Palace in Oxfordshire. He was created Earl of Chester on 18 May 1333, Duke of Cornwall on 17 March 1337 (the first creation of an English duke) and invested as Prince of Wales on 12 May 1343 when he was almost 13 years old.[2] In England, Edward served as a symbolic regent for periods in 1339, 1340 and 1342 while Edward III was on campaign.”

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD, THE BLACK PRINCE/LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward,_the_Black_Prince#Life

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD, THE BLACK PRINCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward,_the_Black_Prince

[582]

”Henry is not known to have played any role in the equally chaotic events of his cousin Isabella and Roger Mortimer’s regency, nor in their downfall in October 1330, though he was knighted and married that year and began to represent his father Earl Henry, who had gone blind, at parliament and in public life.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
A VERRAY PARFIT GENTIL KNYGHT: [OLD ENGLISH,
ASTRID ESSED’S ADDITION]
HENRY OF GROSMONT, DUKE OF LANCASTER (1)
21 AUGUST 2009

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2009/08/verray- parfit-gentil-knyght-henry-of. html

[583]

WIKIPEDIA
ORDINANCES OF 1311

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Ordinances_of_1311

DOCUMENTS IN ENGLISH HISTORY
THE ORDINANCES OF 1311

http://historyofengland.typepa d.com/documents_in_english_his t/2013/02/the-ordinances-of-13 11.html

[583]

WIKIPEDIA
ORDINANCES OF 1311

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Ordinances_of_1311

DOCUMENTS IN ENGLISH HISTORY
THE ORDINANCES OF 1311

http://historyofengland.typepa d.com/documents_in_english_his t/2013/02/the-ordinances-of- 1311.html

[584]

YOUTUBE
SHE WOLVES: ENGLAND’S EARLY QUEENS:
ISABELLA AND MARGARET

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=192QjemfTh0&t=1061s

THE TYRANNY

”The four years that followed became known as “The tyranny.” Hugh Despenser the Younger more or less ruled the country, without consulting Parliament. He accumulated vast personal wealth by dispossessing legal heirs, especially widows. “For four years,” writes Given-Wilson, “Edward and the Despensers ruled England as they pleased, brooking no opposition, growing fat on the proceeds of confiscated land and disinherited heirs.”[8] Edward and the Despensers ignored the law of the land, bending it to suit their interests.”

NEWWORLD ENCYCLOPEDIA
THOMAS PLANTAGENET, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

http://www.newworldencyclopedi a.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet ,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

[585]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 27

COMMENT ON THE UNDERLYING SOURCE
THE REVERSED CONVICTION OF THOMAS
OF LANCASTER TOOK PLACE IN 1328

”In 1326 or 1327, Parliament posthumously reversed Thomas’s conviction, and Henry Plantagenet was further permitted to take possession of the Earldoms of Lancaster, Derby, Salisbury, and Lincoln.”

NEWWORLD ENCYCLOPEDIA
THOMAS PLANTAGENET, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

http://www.newworldencyclopedi a.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet ,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

[586]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

[587]

WIKIPEDIA
SAINT THOMAS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Saint_Thomas

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2

”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”[504]

”Well it would seem that shortly after his execution, miracles began to occur both at the site of his execution and at his tomb in Pontefract Priory.”

HISTORY TIMES HISTORY BLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER, AN UNLIKELY SAINT?
12 JANUARY 2012

http://historytimeshistory.blo gspot.nl/2012/01/thomas-of-lan caster-unlikely-saint.html

” Miracles were being reported at the site of Thomas’s execution and at his tomb within weeks of his death and were reported to Edward II at the parliament which began in York in late April 1322”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

”Soon after Thomas’s death, miracles were reported at his tomb at Pontefract, and he became venerated as a martyr and saint.”

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER/LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster# Life

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

”Thomas became venerated as a martyr and saint within a few months of his death.”

NEW WORLD ENCYCLOPEDIA
THOMAS PLANTAGENET, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

http://www.newworldencyclopedi a.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet ,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

”Over a hundred years after his death miracles were said to have been worked at his tomb at Pontefract; thousands visited his effigy in St Paul’s Cathedral, London, and it was even proposed to make him a saint.

LUMINARIUM ENCYCLOPEDIA
THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER

http://www.luminarium.org/ency clopedia/thomasoflancaster.htm

[505]

HISTORY TIMES HISTORY
THOMAS OF LANCASTER-AN UNLIKELY SAINT?
12 JANUARY 2012

http://historytimeshistory.blo gspot.nl/2012/01/thomas-of-lan caster-unlikely-saint.html

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

[506]

WIKIPEDIA
BRUT CHRONICLE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Brut_Chronicle

[507]

”here’s how the extremely pro-Lancastrian author of the Brut chronicle reports them (the Brut is in English; I’ve modernised the spelling and quoted extensively as it’s such a fascinating insight into the fourteenth-century mindset).”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of- lancaster.html

[508]

HISTORY TIMES HISTORY
THOMAS OF LANCASTER-AN UNLIKELY SAINT?
12 JANUARY 2012

http://historytimeshistory.blo gspot.nl/2012/01/thomas-of-lan caster-unlikely-saint.html

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of- lancaster.html

[509]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of- lancaster.html

[510]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of- lancaster.html

[511]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of- lancaster.html

[512]

”These miracles were reported to the King during the parliament that was held in York during April 1322, so they were supposedly occurring within weeks of Lancaster’s death.”

