Notes 251-347 at article about Thomas, Earl of Lancaster

[251]
WIKIPEDIA
TREATY OF LEAKE

 

 

[252]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
ABANDONMENT AND ABDUCTION: THE EVENTFUL
LIFE OF ALICE DE LACY
10 JANUARY 2007

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2007/01/abandonment-and-a bduction-eventful-life.html

[253]

”The marriage was not successful, they had no children, and they lived quite separate lives. Alice mostly lived alone in her castle of Pickering, Yorkshire, while Thomas took a host of mistresses, and fathered at least two illegitimate children”

WIKIPEDIA
ALICE DE LACY, 4TH COUNTESS OF LINCOLN/LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Alice_de_Lacy,_4th_Countess_of _Lincoln#Life

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ALICE DE LACY, 4TH COUNTESS OF LINCOLN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Alice_de_Lacy,_4th_Countess_of _Lincoln

”Unfortunately, the marriage of Alice and Thomas – which seemed such a splendid match for both – proved completely disastrous. Alice mostly lived alone in her castle of Pickering, Yorkshire, while Thomas took a host of mistresses (“He defouled a great multitude of women and noble wenches”). He fathered at least two illegitimate children, Thomas and John, but Alice remained childless. The two seemed to have detested each other.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
ABANDONMENT AND ABDUCTION: THE EVENTFUL
LIFE OF ALICE DE LACY
10 JANUARY 2007

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2007/01/abandonment-and-a bduction-eventful-life.html

[254]

”The baronial opposition was led by the king’s cousin Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, and he and Warenne became bitter enemies. Private war erupted between the two, and over the new few years Warenne lost a good part of his estates to Lancaster”

WIKIPEDIA
JOHN DE WARENNE, 7TH EARL OF SURREY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John_de_Warenne,_7th_Earl_of_S urrey

”His marriage to Alice de Lacy was not successful. They had no children together, while he fathered, illegitimately, with another woman, two sons. In 1317 she was abducted from her manor at CanfordDorset by Richard de St Martin, a knight in the service of John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey. This incident caused a feud between Lancaster and Surrey; Lancaster divorced his wife and seized two of Surrey’s castles in retaliation. King Edward then intervened, and the two Earls came to an uneasy truce.”

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER/LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster# Life

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

”Lancaster became obsessed with getting revenge on Warenne – he attacked his Yorkshire estates, including Sandal and Conisbrough castles, and a private war broke out between the two earls, which was never really settled.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
ABANDONMENT AND ABDUCTION: THE EVENTFUL
LIFE OF ALICE DE LACY
10 JANUARY 2007

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2007/01/abandonment-and-a bduction-eventful-life.html

[255]

In 1317 she was abducted from her manor at CanfordDorset by Richard de St Martin, a knight in the service of John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey. This incident caused a feud between Lancaster and Surrey; Lancaster divorced his wife and seized two of Surrey’s castles in retaliation. King Edward then intervened, and the two Earls came to an uneasy truce.”

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER/LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster# Life

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (2)
25 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his_25.htm

[256]

”Lancaster suspected that Alice’s abduction took place with Edward II’s knowledge and consent, and had in fact been planned at the Council meeting which had taken place in Clarendon in 1317.
Lancaster’s biographer, J. R. Maddicott, believes that Warenne was the “instrument of court policy”, but it’s also possible that it was the men who were dominant at Edward’s court in 1317 – Roger Damory, Hugh Audley, William Montacute and the Despensers – who planned the abduction, not Edward himself.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
ABANDONMENT AND ABDUCTION: THE EVENTFUL
LIFE OF ALICE DE LACY
10 JANUARY 2007

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2007/01/abandonment-and-a bduction-eventful-life.html

”Lancaster suspected them, correctly or not, of arranging the earl of Surrey’s abduction of his wife Alice in May 1317, and demanded that Edward expel them from court”
……
……
Pope John XXII often wrote to Edward in 1317 and 1318 about his extravangance and much else which concerned the pontiff, and advised the king to “remove those friends whose youth and imprudence injure the affairs of the realm.”

