Notes 452-503 at article about Thomas, Earl of Lancaster

 

File:Thomas Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster.jpg
THOMAS 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

 

 

[452]

”The rebel forces were halted by loyalist troops at the wooden bridge at Boroughbridge, Yorkshire, where Humphrey de Bohun, leading an attempt to storm the bridge, met his death on 16 March 1322.Although the details have been called into question by a few historians, his death may have been particularly gory. As recounted by Ian Mortimer:[2]
“[The 4th Earl of] Hereford led the fight on the bridge, but he and his men were caught in the arrow fire. Then one of de Harclay’s pikemen, concealed beneath the bridge, thrust upwards between the planks and skewered the Earl of Hereford through the anus, twisting the head of the iron pike into his intestines. His dying screams turned the advance into a panic.””’

WIKIPEDIA
HUMPHREY DE BOHUN, 4TH EARL OF HEREFORD/DEATH AT BOROUGHBRIDGE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Humphrey_de_Bohun,_4th_Earl_ of_Hereford#Death_at_ Boroughbridge

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HUMPHREY DE BOHUN, 4TH EARL OF HEREFORD

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Humphrey_de_Bohun,_4th_Earl_ of_Hereford

 

 

 

 

 

[453]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (3)
2 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2010/05/thomas-of-lancaster-and-his.html

[454]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (3)
2 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2010/05/thomas-of-lancaster-and-his.html

[455]

Quod non is Latin, and translates to “Something which is not true”.

WIKTIONARY.ORG
QUOD NON

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/quod_non

[456]

”In 1317 as Edward marched north to see off the most recent threat posed by Scottish raids in the north, Lancaster blockaded the bridges once Edward passed claiming he had the right to be informed about the movement of armed men as he was the hereditary Steward of England.”
……
…….

”Twice in 1317 and again in 1320 Lancaster’s garrison jeered Edward from the walls of Lancaster’s mighty fortress, Pontefract castle, as the king travelled from north to south which almost brought the kingdom to ruin had Edward challenged back.”

THE MORTIMER HISTORY SOCIETY
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS OF
LANCASTER, A GUEST POST BY STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://themortimersblog.wordp ress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-tr aitor-the-life-execution-of-th omas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post -by-stephen-spinks/

SEE ALSO THE WEBLOG OF STEPHEN SPINKS

A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS OF
LANCASTER
STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://fourteenthcenturyfiend .com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traito r-the-life-execution-of-thomas -of-lancaster/

[457]

In June 1312, Gaveston was seized by the earl of Warwick and taken to his castle where Lancaster, Hereford, Warwick and others held a mock trial in which Gaveston was not allowed to speak in order to raise a defence. Being found guilty of treason, Piers was hauled from Warwick castle the following day and taken to Blacklow Hill, on Lancaster’s estates, and there barbarously run through the stomach by one Welshman whilst another eventually cut off his head.”

THE MORTIMER HISTORY SOCIETY
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS OF
LANCASTER, A GUEST POST BY STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://themortimersblog.wordp ress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-tr aitor-the-life-execution-of-th omas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post -by-stephen-spinks/

SEE ALSO THE WEBLOG OF STEPHEN SPINKS

A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS OF
LANCASTER
STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://fourteenthcenturyfiend .com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traito r-the-life-execution-of-thomas -of-lancaster/

[458]

PIERSPERROTGAVESTONBLOGSPOT
THOSE INSULTING NICKNAMES
1 SEPTEMBER 2011

http://piersperrotgaveston.blogspot.nl/2011/09/those-insulting-nicknames.html

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
PIERS GAVESTON”S INSULTING NICKNAMES AND
AN ILLEGITIMATE SQUIRE
2 MARCH 2008

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2008/03/piers-gavestons-insulting-nicknames-and.html

”It did not take long, however, for him to alienate the earls once more. The chronicles tell of how Gaveston gave mocking nicknames to other earls, calling Lincoln ‘burst-belly’, Pembroke ‘Joseph the Jew’, Lancaster ‘the fiddler’ and Warwick ‘the black dog of Arden’ (from the forest of Arden in Warwickshire)”

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/ORDINANCES AND
FINAL EXILE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Cornwall#Ordinances_and_final_exile

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Cornwall

[459]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE SIEGE OF BERWICK AND THE CHAPTER OF MYTON
18 MAY 2009

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2009/05/siege-of-berwick-and-chapter-of-myton.html

[460]

”The importance of retaking Berwick was such that even the earl of Lancaster co-operated with Edward for once, and wrote to the king: “On that day we shall be there, with God’s help, if we are alive and you are there. And, sire, if going there requires greater haste, then move there, sire, when you please and we will follow you in honour of you and for the salvation of your land and your person and of your people. And, for God’s sake, sire, make haste to do it.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE SIEGE OF BERWICK AND THE CHAPTER OF MYTON
18 MAY 2009

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2009/05/siege-of-berwick-and-chapter-of-myton.html

[461]