HISTORY TIMES HISTORY BLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER, AN UNLIKELY SAINT?
12 JANUARY 2012

http://historytimeshistory.blo gspot.nl/2012/01/thomas-of-lan caster-unlikely-saint.html

” Miracles were being reported at the site of Thomas’s execution and at his tomb within weeks of his death and were reported to Edward II at the parliament which began in York in late April 1322”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

[513]

”According to the Brut, when the two Hugh Despensers “heard that God wrought such miracles for his holy martyr, and they would not believe it in no manner wise, but said openly that it was great heresy, such virtue of him to believe.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

[514]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 25

[515]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

”The natural leader of the group was Henry Lacy, Earl of Lincoln. One of the wealthiest men in the country, he was also the oldest of the earls and had proved his loyalty and ableness through long service to Edward I.[12] Lincoln had a moderating influence on the more extreme members of the group, but with his death in February 1311, leadership passed to his son-in-law and heir Thomas of Lancaster.[13] Lancaster – the king’s cousin – was now in possession of five earldoms which made him by far the wealthiest man in the country, save the king.”

WIKIPEDIA
ORDINANCES OF 1311/THE LORDS ORDAINERS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Ordinances_of_1311#The_Lords_O rdainers





ORIGINAL SOURCE


WIKIPEDIA
ORDINANCES OF 1311

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Ordinances_of_1311





DOCUMENTS IN ENGLISH HISTORY
THE ORDINANCES OF 1311


http://historyofengland.typepa d.com/documents_in_english_his t/2013/02/the-ordinances-of-13 11.html

[516]

”The natural leader of the group was Henry Lacy, Earl of Lincoln. One of the wealthiest men in the country, he was also the oldest of the earls and had proved his loyalty and ableness through long service to Edward I.[12] Lincoln had a moderating influence on the more extreme members of the group, but with his death in February 1311, leadership passed to his son-in-law and heir Thomas of Lancaster.[13] Lancaster – the king’s cousin – was now in possession of five earldoms which made him by far the wealthiest man in the country, save the king.”

WIKIPEDIA
ORDINANCES OF 1311/THE LORDS ORDAINERS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Ordinances_of_1311#The_Lords_O rdainers





ORIGINAL SOURCE


WIKIPEDIA
ORDINANCES OF 1311

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Ordinances_of_1311





DOCUMENTS IN ENGLISH HISTORY
THE ORDINANCES OF 1311


http://historyofengland.typepa d.com/documents_in_english_his t/2013/02/the-ordinances-of-13 11.html

WIKIPEDIA
BURGESS (TITLE)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Burgess_(title)

THE ORDINANCES’ AND LANCASTER’S STRUGGLE IS
BASED ON THE IDEALS AND STRUGGLE OF
SIMON DE MONTFORT, REBEL AGAINST LANCASTER’S
AND EDWARD II’S GRANDFATHER, KING HENRY III


WIKIPEDIA
SIMON THE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER/RULE
AND PARLIAMENTARY REFORM


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Simon_de_Montfort,_6th_Earl_of _Leicester#Rule_and_parliament ary_reform



ORIGINAL SOURCE


WIKIPEDIA
SIMON THE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Simon_de_Montfort,_6th_Earl_of _Leicester\





[517]




EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 25 AND 26

[518]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

[519]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGES 25 AND 26

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

[520]

”By 1 March, William Melton, archbishop of York, had discovered the treasonable correspondence between the earl of Lancaster and Scotland and sent it to Edward, who ordered him, the archbishop of Canterbury and all his sheriffs to make the letters public – a great public relations coup for the king.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (3)
2 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

”Yet on 1 March 1322, everything changed when William Melton, the archbishop of York, came into possession of letters that had been exchanged between the Scottish Sir James Douglas and a so called ‘King Arthur’.(11) There was no doubt as to who this mysterious King Arthur was: Lancaster. Edward immediately ordered the publication of the letters and any support that Lancaster could have relied on began to quickly fall away as those around him were disgusted by his collusion with the national enemy. ”

THE MORTIMER HISTORY SOCIETY
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS
OF LANCASTER, A GUEST POST BY STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://themortimersblog.wordp ress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-tr aitor-the-life-execution-of-th omas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post -by-stephen-spinks/



SEE ALSO THE WEBLOG OF STEPHEN SPINKS


https://fourteenthcenturyfiend .com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traito r-the-life-execution-of-thomas -of-lancaster/

[521]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 25

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

[522]

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD II OF ENGLAND/EDWARD AND THE DESPENSERS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_II_of_England#Edward_an d_the_Despensers

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD II OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_II_of_England

YOUTUBE.COM
SHE WOLVES: ENGLAND’S EARLY QUEENS: ISABELLA
AND MARGARET

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=192QjemfTh0&t=1050s

There was no delay in the dispatch. Possibly after watching six other rebels receive execution outside the walls of Pontefract, Lancaster following his trial was led out whilst mounted on a mule to meet Edward’s judgement. There in front of the assembled crowd which no doubt included the king and Lancaster’s jury, the earl was forced to kneel facing north towards Scotland; a symbolic reminder of his treason. There he stretched out his head which was subsequently cut off in two or three blows with a sword.(18)

”In that moment something fundamental happened. From here on in opposition to the crown, and Edward II in particular was now a dangerous, all-consuming affair. Should anyone wish to challenge the king or his policies which was previously a right of the nobility, they now risked the ultimate penalty. Lancaster had begun the precedent with the murder of Piers Gaveston in 1312, but this itself was murder and beyond the law. By 1322, Edward II by choosing to execute Lancaster through a legal but dubious process, was changing the law to suit his needs and this set a dangerous and far reaching precedent both for future generations, but more pertinently for Edward himself. Future opposition now meant removing the king because if it failed, the king could and would destroy utterly his enemies. This precedent paved the way to Edward’s own deposition in January 1327.”