”Edward ignored him, and responded abruptly to his cousin Lancaster “I will avenge the despite done to the earl when I can; I refuse to expel my household; for the abduction of his wife let him seek a remedy in law only.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE RISE AND FALL OF A ROYAL FAVOURITE:
ROGER DAMORY (1)
24 JANUARY 2010

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2010/01/rise-and- fall-of-royal-favourite-roger. html

[257]

”For now, at least, Edward agreed to take no hostile action against Thomas and his adherents, and Thomas agreed to attend the next parliament, due to be held at Lincoln in January 1318. On 26 September 1317, Edward granted a safe-conduct for “our dear and faithful cousin” Thomas, and his adherents, to travel to Lincoln the following January.”
…..
……
”The road through Pontefract was now clear, but instead of doing the sensible thing and ignoring Thomas, Edward took it into his head, despite his promise a few days earlier not to take action against his cousin, to command his men to take up arms and attack him. Apparently one of Edward’s friends – most likely Roger Damory – had persuaded him, in his own selfish interests, that the earl posed a threat to Edward and that he should attack him first. Fortunately for the stability of his kingdom, Edward, who was incapable of distinguishing between good and bad advice and who tended to believe and act on whatever the last person had told him, informed the earl of Pembroke beforehand what he was intending to do.”
….
…..
”Pembroke fortunately still retained some influence over the king and managed to convince Edward that this was not in fact the case, and the party returned to London with no further incidents – despite the fact that Thomas did his utmost to make matters worse by leading his men out to the top of the castle ditch and jeering at Edward as he and his retinue travelled past.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (2)
25 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his_25.html

”Thomas in turn accused Edward of failing to obey the Ordinances of 1311, as he often did, and of keeping people at court who should have been removed and bestowing lavish gifts on them.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (2)
25 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his_25.html

”The King accepted the ordinances because he had no alternative, but he seems to have had no real intention of observing them.”

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA
ORDAINER

https://www.britannica.com/top ic/Ordainer

[258]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (2)
25 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his_25.html

[259]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (2)
25 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his_25.html

THE MORTIMER HISTORY SOCIETY
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS
OF LANCASTER, A GUEST POST BY STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://themortimersblog.wordp ress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-tr aitor-the-life-execution-of-th omas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post -by-stephen-spinks/

[260]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (2)
25 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his_25.html

THE MORTIMER HISTORY SOCIETY
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS
OF LANCASTER, A GUEST POST BY STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://themortimersblog.wordp ress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-tr aitor-the-life-execution-of-th omas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post -by-stephen-spinks/

[261]

””Twice in 1317 and again in 1320 Lancaster’s garrison jeered Edward from the walls of Lancaster’s mighty fortress, Pontefract castle, as the king travelled from north to south which almost brought the kingdom to ruin had Edward challenged back”

THE MORTIMER HISTORY SOCIETY
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS
OF LANCASTER, A GUEST POST BY STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://themortimersblog.wordpress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traitor-the-life-execution-of-thomas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post-by-stephen-spinks/

”Thomas of Lancaster failed to attend the parliament of January 1320, which also took place in York. After parliament ended, Edward II and Isabella of France travelled through Pontefract on their way to London, and Thomas’s retainers once again jeered at the king, and also the queen, from the safety of the castle.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (3)
2 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2010/05/thomas-of-lancaster-and-his.html

[262]

‘ The terms of the surrender were that Pembroke, Warenne and Percy would take Gaveston to York, where the barons would negotiate with the king. If an agreement could not be reached by 1 August, Gaveston would be allowed to return to Scarborough. The three swore an oath to guarantee his safety.[77] ”On 9 June, Pembroke left Gaveston at the rectory at Deddington in Oxfordshire, while he himself left to visit his wife.[79] When Warwick found out about Gaveston’s whereabouts, he immediately rode out to capture him. The next morning he appeared at the rectory, where he took Gaveston captive and brought him back to his castle at Warwick”