””When this wretched business is over, we will turn our hands to other matters. For I have not forgotten the wrong that was done to my brother Piers.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (3)
2 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2010/05/thomas-of-lancaster-and-his.html

[462]

” This threat to avenge Piers Gaveston’s death was clearly aimed at Lancaster, and may have been a reason for his departure from Berwick”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE SIEGE OF BERWSICK AND THE CHAPTER OF MYTON
18 MAY 2009

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2009/05/siege-of-berwick-and-chapter-of-myton.html

[463]

”Upon his arrival on 21 March, the earl was ‘contemptuously insulted…to his face with malicious and arrogant words’ by the king and the recently returned Despensers.(15)”

THE MORTIMER HISTORY SOCIETY
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS OF
LANCASTER, A GUEST POST BY STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://themortimersblog.wordp ress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-tr aitor-the-life-execution-of-th omas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post -by-stephen-spinks/

SEE ALSO THE WEBLOG OF STEPHEN SPINKS

A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS OF
LANCASTER
STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://fourteenthcenturyfiend .com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traito r-the-life-execution-of-thomas -of-lancaster/

”’Anonimalle: ” [chronicle]…the king sent him [Lancaster] to Pontefract, which place the said earl loved more than any other town in the world. And there the king entered the said earl’s castle, and with Sir Hugh [Despenser the Younger] met him and degraded him by malicious and contemptuous words in his face, in mockery of him.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE TRIAL AND EXECUTION OF THOMAS OF LANCASTER
26 OCTOBER 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2010/10/trial-and-execution-of-thomas-of.html

”A triumphant Hugh Despenser the Younger, lately returned from exile and piracy, took the opportunity to hurl “malicious and contemptuous words” into Thomas’s face on his arrival.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (3)
2 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2010/05/thomas-of-lancaster-and-his.html

[464]

””Vita Edwardi Secundi: “On the fourth or fifth day after the capture of the earl of Lancaster, the king coming to Pontefract ordered him to be brought up without delay.  He was at once brought up by the king’s command, and for that night he was shut up in a certain tower.  It is said that the earl had recently built that tower, and determined that when the king was captured he should be imprisoned in it for life, and so to have made the prince a lion after the manner of the Lombards.  This was the common story, but I have not heard evidence of its truth.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE TRIAL AND EXECUTION OF THOMAS OF LANCASTER
26 OCTOBER 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2010/10/trial-and-execution-of-thomas-of.html

”Having been kept overnight in a tower once said to have been built by him to house an imprisoned Edward if ever he had been given the chance, Thomas was brought before his jury……..”

THE MORTIMER HISTORY SOCIETY
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS OF
LANCASTER, A GUEST POST BY STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://themortimersblog.wordp ress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-tr aitor-the-life-execution-of-th omas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post -by-stephen-spinks/

SEE ALSO THE WEBLOG OF STEPHEN SPINKS

A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS OF
LANCASTER
STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://fourteenthcenturyfiend .com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traito r-the-life-execution-of-thomas -of-lancaster/

”Edward waited for his cousin at Pontefract, where rumour had it that the earl had built a tower in which to hold the king captive for the rest of his life; Thomas was imprisoned there instead.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (3)
2 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2010/05/thomas-of-lancaster-and-his.html

[465]

””Sir Robert [Malberthorpe] accused him in this manner: “Thomas!  At first, our lord the king and this court excludes you of all manner of answer.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE TRIAL AND EXECUTION OF THOMAS OF LANCASTER
26 OCTOBER 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2010/10/trial-and-execution-of-thomas-of.html

[466]

”He exclaimed “This is a powerful court, and great in authority, where no answer is heard nor any excuse admitted,”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (3)
2 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

[467]

Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke. Born circa 1268/70. His father William was the half-brother of Henry III, making Aymer the first cousin once removed of Edward II and the Earl of Lancaster.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE ENGLISH EARLS IN THE REIGN OF EDWARD II
22 APRIL 2006

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2006/04/english-earls-in-reign-of-edward-ii.html

FOR A MORE DETAILED EXPLANATION ABOUT THE
FAMILY RELATIONS OF THE EARL OF PEMBROKE
AND THOMAS OF LANCASTER, SEE THE FOLLOWING
WIKIPEDIA

The Earl of Pembroke’s father, William de Valence, was the halfbrother of King
Henry III [through his mother Isabella of Angouleme’s prior
marriage to King John Lackland, father of King Henry III
So William de Valence and King Henry had the same mother, Isabella of Angouleme]
That made William de Valence’s son, Aymer de Valence, the Earl of Pembroke, the first cousin of King Edward I, who was the son of King Henry III.
He was also the first cousin of Edmund Crouchback, brother of King Edward I and father of Thomas of Lancaster

SO

Aymer de Valence, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, was the first cousin of’
Thomas of Lancaster’s father , Edmund Crouchback, as the first
cousin of Edward II’s father, King Edward I

WIKIPEDIA

WIKIPEDIA
AYMER DE VALENCE, 2ND EARL OF PEMBROKE/FAMILY
AND EARLY YEARS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Aymer_de_Valence,_2nd_Earl_of_ Pembroke#Family_and_early_year s