THE MORTIMER HISTORY SOCIETY
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS
OF LANCASTER, A GUEST POST BY STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://themortimersblog. wordpress.com/2017/03/22/a- royal-traitor-the-life- execution-of-thomas-of- lancaster-a-guest-post-by- stephen-spinks/



SEE ALSO THE WEBLOG OF STEPHEN SPINKS


https:// fourteenthcenturyfiend.com/ 2017/03/22/a-royal-traitor- the-life-execution-of-thomas- of-lancaster/

”By the end of March 1322, Hugh Despenser the younger was all powerful in England and Wales. His father, a friend of Edward II but never at the centre of government, joined him in his triumph. They didn’t allow anyone access to Edward unless at least one of them was present – including, amazingly enough, Queen Isabella, who was not allowed to see her husband alone. To cut a very long story short, the Despensers didn’t dominate the government in the period 1322-26 – they were the government. ”
….
….
”But – they were overwhelmingly avaricious, extorted anyone they could – imprisoning people if they had to, till they handed over their lands – and in a short time made themselves absolutely detested by absolutely everyone”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDWARD II’S OTHER GREAT FAVOURITE, HUGH
DESPENSER THE YOUNGER
5 FEBRUARY 2006

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2006/02/edward-iis-other- great-favourite-hugh.html

[523]

WIKIPEDIA
DESPENSER WAR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Despenser_War

YOUTUBE.COM
DESPENSER WAR

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=JzTNTr-8WJs&t=556s

[524]

”Two Contrariants executed in March 1322 in Bristol were Henry de Montfort and Henry Wilington: in September 1323, miracles were also said to have taken place at their execution site. ”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

[525]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

[526]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

[527]

ATTENTION BEFORE YOU READ THIS WIKIPEDIA
SOURCE ABOUT MARCHER LORD ROGER MORTIMER,
1ST EARL OF MARCH AND ALLY OF THOMAS OF LANCASTER:

The Wikipedia source is good, however some historical facts are
mistaken.

A
Roger Mortimer did NOT fight in the battle of Boroughbridge,
where Thomas of Lancaster was defeated and captured.
Also the battle of Boroughbridge did NOT take place in may
1322, but at 16th march 1322

Wikipedia writes, that Roger Mortimer surrendered to King Edward II
in Shrewsbury in january 1322.
That is correct.
However, Wikipedia writes, that Mortimer fought with Thomas of
Lancaster in the [last] Battle of Boroughbridge.
That is not correct and moreover, nonsense.
After surrendering to the King, Mortimer was imprisoned in the Tower
[where he only escaped in august 1323], so he couldn’t have been
present at the battle of Boroughbridge, which took place in march
1322 and ended with the defeat and captivity of Thomas of Lancaster
[and his execution, within a week]

B
Roger Mortimer was NOT hanged, drawed and quartered in 1330
He was sentenced to it, but King Edward III commuted the punishment
to ”merely” hanging.

WIKIPEDIA
ROGER MORTIMER, 1ST EARL OF MARCH/OPPOSITION TO EDWARD II

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Roger_Mortimer,_1st_Earl_of_Ma rch#Opposition_to_Edward_II

WIKIPEDIA
ROGER MORTIMER, 1ST EARL OF MARCH/INVASION OF ENGLAND

AND DEFEAT OF EDWARD II

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Roger_Mortimer,_1st_Earl_of_Ma rch#Invasion_of_England_and_de feat_of_Edward_II

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ROGER MORTIMER, 1ST EARL OF MARCH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Roger_Mortimer,_1st_Earl_of_Ma rch

[528]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 26

[529]

”In March 1328 Lancster’s sentence was annulled by the King after
it had been discussed in thne first parliament of the new reign
[Fenruary-March 1327] which aimed at undoing the wrongs
of the previous one”

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 27

[530]

”Shortly after this, a representative delegation of barons, clergy and knights was sent to Kenilworth to speak to the King.[290] On 20 January 1327, Henry of Lancaster and the bishops of Winchester and Lincoln met privately with Edward in the castle.[291] They informed Edward that if he were to resign as monarch, his son Prince Edward would succeed him, but if he failed to do so, his son might be disinherited as well, and the crown given to an alternative candidate.[292] In tears, Edward agreed to abdicate, and on 21 January, Sir William Trussell, representing the kingdom as a whole, withdrew his homage and formally ended Edward’s reign.[293] A proclamation was sent to London, announcing that Edward, now known just as Edward of Caernarvon, had freely resigned his kingdom and that Prince Edward would succeed him. The coronation took place at Westminster Abbey on 2 February 1327”

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD II OF ENGLAND/ABDICATION

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_II_of_England# Abdication

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD II OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_II_of_England