”On 9 June, Pembroke left Gaveston at the rectory at Deddington in Oxfordshire, while he himself left to visit his wife.[79] When Warwick found out about Gaveston’s whereabouts, he immediately rode out to capture him. The next morning he appeared at the rectory, where he took Gaveston captive and brought him back to his castle at Warwick.[80] Pembroke, whose honour had been affronted, appealed for justice both to Gaveston’s brother-in-law Gloucester and to the University of Oxford, but to no avail”

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1STY EARL OF CORNWALL/RETURN AND DEATH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Cornwall#Return_and_death

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1STY EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Cornwall

[263]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (2)
25 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his_25.html

THE MORTIMER HISTORY SOCIETY
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS
OF LANCASTER, A GUEST POST BY STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://themortimersblog.wordpress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traitor-the-life-execution-of-thomas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post-by-stephen-spinks/

[264]

”After much negotiation, once again involving the Earl of Pembroke, Edward and Lancaster finally agreed to the Treaty of Leake in August 1318, which pardoned Lancaster and his faction and established a new royal council, temporarily averting conflict.”

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD II OF ENGLAND/FAMINE AND CRITICISM

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD II OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_II_of_England

”Pembroke was one of the magnates who in the years 1316-18 tried to prevent civil war from breaking out between the supporters of Edward and those of Lancaster, and he helped negotiate the Treaty of Leake in 1318, restoring Edward to power”

WIKIPEDIA
AYMER DE VALENCE, 2ND EARL OF PEMBROKE/LATER YEARS

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
AYMER DE VALENCE, 2ND EARL OF PEMBROKE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Aymer_de_Valence,_2nd_Earl_of_ Pembroke

The negotiations opened with a parley at Leicester between the leaders of the “Middle Party” and Lancaster or his representatives.”

WIKIPEDIA
TREATY OF LEAKE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Treaty_of_Leake

[265]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (2)
25 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2010/04/thomas-of- lancaster-and-his_25.html

[266]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (2)
25 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2010/04/thomas-of- lancaster-and-his_25.html

WIKIPEDIA
TREATY OF LEAKE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Treaty_of_Leake

THE MORTIMER HISTORY SOCIETY
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS
OF LANCASTER, A GUEST POST BY STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://themortimersblog. wordpress.com/2017/03/22/a- royal-traitor-the-life- execution-of-thomas-of- lancaster-a-guest-post-by- stephen-spinks/

[267]

”Edward II finally came to terms with his turbulent cousin – for a while, anyway – in early August, when the two men exchanged the kiss of peace in a field in Leicestershire and signed the Treaty of Leake. Lancaster demanded that Roger Damory, Hugh Audley and William Montacute be sent away from court and that they acknowledge large debts to him – Roger’s was 906 marks [5] – to which, surprisingly, Edward agreed. ”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE RISE AND FALL OF A ROYAL FAVOURITE:
ROGER DAMORY (2)
28 JANUARY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2010/01/rise-and-fall-of-royal-favourite-roger_28.html

[268]

WIKIPEDIA
HUGH DESPENSER THE YOUNGER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugh_Despenser_the_Younger

[269]

”The Despenser War (1321–22) was a baronial revolt against Edward II of England led by the Marcher LordsRoger Mortimer and Humphrey de Bohun.”

WIKIPEDIA
DESPENSER WAR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Despenser_War

WIKIPEDIA
MARCHER LORD

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marcher_Lord

Roger de Mortimer, 3rd Baron Mortimer, 1st Earl of March (25 April 1287 – 29 November 1330), was an English nobleman and powerful Marcher lord who gained many estates in the Welsh Marches and Ireland following his advantageous marriage to the wealthy heiress Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville. In November 1316, he was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. He was imprisoned in the Tower of London in 1322 for having led the Marcher lords in a revolt against King Edward II in what became known as the Despenser War.”
……
…..