”When Gaveston without permission returned from exile later the same year, a Baronial council entrusted Pembroke and The Earl of Surrey, with the task of taking him into custody.[16] This they did on 19 May 1312, but not long after Thomas of Lancaster, acting with the Earls of WarwickHereford and Arund el, seized Gaveston and executed him on 19 June.[17] This criminal act had the effect of garnering support for the King, and marginalising the rebellious earls.[18] As far as Pembroke is concerned, the seizing and execution of a prisoner in his custody was a breach of the most fundamental chivalric codes, and a serious affront to his honour. The event must therefore be seen as pivotal in turning his sympathies away from the rebels and towards the King”

WIKIPEDIA
AYMER DE VALENCE, 2ND EARL OF PEMBROKE/THE ORDINANCES
AND PIERS GAVESTON

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Aymer_de_Valence,_2nd_Earl_of_ Pembroke#The_Ordinances_and_Pi ers_Gaveston

”Pembroke’s attempts at reconciliation eventually failed, and civil war broke out in 1321. In 1322 Lancaster was defeated at the Battle of Boroughbridge, and executed. Pembroke was among the Earls behind the conviction”

WIKIPEDIA
AYMER DE VALENCE, 2ND EARL OF PEMBROKE/LATER YEARS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Aymer_de_Valence,_2nd_Earl_of_ Pembroke#Later_years

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
AYMER DE VALENCE, 2ND EARL OF PEMBROKE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Aymer_de_Valence,_2nd_Earl_of_ Pembroke

[468]

”On 17 March 1322, Lancaster was captured after his defeat at the Battle of Boroughbridge, and brought to Pontefract.[15] Here, Edmund was on the jury that condemned him to death for treason

WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND OF WOODSTOCK, 1ST EARL OF KENT/CIVIL WAR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edmund_of_Woodstock,_1st_Earl_ of_Kent#Civil_war

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND OF WOODSTOCK, 1ST EARL OF KENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edmund_of_Woodstock,_1st_Earl_ of_Kent

[469]

”When in 1322 Thomas of Lancaster rebelled and was defeated at the Battle of Boroughbridge, Richmond was present at his trial, and when Lancaster was sentenced to death”

WIKIPEDIA
JOHN OF BRITANNY, EARL OF RICHMOND/WAR WITH SCOTLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John_of_Brittany,_Earl_of_Rich mond#War_with_Scotland

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
JOHN OF BRITANNY, EARL OF RICHMOND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John_of_Brittany,_Earl_of_Rich mond

[470]

”In June 1312 Gaveston was captured, tried before Lancaster, Arundel and the earls of Warwick and Hereford, and executed”

WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND FITZALAN, 9TH EARL OF ARUNDEL/OPPOSITION
TO EDWARD II

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edmund_FitzAlan,_9th_Earl_of_A rundel#Opposition_to_Edward_II

”Around the time of Bannockburn, however, Arundel’s loyalty began to shift back towards the king. Edward’s rapprochement towards the earl had in fact started earlier, when on 2 November 1313, the king pardoned Arundel’s royal debts”

WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND FITZALAN, 9TH EARL OF ARUNDEL/RETURN TO LOYALTY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edmund_FitzAlan,_9th_Earl_of_A rundel#Return_to_loyalty

WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND FITZALAN, 9TH EARL OF ARUNDEL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edmund_FitzAlan,_9th_Earl_of_A rundel

”In March 1322, he was one of the men who condemned Thomas, earl of Lancaster to death, along with his brother-in-law the earl of Surrey, Edward II, the earls of Kent, Pembroke and Richmond, the Scottish earls of Atholl and Angus, and both Despensers.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDMUND FITZALAN, EARL OF ARUNDEL
3 MARCH 2007

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2007/03/edmund-fitzalan-e arl-of-arundel.html

[471]

”Warenne was one of the four earls who captured the two Roger Mortimers, the uncle and the nephew, and in 1322 he was one of the nobles who condemned to death the earl of Lancaster”

WIKIPEDIA
JOHN DE WARENNE, 7TH EARL OF SURREY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John_de_Warenne,_7th_Earl_of_ Surrey

”His marriage to Alice de Lacy was not successful. They had no children together, while he fathered, illegitimately, with another woman, two sons. In 1317 she was abducted from her manor at CanfordDorset by Richard de St Martin, a knight in the service of John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey. This incident caused a feud between Lancaster and Surrey; Lancaster divorced his wife and seized two of Surrey’s castles in retaliation. King Edward then intervened, and the two Earls came to an uneasy truce.”