[531]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 26

[532]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 26

[533]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 26

[534]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 27

[535]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 28

”Also the young king came into conflict with his guardian. Mortimer knew his position in relation to the king was precarious and subjected Edward to disrespect. The tension increased after Edward and Philippa, who had married at York Minster on 24 January 1328, had a son on 15 June 1330.[18] Eventually, Edward decided to take direct action against Mortimer. Aided by his close companion William Montagu and a small number of other trusted men, Edward took Mortimer by surprise at Nottingham Castle on 19 October 1330. Mortimer was executed and Edward III’s personal reign began”

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD III OF ENGLAND/EARLY LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_III_of_England#Early_li fe

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD III OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_III_of_England

[536]

”Thomas was put on trial in the great hall of his own castle, the justice Robert Malberthorpe, Edward, the Despensers, the earls of Kent, Pembroke, Richmond, Surrey, Arundel and the Scottish earls of Angus and Atholl sitting in judgement on him.”
…..
……
” Thomas was sentenced to death by hanging, drawing and quartering, though Edward commuted the sentence to mere beheading.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II
2 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

”On 17 March 1322, Lancaster was captured after his defeat at the Battle of Boroughbridge, and brought to Pontefract.[15] Here, Edmund was on the jury that condemned him to death for treason.”

WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND OF WOODSTOCK, 1ST EARL OF KENT/CIVIL WAR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edmund_of_Woodstock,_1st_Earl_ of_Kent#Civil_war

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND OF WOODSTOCK, 1ST EARL OF KENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edmund_of_Woodstock,_1st_Earl_ of_Kent

[537]

”Edward’s half-brother the earl of Kent – one of the men who condemned Thomas to death
……
……
– visited Pope John XXII in 1329 to ask him to canonise Thomas.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2010/05/saint- thomas-of-lancaster.html

[538]

”Yet on 1 March 1322, everything changed when William Melton, the archbishop of York, came into possession of letters that had been exchanged between the Scottish Sir James Douglas and a so called ‘King Arthur’.(11) There was no doubt as to who this mysterious King Arthur was: Lancaster. Edward immediately ordered the publication of the letters and any support that Lancaster could have relied on began to quickly fall away as those around him were disgusted by his collusion with the national enemy. ”

THE MORTIMER HISTORY SOCIETY
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS
OF LANCASTER, A GUEST POST BY STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://themortimersblog.wordp ress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-tr aitor-the-life-execution-of-th omas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post -by-stephen-spinks/



SEE ALSO THE WEBLOG OF STEPHEN SPINKS


https://fourteenthcenturyfiend .com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traito r-the-life-execution-of-thomas -of-lancaster/

[539]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 26

[540]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 27

[541]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 27

[542]

WIKIPEDIA
HAGIOGRAPHY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hagiography

[543]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 28

[544]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 28

[545]

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS BECKET

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas_Becket

[546]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

[547]

Thomas was put on trial in the great hall of his own castle, the justice Robert Malberthorpe, Edward, the Despensers, the earls of Kent, Pembroke, Richmond, Surrey, Arundel and the Scottish earls of Angus and Atholl sitting in judgement on him. Four of these men – Edward, Kent, Richmond and Pembroke – were Thomas’s first cousins, while Surrey, Atholl and Angus had once served in his retinue. The result was a foregone conclusion, and Thomas was not allowed to speak in his own defence as his crimes were deemed ‘notorious’

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (3)
2 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

”Lancaster was tried by a tribunal consisting of, among others, the two DespensersEdmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel, and King Edward. Lancaster was not allowed to speak in his own defence, nor was he allowed to have anyone to speak for him.”

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER/LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster# Life

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

[548]

”The natural leader of the group was Henry Lacy, Earl of Lincoln. One of the wealthiest men in the country, he was also the oldest of the earls and had proved his loyalty and ableness through long service to Edward I.[12] Lincoln had a moderating influence on the more extreme members of the group, but with his death in February 1311, leadership passed to his son-in-law and heir Thomas of Lancaster.[13] Lancaster – the king’s cousin – was now in possession of five earldoms which made him by far the wealthiest man in the country, save the king.”

WIKIPEDIA
ORDINANCES OF 1311/THE LORDS ORDAINERS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Ordinances_of_1311#The_Lords_O rdainers





ORIGINAL SOURCE


WIKIPEDIA
ORDINANCES OF 1311

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Ordinances_of_1311





DOCUMENTS IN ENGLISH HISTORY
THE ORDINANCES OF 1311


http://historyofengland.typepa d.com/documents_in_english_his t/2013/02/the-ordinances-of-13 11.html

WIKIPEDIA
BURGESS (TITLE)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Burgess_(title)

THE ORDINANCES’ AND LANCASTER’S STRUGGLE IS
BASED ON THE IDEALS AND STRUGGLE OF
SIMON DE MONTFORT, REBEL AGAINST LANCASTER’S
AND EDWARD II’S GRANDFATHER, KING HENRY III


WIKIPEDIA
SIMON THE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER/RULE
AND PARLIAMENTARY REFORM


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Simon_de_Montfort,_6th_Earl_of _Leicester#Rule_and_parliament ary_reform



ORIGINAL SOURCE


WIKIPEDIA
SIMON THE MONTFORT, 6TH EARL OF LEICESTER


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Simon_de_Montfort,_6th_Earl_of _Leicester\






[549]






EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

[550]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

[551]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 28

[552]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 28

[553]

Thomas of Lancaster was ”double” royal, as well from his
father’s as his mother’s side:
His father, Edmund Crouchback, was the son of
King Henry III and therefore the younger brother of his [ Henry III’s] son and
successor
King Edward I [the father of King Edward II]

Thomas of Lancaster’s mother was Blanche of Artois,
member of the French Capetian Royal House.
Her father, Robert I, Count of Artois, was the son of
the French King, Louis VIII of France and therefore the
brother of his [Louis VIII’s] son, Louis IX, ”Saint Louis” [officially
canonized]
That made Blanche of Artois the granddaughter of a King [Louis VIII]
and the niece of King Louis IX, ”the Saint”

SO:

Thomas of Lancaster was from father’s side the grandson of
King Henry III, the nephew of King Edward I [Hammer of
the Scots] and the cousin of King Edward II, who eventually had him
executed near Pontefract.