”Mortimer became disaffected with his king and joined the growing opposition to Edward II and the Despensers. After the younger Despenser was granted lands belonging to him, he and the Marchers began conducting devastating raids against Despenser property in Wales. He supported Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford, in refusing to obey the king’s summons to appear before him in 1321 as long as “the younger Despencer was in the King’s train”

WIKIPEDIA
ROGER MORTIMER, 1ST EARL OF MARCH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Mortimer,_1st_Earl_of_March

[270]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE RISE AND FALL OF A ROYAL FAVOURITE:
ROGER DAMORY (2)
28 JANUARY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2010/01/rise-and-fall-of-royal-favourite-roger_28.html

SEE ALSO

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE RISE AND FALL OF A ROYAL FAVOURITE:
ROGER DAMORY (1)
24 JANUARY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2010/01/rise-and-fall-of-royal-favourite-roger.html

[271]

WIKIPEDIA
WILLIAM MONTAGU, 2ND BARON  MONTAGU

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ William_Montagu,_2nd_Baron_ Montagu

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
WILLIAM MONTECUTE, ANOTHER ROYAL FAVOURITE (2}
17 JANUARY 2011

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2011/01/william- montacute-another-royal_17. html

SEE ALSO

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
WILLIAM MONTECUTE, ANOTHER ROYAL FAVOURITE (1}
6 JANUARY 2011

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2011/01/william- montacute-another-royal.html

[272]

WIKIPEDIA
BATTLE OF BOUROUGHBRIDGE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Boroughbridge

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
FROM FAVOURITE TO REBEL: THE CAREER OF HUGH AUDLEY
4 NOVEMBER 2008

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2008/11/from-favourite-to-rebel-career-of-hugh.html

[273]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
FROM FAVOURITE TO REBEL: THE CAREER OF HUGH AUDLEY
4 NOVEMBER 2008

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2008/11/from-favourite-to-rebel-career-of-hugh.html

[274]

WIKIPEDIA
HUGH DE AUDLEY, 1ST EARL OF GLOUCESTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugh_de_Audley,_1st_Earl_of_Gloucester

Earls of Gloucester, 3rd Creation (1337)[edit]

WIKIPEDIA
EARLS OF GLOUCESTER, 3RD CREATION [1337]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earl_of_Gloucester#Earls_of_Gloucester.2C_3rd_Creation_.281337.29

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
EARLS OF GLOUCESTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earl_of_Gloucester

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
FROM FAVOURITE TO REBEL: THE CAREER OF HUGH AUDLEY
4 NOVEMBER 2008

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2008/11/from-favourite-to-rebel-career-of-hugh.html

[275]

”The importance of retaking Berwick was such that even the earl of Lancaster co-operated with Edward for once, and wrote to the king: “On that day we shall be there, with God’s help, if we are alive and you are there. And, sire, if going there requires greater haste, then move there, sire, when you please and we will follow you in honour of you and for the salvation of your land and your person and of your people. And, for God’s sake, sire, make haste to do it.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE SIEGE OF BERWICK AND THE CHAPTER
OF MYTON
18 MAY 2009

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2009/05/siege-of-berwick- and-chapter-of-myton.html

” In late 1318, Thomas and Edward, to everyone’s relief, finally came to terms with each other, and Thomas for once attended the parliament which opened in York on 6 May 1319. Later that year, he also co-operated with Edward during the siege of Berwick.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (3)
2 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2010/05/thomas-of- lancaster-and-his.html

WIKIPEDIA
CAPTURE OF BERWICK (1318)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capture_of_Berwick_(1318)

WIKIPEDIA
BATTLE OF MYTON

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Myton

[276]

WIKIPEDIA
HUGH DESPENSER THE YOUNGER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hugh_Despenser_the_Younger

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDWARD II’S OTHER GREAT FAVOURITE, HUGH
DESPENSER THE YOUNGER
5 FEBRUARY 2006

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2006/02/edward-iis-other- great-favourite-hugh.html

[277]

”And thus Edward II failed to retake Berwick-upon-Tweed and never again bothered to try to re-capture it, and signed a two-year peace treaty with Robert Bruce on 21 December 1319.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE SIEGE OF BERWICK AND THE CHAPTER OF
MYTON
18 MAY 2009

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2009/05/siege-of-berwick-and-chapter-of-myton.html

[278]