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER/LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster# Life

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

[472]

”Although the sole blame for Lancaster’s execution was heaped on the two Hugh Despensers at their own so-called trials in October/November 1326, the two men and Edward II were not the only ones who condemned Lancaster to death: the earls of Pembroke, Richmond, Kent, Arundel, Surrey, Atholl and Angus also sat in judgement on him, as did the royal justice Robert Malberthorpe.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE TRIAL AND EXECUTION OF THOMAS
OF LANCASTER
26 OCTOBER 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2010/10/trial-and-execution-of-thomas-of.html

[473]

”Thomas was put on trial in the great hall of his own castle, the justice Robert Malberthorpe, Edward, the Despensers, the earls of Kent, Pembroke, Richmond, Surrey, Arundel and the Scottish earls of Angus and Atholl sitting in judgement on him.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (3)
2 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2010/05/thomas-of-lancaster-and-his.html

Brut (modernised spelling) [chronicle]
……
……
”And so it befell that he was led to the bar before the king’s justices, bare-headed as a thief, in a fair hall within his own castle, that he had made therein many a fair feast, both to rich and also to poor…and Sir Robert [Malberthorpe] accused him in this manner: “Thomas!  At first, our lord the king and this court excludes you of all manner of answer. Thomas!  Our lord the king puts upon you that you have in his land ridden with banner displayed, against his peace, as a traitor.”  And with that word, the gentle Earl Thomas with a high voice said “Nay, lords!  Forsooth, and by Saint Thomas, I was never traitor.”  The justice said again “Thomas!  Our lord the king also puts upon you that you have robbed his folk, and and murdered his folk, as a thief.  Thomas!  The king also puts upon you that he discomforted you and your people with his folk in his own realm; wherefore you went and fled to the wood as an outlaw, and also you were taken as an outlaw.””

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE TRIAL AND EXECUTION OF THOMAS OF LANCASTER
26 OCTOBER 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2010/10/trial-and-execution-of-thomas-of.html

[474]

FOR THE FAMILY TIES BETWEEN THOMAS OF
LANCASTER AND THE EARLS OF KENT AND RICHMOND, SEE
THE NOTES 467 AND 468

FOR EDWARD II [AND THAT APPLIES ALSO TO THE EARL
OF KENT, HIS HALFBROTHER]:

EDWARD II’S FATHER, KING EDWARD II, WAS THE ELDER
BROTHER OF EDMUND CROUCHBACK, THE FATHER OF
THOMAS OF LANCASTER

[475]

SEE FOR THE FAMILY TIES BETWEEN THE EARL OF PEMBROKE
AND THOMAS OF LANCASTER, NOTE 466

[476]

”The official indictment appears in Foedera*, and comprises the many charges and accusations Edward II summoned up against his cousin, including treason, as Lancaster and other Contrariants had invited several of Robert Bruce’s liegemen to England in 1322 to ride with them against their king.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE TRIAL & EXECUTION OF THOMAS OF LANCASTER
26 OCTOBER 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/10/trial-and-executi on-of-thomas-of.html

”Thomas, using the conceited pseudonym ‘King Arthur’, wrote to Robert Bruce’s adherent James Douglas to inform him that the earl of Hereford, Roger Damory, Hugh Audley, Roger Clifford, Henry Tyes, Thomas Mauduit, John Wilington and even the hated Bartholomew Badlesmere had come to him at Pontefract. The men were, treasonably, prepared to treat with the Scots, as long as the Scots did what had previously been discussed: “to come to our aid, and to go with us in England and Wales” and “live and die with us in our quarrel.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (3)
2 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

”Yet on 1 March 1322, everything changed when William Melton, the archbishop of York, came into possession of letters that had been exchanged between the Scottish Sir James Douglas and a so called ‘King Arthur’.(11) There was no doubt as to who this mysterious King Arthur was: Lancaster. Edward immediately ordered the publication of the letters and any support that Lancaster could have relied on began to quickly fall away as those around him were disgusted by his collusion with the national enemy. ”

THE MORTIMER HISTORY SOCIETY
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS
OF LANCASTER, A GUEST POST BY STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://themortimersblog.wordp ress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-tr aitor-the-life-execution-of-th omas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post -by-stephen-spinks/

SEE ALSO THE WEBLOG OF SPEPHEN SPINKS

A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS
OF LANCASTER
STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://fourteenthcenturyfiend .com/tag/thomas-of-lancaster/

[477]

”The list of charges comprised the many grievances Edward managed to dredge up against his cousin, going back to Thomas’s seizure of his possessions at Tynemouth in 1312”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (3)
2 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2010/05/thomas-of-lancaster-and-his.html

”Lancaster made an inventory of the possessions and claimed that he fully intended to return them to the king, though Edward had to wait until the end of February 1313 before he received them.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDWARD II AND PIERS GAVESTON’S TREASURE, 1312
13 JULY 2008

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2008/07/edward-ii-and-pie rs-gavestons-treasure.html

”Edward’s initial reaction to the news of Gaveston’s execution was rage; according to the Vita Edwardi he swore to avenge the act.[22]Circumstances, however, prevented him from taking immediate action against the executioners.[90] During the previous raid on Newcastle, the King and Gaveston had to flee quickly, leaving behind horses and jewels worth a great amount of money.[91] At the same time, the barons’ extralegal action had alienated many of their former associates; the Earl of Pembroke in particular became strongly tied to the King’s cause after the affront to his honour.[92] Through the arbitration of the Earl of Gloucester and others, a settlement was finally reached on 14 October 1313, whereby the barons were given a pardon and the horses and jewels were returned to the King”