From mother’s side Thomas was the greatgrandson of the
French King Louis VIII and the halfbrother of
Queen Joan I of Navarre [who was the daughter of a former
marriage of his mother with King Henry I of Navarre].
He was also the uncle of Queen Isabella of France,
since Isabella of France was the daughter of Queen Joan I
of Navarre.
And to finish the story:
Thomas of Lancaster also was the brother in law
of King Philip IV, the Fair, who was married
with Joan I of Navarre and therefore the father of
Isabella of France!

A nice curriculum vitae, isn’t it?

The parents of Thomas of Lancaster:

WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND CROUCHBACK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edmund_Crouchback

WIKIPEDIA
BLANCHE OF ARTOIS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Blanche_of_Artois

[554]

”His marriage to Alice de Lacy was not successful. They had no children together, while he fathered, illegitimately, with another woman, two sons. In 1317 she was abducted from her manor at CanfordDorset by Richard de St Martin, a knight in the service of John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey. This incident caused a feud between Lancaster and Surrey; Lancaster divorced his wife and seized two of Surrey’s castles in retaliation. King Edward then intervened, and the two Earls came to an uneasy truce.”

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER/LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster# Life

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

[555]

”On 9 June, Pembroke left Gaveston at the rectory at Deddington in Oxfordshire, while he himself left to visit his wife.[79] When Warwick found out about Gaveston’s whereabouts, he immediately rode out to capture him. The next morning he appeared at the rectory, where he took Gaveston captive and brought him back to his castle at Warwick.[80] Pembroke, whose honour had been affronted, appealed for justice both to Gaveston’s brother-in-law Gloucester and to the University of Oxford, but to no avail.[81][82] At Warwick, Gaveston was condemned to death for violating the terms of the Ordinances, before an assembly of barons, including Warwick, Lancaster, Hereford and Arundel.[83] On 19 June, he was taken out on the road towards Kenilworth as far as Blacklow Hill, which was on the Earl of Lancaster’s land. Here, two Welshmen ran him through with a sword and beheaded him”

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/RETURN AND DEATH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_ Cornwall#Return_and_death

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_ Cornwall

[556]

”Whatever Henry said, it was interpreted as a royal command, and four knights,[10] Reginald FitzUrseHugh de MorvilleWilliam de Tracy and Richard le Breton,[1] set out to confront the Archbishop of Canterbury.
On 29 December 1170 they arrived at Canterbury. According to accounts left by the monk Gervase of Canterbury and eyewitness Edward Grim, they placed their weapons under a tree outside the cathedral and hid their mail armour under cloaks before entering to challenge Becket. The knights informed Becket he was to go to Winchester to give an account of his actions, but Becket refused. It was not until Becket refused their demands to submit to the king’s will that they retrieved their weapons and rushed back inside for the killing.[14] Becket, meanwhile, proceeded to the main hall for vespers. The four knights, wielding drawn swords, caught up with him in a spot near a door to the monastic cloister, the stairs into the crypt, and the stairs leading up into the quire of the cathedral, where the monks were chanting vespers”

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS BECKET/ASSASSINATION

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas_Becket#Assassination

”Following Becket’s death, the monks prepared his body for burial.[1] According to some accounts, it was discovered that Becket had worn a hairshirt under his archbishop’s garments—a sign of penance.[16] Soon after, the faithful throughout Europe began venerating Becket as a martyr, and on 21 February 1173—little more than two years after his death—he was canonised by Pope Alexander III in St Peter’s Church in Segni

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS BECKET/AFTER BECKET’S DEATH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas_Becket#After_Becket.27s _death

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS BECKET

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas_Becket

[557]

A GRIP FROM THE MARCHER LORD’S CRIMES

‘……..’the Marchers’ attacks of May 1321 may have been aimed at the Despensers, but it was the innocent and the poor who suffered most, as numerous petitions and inquisitions attest – held castles against him, and had stolen from him personally, “because they had taken for their own use and wasted the goods of the exiles, which ought rather to have gone to the treasury,” as the Vita Edwardi Secundi says. [11] In November and December 1321, the Marchers reverted to their appalling behaviour of a few months earlier, and began extorting money and stealing goods from those who could least afford it. Roger Mortimer, the one who later became Isabella of France’s favourite, and his followers seized wheat, grain, livestock and other goods worth more than £140 from villagers in Herefordshire, while Maurice, Lord Berkeley demanded that the inhabitants of Lydney in Gloucestershire send him three pounds to support the rebels, or he would burn the village. Not surprisingly, the unfortunate villagers gave him the money. [12] Henry Lynet, one of Roger Damory’s adherents, attacked a Gloucestershire manor belonging to Peter Montfort because Montfort refused to join the Contrariants, while other men travelled through Gloucestershire seizing goods and chattels from villagers and selling them to raise money. [13] A group of John, Lord Mowbray’s adherents stole provisions worth forty pounds from a boat belonging to the merchant John Kygge of Grantham on 25 November 1321; Mowbray had, a few months earlier, stolen livestock, goods and chattels from the villagers of Laughton-en-le-Morthern in Yorkshire, and even robbed the church. [14] Roger Mortimer’s uncle Roger Mortimer of Chirk “violently ejected” William la Zouche from his manor of Elmley Lovett and stole goods worth 100 marks from him, because Zouche refused, despite Chirk’s threats, to join the rebels.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SIRE HUGE LE DESPENSER, MALEFACTORS AND
EXTORTIONISTS: SOME EVENTS OF NOVEMBER
1321
30 NOVEMBER 2009