”Although relations between the two most powerful men in the country, the king and the earl of Lancaster, had been, prior to the siege, outwardly amicable, Edward proved what was really on his mind by ominously announcing “When this wretched business is over, we will turn our hands to other matters. For I have not forgotten the wrong that was done to my brother Piers.” This threat to avenge Piers Gaveston’s death was clearly aimed at Lancaster, and may have been a reason for his departure from Berwick – although Lancaster’s biographer J. R. Maddicott says that the threat was made about a week before the earl’s departure.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE SIEGE OF BERWICK AND THE CHAPTER
OF MYTON
18 MAY 2009

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2009/05/siege-of- berwick-and-chapter-of-myton. html

”Unfortunately, relations between the two most powerful men in the country deteriorated very quickly once more, and Edward II made it clear what was really on his mind by declaring “When this wretched business is over, we will turn our hands to other matters. For I have not forgotten the wrong that was done to my brother Piers.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT

THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (3)
2 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

[279]

”Through the arbitration of the Earl of Gloucester and others, a settlement was finally reached on 14 October 1313, whereby the barons were given a pardon and the horses and jewels were returned to the King”

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/AFTERMATH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall#Aftermath

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall

”On 16 October 1313 at Westminster, Edward II pardoned the three earls, and more than 350 of their adherents, “of all causes of rancour, anger, distress, actions, obligations, quarrels and accusations, arisen in any manner on account of Piers Gaveston, from the time of our marriage with our dear companion, our very dear lady, Lady Isabella queen of England”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
DECEMBER 1312/OCTOBER 1313:
EDWARD II MAKES PEACE WITH PIERS GAVESTON’S
KILLERS
1 FEBRUARY 2015

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2015/02/december-1312octo ber-1313-edward-ii.html

[280]

” Pardon for Lancaster and his friends for all trespasses was extended”
…..
…..
”Five days after signing, the King and Lancaster met to exchange the kiss of peace, and specific letters of pardon were issued to 600 of the Earl’s men.”

WIKIPEDIA
TREATY OF LEAKE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Treaty_of_Leake

[281]

”Although relations between the two most powerful men in the country, the king and the earl of Lancaster, had been, prior to the siege, outwardly amicable, Edward proved what was really on his mind by ominously announcing “When this wretched business is over, we will turn our hands to other matters. For I have not forgotten the wrong that was done to my brother Piers.” This threat to avenge Piers Gaveston’s death was clearly aimed at Lancaster, and may have been a reason for his departure from Berwick – although Lancaster’s biographer J. R. Maddicott says that the threat was made about a week before the earl’s departure.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE SIEGE OF BERWICK AND THE CHAPTER
OF MYTON
18 MAY 2009

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2009/05/siege-of- berwick-and-chapter-of-myton. html

[282]

”By 1320, Hugh was as high in Edward’s favour as Gaveston had been, but far more dangerous. Far, far more dangerous. Gaveston had never been interested in political power, only in the money and prestige being the favourite of the king gave him. Hugh, on the other hand, was a highly intelligent and capable man who knew exactly what he wanted. And that was land, more land, more money, and power. Lots of power. He was ruthless, greedy and totally without scruple. The barons who’d killed Gaveston and banished the king’s other favourites Damory, Audley and Montacute from court must have been kicking themselves, that they’d opened the door for someone who was so much worse.”

WIKIPEDIA
HUGH DESPENSER THE YOUNGER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hugh_Despenser_the_Younger

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDWARD II’S OTHER GREAT FAVOURITE, HUGH
DESPENSER THE YOUNGER
5 FEBRUARY 2006

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2006/02/edward-iis-other- great-favourite-hugh.html

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE DESPENSERS IN CHRONICLES
4 SEPTEMBER 2011

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2011/09/despensers-in-chr onicles.html

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDWARD II’S RELATIONSHIP WITH HUGH DESPENSER
THE YOUNGER
13 SEPTEMBER 2015

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2015/09/edward-iis-relati onship-with-hugh.html

[283]