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/AFTERMATH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall#Aftermath

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall

[478]

”The charges also included Lancaster’s and his household’s jeering at Edward as the king passed through Pontefract on his way from York to London in the late summer of 1317”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE TRIAL & EXECUTION OF THOMAS OF LANCASTER
26 OCTOBER 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/10/trial-and-executi on-of-thomas-of.html

”Twice in 1317 and again in 1320 Lancaster’s garrison jeered Edward from the walls of Lancaster’s mighty fortress, Pontefract castle, as the king travelled from north to south which almost brought the kingdom to ruin had Edward challenged back.”

THE MORTIMER HISTORY SOCIETY
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS
OF LANCASTER, A GUEST POST BY STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://themortimersblog.wordp ress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-tr aitor-the-life-execution-of-th omas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post -by-stephen-spinks/

SEE ALSO THE WEBLOG OF SPEPHEN SPINKS

A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS
OF LANCASTER
STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://fourteenthcenturyfiend .com/tag/thomas-of-lancaster/

[479]

”…..and Lancaster’s blocking of the roads in an attempt to prevent Edward’s travelling through Yorkshire earlier a few weeks previously”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE TRIAL & EXECUTION OF THOMAS OF LANCASTER
26 OCTOBER 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/10/trial-and-executi on-of-thomas-of.html

”In 1317 as Edward marched north to see off the most recent threat posed by Scottish raids in the north, Lancaster blockaded the bridges once Edward passed claiming he had the right to be informed about the movement of armed men as he was the hereditary Steward of England.”

THE MORTIMER HISTORY SOCIETY
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS
OF LANCASTER, A GUEST POST BY STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://themortimersblog.wordp ress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-tr aitor-the-life-execution-of-th omas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post -by-stephen-spinks/

SEE ALSO THE WEBLOG OF SPEPHEN SPINKS

A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS
OF LANCASTER
STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://fourteenthcenturyfiend .com/tag/thomas-of-lancaster/

[480]

”Yet on 1 March 1322, everything changed when William Melton, the archbishop of York, came into possession of letters that had been exchanged between the Scottish Sir James Douglas and a so called ‘King Arthur’.(11) There was no doubt as to who this mysterious King Arthur was: Lancaster. Edward immediately ordered the publication of the letters and any support that Lancaster could have relied on began to quickly fall away as those around him were disgusted by his collusion with the national enemy. ”

THE MORTIMER HISTORY SOCIETY
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS
OF LANCASTER, A GUEST POST BY STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://themortimersblog.wordp ress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-tr aitor-the-life-execution-of-th omas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post -by-stephen-spinks/

SEE ALSO THE WEBLOG OF SPEPHEN SPINKS

A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS
OF LANCASTER
STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://fourteenthcenturyfiend .com/tag/thomas-of-lancaster/

[481]

Waltheof, 1st Earl of Northumbria (d. 31 May 1076) was the last of the Anglo-Saxon earls and the only English aristocrat to be executed during the reign of William I.”

WIKIPEDIA
WALTHEOF, EARL OF NORTHUMBRIA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Waltheof,_Earl_of_Northumbria

WIKIPEDIA
WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_the_Conqueror

[482]

”In front of his peers, Lancaster was judged guilty on all accounts and breaking with convention of the time, the earl was spectacularly sentenced by the king to death rather than lifetime imprisonment or perpetual exile.”

THE MORTIMER HISTORY SOCIETY
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS
OF LANCASTER, A GUEST POST BY STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://themortimersblog.wordp ress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-tr aitor-the-life-execution-of-th omas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post -by-stephen-spinks/

SEE ALSO THE WEBLOG OF SPEPHEN SPINKS

A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS
OF LANCASTER
STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://fourteenthcenturyfiend .com/tag/thomas-of-lancaster/

”The premier earl at this time was Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, Leicester, Derby, Lincoln and Salisbury, Steward of England. Born circa 1277/80, his ancestry was impeccable. His father was Edmund Crouchback (1245-1296), younger brother of Edward I, and his mother was Blanche of Artois (died 1302), niece of Louis IX. Blanche’s first marriage was to Enrique, King of Navarre (died 1274); the only child of this marriage was Jeanne, Queen of Navarre in her own right, who married Philippe IV of France and was the mother of Queen Isabella, Louis X, Phillipe V and Charles IV. Thomas was thus grandson of Henry III, nephew of Edward I and first cousin of Edward II, as well as brother-in-law of Philippe IV and uncle of Queen Isabella and three kings of France.”
…..
……

”Thomas was defeated at the battle of Boroughbridge in March 1322, given a mock trial in the great hall of his own castle of Pontefract, and beheaded. If you don’t include Piers Gaveston – who technically wasn’t Earl of Cornwall at the time of his death, having been stripped of the title – Thomas was the first English earl to be executed since Waltheof in 1076.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE ENGLISH EARLS IN THE REIGN OF EDWARD II
22 APRIL 2006

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2006/04/english-earls-in- reign-of-edward-ii.html

[483]

”In front of his peers, Lancaster was judged guilty on all accounts and breaking with convention of the time, the earl was spectacularly sentenced by the king to death rather than lifetime imprisonment or perpetual exile.”