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2009/11/sire-huge-le- despenser-malefactors-and.html

[558]

”A text written in Latin probably in the late 1320s laments Thomas as “the blessed martyr” and “flower of knights,” and says “the pouring out of prayers to Thomas restores the sick to health; the pious earl comes immediately to the aid of those who are feeble.”
…..
……
”Who when he perceived that the whole commons were falling into wreck, did not shrink from dying for the right, in the fatal commerce…he is delivered to dire death, on account of which England mourns. Alas! he is beheaded for the aid of the commons…”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2010/05/saint- thomas-of-lancaster.html

[559]

”But one of fastest routes to swift canonisation was if miracles were reported occurring at your tomb, when your relics were present, at where you were killed or if something miraculous occurred when you were being implored in prayer to intercede with God on someone’s behalf.”

HISTORY TIMES HISTORY
THOMAS OF LANCASTER-AN UNLIKELY SAINT?
12 JANUARY 2012

http://historytimeshistory.blo gspot.nl/2012/01/thomas-of-lan caster-unlikely-saint.html

[560]

”Although Thomas was never actually canonised, his hat and belt preserved at Pontefract were used as remedies in childbirth and for headaches as late as the Reformation”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

[561]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGES 25 AND 26

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

[562]

”In 1323, 2000 people, some of them from as far away as Kent, gathered to pray and make oblations at Thomas of Lancaster’s tomb.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

[563]

WIKIPEDIA
KENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Kent

WIKIPEDIA
PONTEFRACT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Pontefract

WIKIPEDIA
PONTEFRACT CASTLE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Pontefract_Castle

[564]

YOURDICTIONARY.COM

LOSER

”A person who has bad luck in life, who is unsuccessful and unpopular is an example of a loser.”

http://www.yourdictionary.com/ loser

[565]

Thomas was put on trial in the great hall of his own castle, the justice Robert Malberthorpe, Edward, the Despensers, the earls of Kent, Pembroke, Richmond, Surrey, Arundel and the Scottish earls of Angus and Atholl sitting in judgement on him.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (3)
2 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

[566]

”Lancaster was tried by a tribunal consisting of, among others, the two DespensersEdmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel, and King Edward. Lancaster was not allowed to speak in his own defence, nor was he allowed to have anyone to speak for him. He was convicted of treason and sentenced to death. Because of their kinship and Lancaster’s royal blood, the King commuted the sentence to mere beheading (as opposed to being drawn, quartered, and beheaded) and Lancaster was executed near Pontefract Castle.”

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER/LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster# Life

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

[567]

”Hugh Despenser the Younger lived and ruled in grand style, playing a leading role in Edward’s government, and executing policy through a wide network of family retainers.[227] Supported by Robert Baldock and Walter Stapledon, Edward’s chancellor and lord treasurer, the Despensers accumulated land and wealth, using their position in government to provide superficial cover for what historian Seymour Phillips describes as “the reality of fraud, threats of violence and abuse of legal procedure”.[228] Meanwhile, Edward faced growing opposition. Miracles were reported around the late Earl of Lancaster’s tomb, and at the gallows used to execute members of the opposition in Bristol.[229] Law and order began to break down, encouraged by the chaos caused by the seizure of lands”

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD II OF ENGLAND/EDWARD AND THE DESPENSERS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_II_of_England#Edward_an d_the_Despensers

ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD II OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_II_of_England

”Finally the barons prevailed upon King Edward and forced Despenser and his father into exile in August 1321. Following the exile of the Despensers, the barons who opposed them fell out among themselves, and the King summoned the two men back to England. Early in the following year, King Edward took advantage of these divisions to secure the surrender of Marcher Lord Roger Mortimer, and the defeat and execution of the Earl of Lancaster, the Despensers’ chief opponents. The pair returned and King Edward quickly reinstated Despenser as royal favourite. The time from the Despensers’ return from exile until the end of Edward II’s reign was a time of uncertainty in England. With the main baronial opposition leaderless and weak, having been defeated at the Battle of Boroughbridge, and Edward willing to let them do as they pleased, the Despensers were left unchecked. This maladministration caused hostile feeling for them and, by proxy, Edward II”

WIKIPEDIA
HUGH DESPENSER THE YOUNGER/POLITICAL MANOEUVRINGS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hugh_Despenser_the_Younger#Pol itical_manoeuverings

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HUGH DESPENSER THE YOUNGER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hugh_Despenser_the_Younger

”To cut a very long story short, the Despensers didn’t dominate the government in the period 1322-26 – they were the government. ”
….
….
”But – they were overwhelmingly avaricious, extorted anyone they could – imprisoning people if they had to, till they handed over their lands – and in a short time made themselves absolutely detested by absolutely everyone.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDWARD II’S OTHER GREAT FAVOURITE, HUGH
DESPENSER THE YOUNGER
5 FEBRUARY 2006

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2006/02/edward-iis-other- great-favourite-hugh.html

[568]

”After a period of longstanding opposition to King Edward II and his advisors, including joining two open rebellions, Henry’s brother Thomas was convicted of treason, executed and had his lands and titles forfeited in 1322. Henry did not participate in his brother’s rebellions; he later petitioned for his brother’s lands and titles, and on 29 March 1324 he was invested as Earl of Leicester.”