””Twice in 1317 and again in 1320 Lancaster’s garrison jeered Edward from the walls of Lancaster’s mighty fortress, Pontefract castle, as the king travelled from north to south which almost brought the kingdom to ruin had Edward challenged back”

THE MORTIMER HISTORY SOCIETY
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS
OF LANCASTER, A GUEST POST BY STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://themortimersblog.wordp ress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-tr aitor-the-life-execution-of-th omas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post -by-stephen-spinks/

”Pembroke fortunately still retained some influence over the king and managed to convince Edward that this was not in fact the case, and the party returned to London with no further incidents – despite the fact that Thomas did his utmost to make matters worse by leading his men out to the top of the castle ditch and jeering at Edward as he and his retinue travelled past”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (2)
25 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2010/04/thomas-of- lancaster-and-his_25.html

”Thomas of Lancaster failed to attend the parliament of January 1320, which also took place in York. After parliament ended, Edward II and Isabella of France travelled through Pontefract on their way to London, and Thomas’s retainers once again jeered at the king, and also the queen, from the safety of the castle.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (3)
2 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

[284]

”In 1317 as Edward marched north to see off the most recent threat posed by Scottish raids in the north, Lancaster blockaded the bridges once Edward passed claiming he had the right to be informed about the movement of armed men as he was the hereditary Steward of England.”

THE MORTIMER HISTORY SOCIETY
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS
OF LANCASTER, A GUEST POST BY STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://themortimersblog.wordp ress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-tr aitor-the-life-execution-of-th omas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post -by-stephen-spinks/

”Edward and Isabella left Nottingham and the failed council meeting on 7 August 1317, and travelled to York. The king was forced to stay as far to the east of Pontefract, Thomas’s stronghold, as possible: the most direct route would have taken him right through the town, but Thomas had blocked his way by placing armed guards on the roads and bridges south of York.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (2)
25 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2010/04/thomas-of- lancaster-and-his_25.html

[285]

”Pembroke fortunately still retained some influence over the king and managed to convince Edward that this was not in fact the case, and the party returned to London with no further incidents – despite the fact that Thomas did his utmost to make matters worse by leading his men out to the top of the castle ditch and jeering at Edward as he and his retinue travelled past. [17] Edward was naturally incensed at this appalling rudeness, and he was not the kind of man to forgive and forget an insult; in March 1322, it was another of the charges he raised against Thomas at his trial.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (2)
25 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2010/04/thomas-of- lancaster-and-his_25.html

”Edward and Isabella left Nottingham and the failed council meeting on 7 August 1317, and travelled to York. The king was forced to stay as far to the east of Pontefract, Thomas’s stronghold, as possible: the most direct route would have taken him right through the town, but Thomas had blocked his way by placing armed guards on the roads and bridges south of York. [12] Edward was, understandably, furious that one of his subjects would dare to impede his progress through his own kingdom, and brought it up four and a half years later as one of the charges against Thomas at his trial. ”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (2)
25 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his_25.html

[286]

WIKIPEDIA
HUGH DESPENSER THE YOUNGER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hugh_Despenser_the_Younger

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDWARD II’S OTHER GREAT FAVOURITE, HUGH DESPENSER
THE YOUNGER
5 FEBRUARY 2006

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2006/02/edward-iis-other- great-favourite-hugh.html

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDWARD II’S RELATIONSHIP WITH HUGH DESPENSER
THE YOUNGER
13 SEPTEMBER 2015

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2015/09/edward-iis-relati onship-with-hugh.html

[287]

WIKIPEDIA
HUGH LE DESPENSER, 1ST EARL OF WINCHESTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hugh_le_Despenser,_1st_Earl_of _Winchester

[288]

”A Marcher Lord (WelshBarwn y Mers) was a noble appointed by the King of England to guard the border (known as the Welsh Marches) between England and Wales.A Marcher Lord is the English equivalent of a margrave (in the Holy Roman empire) or a marquis (in France). In this context the word march means a border region or frontier, and is cognate with the verb “to march,” both ultimately derived from Proto-Indo-European *mere g-, “edge” or “boundary”.”