THE MORTIMER HISTORY SOCIETY
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS
OF LANCASTER, A GUEST POST BY STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://themortimersblog.wordp ress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-tr aitor-the-life-execution-of-th omas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post -by-stephen-spinks/

SEE ALSO THE WEBLOG OF SPEPHEN SPINKS

A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS
OF LANCASTER
STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://fourteenthcenturyfiend .com/tag/thomas-of-lancaster/

[484]

”At Warwick, Gaveston was condemned to death for violating the terms of the Ordinances, before an assembly of barons, including Warwick, Lancaster, Hereford and Arundel.[83] On 19 June, he was taken out on the road towards Kenilworth as far as Blacklow Hill, which was on the Earl of Lancaster’s land. Here, two Welshmen ran him through with a sword and beheaded him.”

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/RETURN AND DEATH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall#Return_and_death

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall

[485]

Vita Edwardi Secundi:
…..
…..
”…Perhaps a hidden cause, not immediate but remote, brought punishment upon the earl.  The earl of Lancaster once cut off Piers Gaveston’s head [caput Petri de Gauestone], and now by the king’s command the earl has himself has lost his head. ”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE TRIAL AND EXECUTION OF THOMAS OF
LANCASTER
28 OCTOBER 2010

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2010/10/trial-and- execution-of-thomas-of.html

Lancaster was condemned to death in the great hall of the castle, following a so-called trial in which he was not allowed to speak, and executed on 22 March. The official indictment appears in Foedera*, and comprises the many charges and accusations Edward II summoned up against his cousin, including treason, as Lancaster and other Contrariants had invited several of Robert Bruce’s liegemen to England in 1322 to ride with them against their king.
…..
……
The death of Piers Gaveston in June 1312 was not mentioned, but few contemporary chroniclers failed to point out that Edward had revenge for Piers’ murder much on his mind.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE TRIAL AND EXECUTION OF THOMAS OF
LANCASTER
28 OCTOBER 2010

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2010/10/trial-and- execution-of-thomas-of.html

[486]

WIKIPEDIA
HANGED, DRAWN AND QUARTERED

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hanged,_drawn_and_quartered

[487]

”Thomas of Lancaster, earl of Lancaster, Leicester, Derby, Lincoln and Salisbury, executed on 22 March 1322, officially for treason – or for killing Piers Gaveston ten years earlier, depending on your point of view. ”
……
……

”He was made to kneel facing Scotland, as he’d been accused of treacherously conspiring with the Scots, and beheaded, Edward having respited the punishments of hanging, drawing and quartering in consideration of his royal blood. He was about forty-three or forty-four.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
LOTS OF DEAD EARLS
30 JULY 2008

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2008/07/lots-of- dead-earls.html

”Lancaster was tried by a tribunal consisting of, among others, the two DespensersEdmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel, and King Edward. Lancaster was not allowed to speak in his own defence, nor was he allowed to have anyone to speak for him. He was convicted of treason and sentenced to death. Because of their kinship and Lancaster’s royal blood, the King commuted the sentence to mere beheading (as opposed to being drawn, quartered, and beheaded) and Lancaster was executed near Pontefract Castle.”

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER/LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster# Life

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

[488]

”Thomas is sentenced to hanging, drawing and quartering, which Edward II commutes to beheading “for the love of Quene Isabell”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE TRIAL AND EXECUTION OF THOMAS OF
LANCASTER
26 OCTOBER 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/10/trial-and-executi on-of-thomas-of.html

[489]

”He was to be drawn, hanged and then quartered, but in reverence to his royal blood, he would be beheaded only, which it may be said was a result of the intercession of Queen Isabella who herself was at Pontefract with the king.”

THE MORTIMER HISTORY SOCIETY
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS OF
LANCASTER, A GUEST POST BY STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://themortimersblog.wordp ress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-tr aitor-the-life-execution-of-th omas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post -by-stephen-spinks/

SEE ALSO THE WEBLOG OF STEPHEN SPINKS

A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS OF
LANCASTER
STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://fourteenthcenturyfiend .com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traito r-the-life-execution-of-thomas -of-lancaster/

[490]

Men certainly executed:

”Thomas, earl of Lancaster, Leicester, Derby, Lincoln and Salisbury, beheaded at Pontefract on 22 March 1322. [Sources: Foedera, JYD and every contemporary or near-contemporary chronicle.]
Off-topic here, but interesting: secondary sources often say that Queen Isabella remained in the south and only joined her husband in Yorkshire after the execution of Lancaster, her uncle. In fact, she had evidently joined him before, as Edward’s squire Oliver de Bordeaux told the earl of Richmond that the king and queen “were well and hearty, thank God” when he saw them on St Cuthbert’s Day, 20 March 1322, two days before the execution. The wording implies that Oliver saw them together. [Calendar of Documents Relating to Scotland] Edward arrived at Pontefract on 19 March and stayed until the 25th.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDWARD II’S EXECUTIONS OF 1322
8 JUNE 2009

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2009/06/edward-iis- executions-of-1322.html

[491]

EXPLANATION HOW THOMAS OF LANCASTER WAS THE UNCLE
OF QUEEN ISABELLA

Thomas of Lancaster was the son of Edmund Crouchback [younger
brother of King Edward I] and Blanche of Artois.member of the
French royal House of Capet.
Blanche was first married to Henri I, King of Navarre and
had a daughter, Joan I of Navarre.