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY, 3RD EARL OF LANCASTER/PETITION FOR
SUCCESSION AND INHERITANCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry,_3rd_Earl_of_Lancaster#P etition_for_succession_and_inh eritance

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY, 3RD EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry,_3rd_Earl_of_Lancaster

[569]

” In June 1319, Edward excused Henry from attending the siege of Berwick as he was “beyond the seas on important business.”  Henry appears to have spent much if not all of the next few years in France, to judge from the number of times Edward granted him permission and protection to remain overseas (he was still out of England in January 1322 and perhaps even later). ”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
HENRY, EARL OF LANCASTER
8 MAY 2011

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2011/04/henry-of-lancaste r.html

[570]

”On the other hand, Henry’s relationship with his elder brother Thomas was, according to Thomas’s biographer John Maddicott, a distant one [4]”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
HENRY, EARL OF LANCASTER
8 MAY 2011

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2011/04/henry-of-lancaste r.html

”The pope wrote to Henry several times in 1318 as a close kinsman of both the king and the earl of Lancaster, and “bound to pay them reverence and affection,” asking him to promote accord between them “so that the realm may be freed from disturbance” (Edward and Thomas of Lancaster were, to cut a very long story short, feuding endlessly).  [11]  I wonder how effective Henry’s intervention was, assuming he even attempted one, given that he was not close to his brother and had little if any influence over his cousin Edward II.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
HENRY, EARL OF LANCASTER
8 MAY 2011

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2011/04/henry-of-lancaste r.html

[571]

DICTIONARY CAMBRIDGE

BE THAT AS IT MAY

”used to mean that you accept that a piece of information is true   but it does not change your opinion of the subject you are discussing:”

http://dictionary.cambridge.or g/dictionary/english/be-that-a s-it-may






[572]


An invasion of England was launched and Edward II’s forces deserted him completely. The king was forced to relinquish the throne to his son on 25 January 1327. The new king was crowned as Edward III on 1 February 1327”

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD III OF ENGLAND/EARLY LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_III_of_England#Early_li fe

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD III OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_III_of_England

[573]

”Yet on 1 March 1322, everything changed when William Melton, the archbishop of York, came into possession of letters that had been exchanged between the Scottish Sir James Douglas and a so called ‘King Arthur’.(11) There was no doubt as to who this mysterious King Arthur was: Lancaster. Edward immediately ordered the publication of the letters and any support that Lancaster could have relied on began to quickly fall away as those around him were disgusted by his collusion with the national enemy. ”

THE MORTIMER HISTORY SOCIETY
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS
OF LANCASTER, A GUEST POST BY STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://themortimersblog.wordp ress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-tr aitor-the-life-execution-of-th omas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post -by-stephen-spinks/



SEE ALSO THE WEBLOG OF STEPHEN SPINKS


https://fourteenthcenturyfiend .com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traito r-the-life-execution-of-thomas -of-lancaster/

[574]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 26

[575]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 27

[576]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 26

”Henry was appointed “chief advisor” for the new king Edward III of England,[2] and was also appointed captain-general of all the king’s forces in the Scottish Marches.[3]

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY, 3RD EARL OF LANCASTER/FULL RESTORATION
AND REWARD

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry,_3rd_Earl_of_Lancaster# Full_restoration_and_reward

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY, 3RD EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry,_3rd_Earl_of_Lancaster

[577]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 27

[578]

”Eventually, Edward decided to take direct action against Mortimer. Aided by his close companion William Montagu and a small number of other trusted men, Edward took Mortimer by surprise at Nottingham Castle on 19 October 1330. Mortimer was executed and Edward III’s personal reign began.[19]

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD III OF ENGLAND/EARLY LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_III_of_England#Early_ life

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD III OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_III_of_England

[579]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 28

[580]

”He also helped the young king to put an end to Mortimer’s regency and tyranny, also had him declared a traitor and executed in 1330.”