WIKIPEDIA
MARCHER LORD

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Marcher_Lord

[289]

WIKIPEDIA
ROGER MORTIMER, 1ST EARL OF MARCH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Roger_Mortimer,_1st_Earl_of_Ma rch

WIKIPEDIA
ROGER MORTIMER DE CHIRK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Roger_Mortimer_de_Chirk

[290]

WIKIPEDIA
ROGER D’AMORY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Roger_d%27Amory

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE RISE AND FALL OF A ROYAL FAVOURITE:
ROGER DAMORY (1)
24 JANUARY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/01/rise-and-fall-of- royal-favourite-roger.html

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE RISE AND FALL OF A ROYAL FAVOURITE:
ROGER DAMORY (2)
28 JANUARY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/01/rise-and-fall-of- royal-favourite-roger_28.html

WIKIPEDIA
HUGH DE AUDLEY, 1ST EARL OF GLOUCESTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hugh_de_Audley,_1st_Earl_of_Gl oucester

WIKIPEDIA
EARLS OF GLOUCESTER, THIRD CREATION

Earls of Gloucester, 3rd Creation (1337)[edit]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Earl_of_Gloucester#Earls_of_Gl oucester.2C_3rd_Creation_.2813 37.29

WIKIPEDIA
EARLS OF GLOUCESTER, 2ND CREATION
Earls of Gloucester, 2nd Creation (1299)[edit]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Earl_of_Gloucester#Earls_of_Gl oucester.2C_2nd_Creation_.2812 99.29

ORIGINAL SOURCE
EARL OF GLOUCESTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Earl_of_Gloucester

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
FROM FAVOURITE TO REBEL: THE CAREER OF
HUGH AUDLEY
4 NOVEMBER 2008

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2008/11/from-favourite- to-rebel-career-of-hugh.html

[291]

WIKIPEDIA
BATTLE OF BOROUGHBRIDGE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Battle_of_Boroughbridge

[292]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
FROM FAVOURITE TO REBEL: THE CAREER OF
HUGH AUDLEY
4 NOVEMBER 2008

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2008/11/from-favourite- to-rebel-career-of-hugh.html

[293]

”Lancaster’s most reliable and loyal retainer Sir Robert Holland deserted the earl in his hour of need, and instead crossed over to Edward’s side.”

THE MORTIMER HISTORY SOCIETY
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS OF
LANCASTER, A GUEST POST BY STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://themortimersblog. wordpress.com/2017/03/22/a- royal-traitor-the-life- execution-of-thomas-of- lancaster-a-guest-post-by- stephen-spinks/

[294]

”Henry did not participate in his brother’s rebellions; he later petitioned for his brother’s lands and titles, and on 29 March 1324 he was invested as Earl of Leicester.”

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY, 3RD EARL OF LANCASTER/PETITION FOR
SUCCESSSION AND INHERITANCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry,_3rd_Earl_of_Lancaster#Petition_for_succession_and_inheritance

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY, 3RD EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry,_3rd_Earl_of_Lancaster

”A confederation of allies formed against Hugh Despenser the Younger and by extension the king: the two Roger Mortimers; Edward II’s brother-in-law Humphrey de Bohun, earl of Hereford; Edward’s two former ‘favourites’ Roger Damory and Hugh Audley; Roger, Lord Clifford; John ‘the Rich’ Giffard, lord of Brimpsfield; possibly John, Lord Hastings; Sir John Charlton, formerly Edward II’s chamberlain; the earl of Lancaster’s younger brother Henry, who was Edward’s first cousin and Hugh Despenser’s brother-in-law; Maurice, Lord Berkeley and his sons Thomas and Maurice; and a whole host of other lords and knights.  It was a formidable coalition”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE EXILE OF THE DESPENSERS, 29 AUGUST 1321
25 AUGUST 2015

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2015/08/the-exile-of-despensers-29-august-1321.html

[295]

”With someone like Sir Robert Holland, Thomas of Lancaster’s close ally who also abandoned him in 1321/22 and was murdered by some of Thomas’s former adherents in 1328, you can see that Henry must still have been angry with Holland for his betrayal, as he took his killers under his protection.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE MURDER OF SIR ROGER BELERS
14 SEPTEMBER 2012