When she later married Edmund Crouchback, she had four children,
Thomas of Lancaster, Henry [when he inherited his brother’s
lands] of Lancaster, John and Mary.

So Joan I of Navarre was the halfsister of Thomas of Lancaster
[and the rest, of course]

She married King Philip IV of France and had four children
[Louis X, Philip V, Charles IV], and Isabella of France, wife
of Edward II.

So Thomas was the first cousin of Edward II [by his father’s side]
And the uncle of Isabella of France [by his mother’s side]

THOMAS’ FATHER

WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND CROUCHBACK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edmund_Crouchback

THOMAS’ MOTHER

WIKIPEDIA
BLANCHE OF ARTOIS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Blanche_of_Artois

THE FIRST HUSBAND OF THOMAS’ MOTHER

WIKIPEDIA
HENRI I OF NAVARRE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry_I_of_Navarre

JOAN I OF NAVARRE, DAUGHTER OF THOMAS”
MOTHER FROM HER FIRST MARRIAGE AND
THEREFORE HIS HALF SISTER

WIKIPEDIA
JOAN I OF NAVARRE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Joan_I_of_Navarre

QUEEN ISABELLA OF FRANCE, DAUGHTER OF
JOAN I OF NAVARRE AND KING PHILIP IV OF FRANCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Isabella_of_France

[492]

”Six of Lancaster’s knights were hanged at Pontefract around the same time: William Cheyne or Cheney, Warin Lisle, Henry Bradbourne, William Fitzwilliam, Thomas Mauduit and William Tuchet.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDWARD II’S EXECUTIONS OF 1322
8 JUNE 2009

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2009/06/edward-iis-execut ions-of-1322.html

[493]

WIKIPEDIA
FLORES HISTORIARUM

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Flores_Historiarum

FULL TEXT OF FLORES HISTORIARUM

https://archive.org/stream/flo reshistoriaru03pari/floreshist oriaru03pari_djvu.txt

[494]

”Six of Lancaster’s knights were hanged at Pontefract around the same time: William Cheyne or Cheney, Warin Lisle, Henry Bradbourne, William Fitzwilliam, Thomas Mauduit and William Tuchet. The Flores Historiarum says that Lancaster was tormented by being forced to watch nine of his knights executed before him,
but the official indictment in Foedera and the 1326 judgement on Hugh Despenser give six.

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDWARD II’S EXECUTIONS
8 JUNE 2009

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2009/06/edward-iis-execut ions-of-1322.html

[495]

The Flores Historiarum says that Lancaster was tormented by being forced to watch nine of his knights executed before him, but the official indictment in Foedera and the 1326 judgement on Hugh Despenser give six. The names of the three other knights the Flores thinks were executed appear in no source, not even the FloresLanercost says that eight barons of Lancaster’s affinity were executed; other chronicles correctly give six.

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDWARD II’S EXECUTIONS
8 JUNE 2009

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2009/06/edward-iis-execut ions-of-1322.html

[496]

”Bartholomew, Lord Badlesmere, formely Edward II’s steward, suffered the traitor’s death at Canterbury. [Livere de Reis, Brut, Flores, Croniques de London, Lanercost, Adam Murimuth, CCW, JYD]”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDWARD II’S EXECUTIONS
8 JUNE 2009

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2009/06/edward-iis-execut ions-of-1322.html

”Bartholomew was tried at Canterbury on 14 April 1322 and sentenced to death. On the same day he was drawn for three miles behind a horse to Blean, where he held property.[34] There he was hanged and beheaded.”

WIKIPEDIA
BARTHOLOMEW DE BADLESMERE, 1ST BARON BADLESMERE/DEATH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Bartholomew_de_Badlesmere,_1st _Baron_Badlesmere#Death

WIKIPEDIA
BARTHOLOMEW DE BADLESMERE, 1ST BARON BADLESMERE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Bartholomew_de_Badlesmere,_1st _Baron_Badlesmere

[497]

YOUTUBE.COM
SHE WOLVES: ENGLAND’S EARLY QUEENS: ISABELLA
& MARGARET

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=192QjemfTh0&t=964s

[498]

WIKIPEDIA
HUGH LE DESPENSER, 1ST EARL OF WINCHESTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hugh_le_Despenser,_1st_Earl_of _Winchester

WIKIPEDIA
HUGH DESPENSER THE YOUNGER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hugh_Despenser_the_Younger

[499]

Men certainly executed:

1) Thomas, earl of Lancaster, Leicester, Derby, Lincoln and Salisbury, beheaded at Pontefract on 22 March 1322. [Sources: Foedera, JYD and every contemporary or near-contemporary chronicle.]