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY, 3RD EARL OF LANCASTER/FULL RESTORATION AND
REWARD

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry,_3rd_Earl_of_Lancaster# Full_restoration_and_reward

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY, 3RD EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry,_3rd_Earl_of_Lancaster

[581]

” He accompanied Edward III to France in April 1331 and took part in the famous jousting tournament at Cheapside in September that year, and in March 1332 Edward III granted him 500 marks a year “for the special affection which the king bears him, and because his father Henry earl of Lancaster has not yet made such provision for him as becomes his estate.” [2] ‘Affection’ is usually a pretty formulaic phrase, yet it is apparent that Edward III genuinely had a great fondness for Henry, who was near his own age and a close relative, a second cousin through Edward II and a first cousin once removed through Isabella of France. ”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
A VERRAY PARFIT GENTIL KNYGHT: [OLD ENGLISH,
ASTRID ESSED’S ADDITION]
HENRY OF GROSMONT, DUKE OF LANCASTER (1)
21 AUGUST 2009

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2009/08/verray- parfit-gentil-knyght-henry-of. html

”In 1345, while Grosmont was in France, his father died. The younger Henry was now Earl of Lancaster – the wealthiest and most powerful peer of the realm. After participating in the Siege of Calais in 1347, the king honoured Lancaster by including him as a founding knight of the Order of the Garter in 1348.[12] A few years later, in 1351, Edward bestowed an even greater honour on Lancaster when he created him Duke of Lancaster. The title of duke was of relatively new origin in England; only one other ducal title existed previously”

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY OF GROSMONT, 1ST DUKE OF LANCASTER/DUKE OF
LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry_of_Grosmont,_1st_Duke_ of_Lancaster#Duke_of_Lancaster

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY OF GROSMONT, 1ST DUKE OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry_of_Grosmont,_1st_Duke_ of_Lancaster

”On 6 March 1351, Edward III created Henry the first duke of Lancaster, and “granted to the duke that for his life he shall have within the same county his chancery and writs under a seal to be deputed for the office of chancellor, his justices for pleas of the crown and pleas of common law, and cognisance of the same, and execution of such writs by his ministers and all other liberties and royal rights pertaining to an earl palatine.” [2] Until Richard II’s reign, the only other English dukes were Edward III’s sons, an indication of the extremely high regard in which Edward held his kinsman.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
A VERRAY PARFIT GENTIL KNYGHT: [OLD ENGLISH,
ASTRID ESSED’S ADDITION]
HENRY OF GROSMONT, DUKE OF LANCASTER (2)
2 NOVEMBER 2009

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2009/11/verray- parfit-gentil-knyght-henry-of. html

”Edward was born on 15 June 1330 at Woodstock Palace in Oxfordshire. He was created Earl of Chester on 18 May 1333, Duke of Cornwall on 17 March 1337 (the first creation of an English duke) and invested as Prince of Wales on 12 May 1343 when he was almost 13 years old.[2] In England, Edward served as a symbolic regent for periods in 1339, 1340 and 1342 while Edward III was on campaign.”

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD, THE BLACK PRINCE/LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward,_the_Black_Prince#Life

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD, THE BLACK PRINCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward,_the_Black_Prince

[582]

”Henry is not known to have played any role in the equally chaotic events of his cousin Isabella and Roger Mortimer’s regency, nor in their downfall in October 1330, though he was knighted and married that year and began to represent his father Earl Henry, who had gone blind, at parliament and in public life.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
A VERRAY PARFIT GENTIL KNYGHT: [OLD ENGLISH,
ASTRID ESSED’S ADDITION]
HENRY OF GROSMONT, DUKE OF LANCASTER (1)
21 AUGUST 2009

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2009/08/verray- parfit-gentil-knyght-henry-of. html

[583]

WIKIPEDIA
ORDINANCES OF 1311

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Ordinances_of_1311

DOCUMENTS IN ENGLISH HISTORY
THE ORDINANCES OF 1311

http://historyofengland.typepa d.com/documents_in_english_his t/2013/02/the-ordinances-of-13 11.html

[583]

WIKIPEDIA
ORDINANCES OF 1311

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Ordinances_of_1311

DOCUMENTS IN ENGLISH HISTORY
THE ORDINANCES OF 1311

http://historyofengland.typepa d.com/documents_in_english_his t/2013/02/the-ordinances-of- 1311.html

[584]

YOUTUBE
SHE WOLVES: ENGLAND’S EARLY QUEENS:
ISABELLA AND MARGARET

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=192QjemfTh0&t=1061s

THE TYRANNY

”The four years that followed became known as “The tyranny.” Hugh Despenser the Younger more or less ruled the country, without consulting Parliament. He accumulated vast personal wealth by dispossessing legal heirs, especially widows. “For four years,” writes Given-Wilson, “Edward and the Despensers ruled England as they pleased, brooking no opposition, growing fat on the proceeds of confiscated land and disinherited heirs.”[8] Edward and the Despensers ignored the law of the land, bending it to suit their interests.”

NEWWORLD ENCYCLOPEDIA
THOMAS PLANTAGENET, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

http://www.newworldencyclopedi a.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet ,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

[585]

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”
PAGE 27

COMMENT ON THE UNDERLYING SOURCE
THE REVERSED CONVICTION OF THOMAS
OF LANCASTER TOOK PLACE IN 1328

”In 1326 or 1327, Parliament posthumously reversed Thomas’s conviction, and Henry Plantagenet was further permitted to take possession of the Earldoms of Lancaster, Derby, Salisbury, and Lincoln.”

NEWWORLD ENCYCLOPEDIA
THOMAS PLANTAGENET, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

http://www.newworldencyclopedi a.org/entry/Thomas_Plantagenet ,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

[586]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

[587]

WIKIPEDIA
SAINT THOMAS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Saint_Thomas

MARTYRS IN THE MAKING: POLITICAL MARTYRDOM
IN LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
D. PIROYANSKY
2008
CHAPTER 2
”THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER, CHRIST’S KNIGHT”

Reacties uitgeschakeld voor Notes 504-587 at article about Thomas, Earl of Lancaster

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