Off-topic here, but interesting: secondary sources often say that Queen Isabella remained in the south and only joined her husband in Yorkshire after the execution of Lancaster, her uncle. In fact, she had evidently joined him before
……
…….
Edward arrived at Pontefract on 19 March and stayed until the 25th.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDWARD II’S EXECUTIONS OF 1322
8 JUNE 2009

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2009/06/edward-iis- executions-of-1322.html

[500]

”At Warwick, Gaveston was condemned to death for violating the terms of the Ordinances, before an assembly of barons, including Warwick, Lancaster, Hereford and Arundel.[83] On 19 June, he was taken out on the road towards Kenilworth as far as Blacklow Hill, which was on the Earl of Lancaster’s land. Here, two Welshmen ran him through with a sword and beheaded him”

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/RETURN AND DEATH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Cornwall#Return_and_death

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Cornwall

[501]

”Rather than having him beheaded in the castle bailey, Edward had him taken outside to a small hill, mirroring Piers’ 1312 death on Blacklow Hill.”
” Thomas was forced to ride “some worthless mule” and “an old chaplet, rent and torn, that was not worth a half-penny,” was set on his head. A crowd of spectators again threw snowballs at him. Presumably at the king’s order, Thomas was forced to kneel facing towards Scotland……”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP WITH
EDWARD II (3}
2 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2010/05/thomas-of- lancaster-and-his.html

”Thomas of Lancaster, earl of Lancaster, Leicester, Derby, Lincoln and Salisbury, executed on 22 March 1322, officially for treason – or for killing Piers Gaveston ten years earlier, depending on your point of view. He was taken out of his castle of Pontefract on a horse described as a “lean white jade without bridle” to a hill nearby – apparently because Edward II was deliberately arranging his execution as a parody of Gaveston’s – and pelted with snowballs by a jeering crowd. He was made to kneel facing Scotland, as he’d been accused of treacherously conspiring with the Scots, and beheaded, Edward having respited the punishments of hanging, drawing and quartering in consideration of his royal blood. He was about forty-three or forty-four.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
LOTS OF DEAD EARLS
30 JULY 2008

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2008/07/lots-of-dead-earls.html

[502]

”And as the tormentors led him out of the castle, he said these piteous words, and his hands held up in high towards heaven: “Now the king of Heaven give us mercy, for the earthly king has forsaken us!”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE TRIAL AND EXECUTION OF THOMAS OF
LANCASTER
26 OCTOBER 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2010/10/trial-and-execution-of-thomas-of.html

[503]

”Lincoln had a moderating influence on the more extreme members of the group, but with his death in February 1311, leadership passed to his son-in-law and heir Thomas of Lancaster.[13] Lancaster – the king’s cousin – was now in possession of five earldoms which made him by far the wealthiest man in the country, save the king.[14] There is no evidence that Lancaster was in opposition to the king in the early years of the king’s reign,[15] but by the time of the Ordinances it is clear that something had negatively affected his opinion of King Edward”

WIKIPEDIA
ORDINANCES OF 1311/THE LORDS ORDAINERS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ordinances_of_1311#The_Lords_Ordainers

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ORDINANCES OF 1311

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ordinances_of_1311

DOCUMENTS IN ENGLISH HISTORY
THE ORDINANCES OF 1311

http://historyofengland.typepad.com/documents_in_english_hist/2013/02/the-ordinances-of-1311.html

”From 1308 until 1312, Thomas became one of Edward II’s leading opponents as Lancaster sought to reduce the influence of Edward’s favourite Piers Gaveston. Coupled with this, by 1310 the magnates of England, long held in check by the late king, were desperate for reform to royal household government and sought to establish restraints on the crown, which of course were framed against their own self-interest. Edward II was caught between two competing demands which became entangled, settling around the permanent exile of Gaveston. In short, one was seen in the same light as the other. Lancaster, along with his father-in-law the earl of Lincoln and the archbishop of Canterbury, led the field in attempting to force upon the king the Ordinances, a set of legislation designed to enact reform and place Edward into some kind of constitutional straight jacket.
….
….
”The Ordinances became Lancaster’s calling card for the rest of his life”

THE MORTIMER HISTORY SOCIETY
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS OF
LANCASTER, A GUEST POST BY STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://themortimersblog.wordp ress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-tr aitor-the-life-execution-of-th omas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post -by-stephen-spinks/

SEE ALSO THE WEBLOG OF STEPHEN SPINKS

A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS OF
LANCASTER
STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://fourteenthcenturyfiend .com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traito r-the-life-execution-of-thomas -of-lancaster/

Reacties uitgeschakeld voor Notes 452-503 at article about Thomas, Earl of Lancaster

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