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2012/09/the-murder-of- sir-roger-belers.html

[296]

YOUTUBE.COM
SHE WOLVES/ENGLAND’S EARLY QUEENS/
ISABELLA AND MARGARET

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=192QjemfTh0&t=1064s

[297]

WIKIPEDIA
ORDINANCES OF 1311

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Ordinances_of_1311

”Thomas Plantagenet upheld the principles of Parliamentary oversight of kingly power that had begun to develop in England subsequent to the 1265 Parliament convened by Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicesterto curb the power of Henry III.”
…..
….
” Thomas, who had taken part in Edward’s coronation ceremony, wanted Edward to keep his oath. In trying to hold the king to account, he lost his life. Yet Thomas made a valuable contribution to the development of constraints on kingly power and to defending the rights of parliament to supervise and to limit royal power”

NEW WORLD ENCYCLOPEDIA
THOMAS PLANTAGENET, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

http://www. newworldencyclopedia.org/ entry/Thomas_Plantagenet,_2nd_ Earl_of_Lancaster

[298]

THE MORTIMER HISTORY SOCIETY
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE & EXECUTION OF THOMAS OF
LANCASTER, A GUEST POST BY STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://themortimersblog. wordpress.com/2017/03/22/a- royal-traitor-the-life- execution-of-thomas-of- lancaster-a-guest-post-by- stephen-spinks/

”Lancaster spent most of his time at his favourite residence of Pontefract and was by now almost completely isolated politically, but far too powerful for Edward to ignore, thanks to his vast wealth and his five earldoms;”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (2)
25 APRIL 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2010/04/thomas-of-lancaster-and-his_25.html

[299]

”Thomas, always willing to support anyone against his detested cousin the king, was regarded by the Marchers as their leader, according to the Brut: they “came to the gentle earl of Lancaster, and asked him of counsel of the disease that was in the realm,” meaning the Despensers.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (3)
2 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2010/05/thomas-of- lancaster-and-his.html

[300]

Definition of toe to toe in English:

toe to toePHRASE

  • (of two people) standing directly in front of one another, especially in order to fight or argue.
    ‘there’s little skill involved—you just stand toe to toe and hit each other!’

OXFORD DICTIONARIES

DEFINITION ”TOE TO TOE”

https://en.oxforddictionaries. com/definition/toe_to_toe

”In February 1321 Mortimer, Hereford and Lancaster agreed on an attack on the Despenser lands in Wales”
….
….
”Mortimer and Hereford then set about pillaging Glamorgan and Gloucestershire, before marching north to join Lancaster at Pontefract.[10] The barons then swore an alliance at Sherburn-in-Elmet in June, naming their faction the “contrariants” and promising to remove the Despensers for good”
……
…..
”Edward had returned to London, where he held his own parliament to discuss courses of action.[12] Mortimer led his army east towards London as well, reaching St Albans in late July.[13] The city of London refused to let Mortimer’s forces in, and his forces placed the capital under effective siege.[14] Lancaster arrived in August to support him and a tense stand-off ensued, with the younger Despenser threatening the rebels from a ship on the River Thames, and the barons threatening to begin to destroy royal properties and lands outside London unless he desisted”

WIKIPEDIA
DESPENSER WAR/FIRST PHASE: FEBRUARY-AUGUST 1321

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Despenser_War#First_phase:_ February-August_1321

WIKIPEDIA
DESPENSER WAR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Despenser_War

[301]

”MarriageIn May 1306 Hugh le Despenser the younger was knighted, and that summer he married Eleanor de Clare, daughter of Gilbert de Clare, 9th Lord of Clare and 7th Earl of Hertford and Joan of Acre.
Eleanor’s grandfather, Edward I, owed the elder Despenser 2,000 marks (£1,000,000 at today’s prices) and the marriage settled this debt, and was a reward for the elder Hugh’s loyal service.”
…..
…..
”Eleanor was also the niece of the new king, Edward II of England, and this connection brought Despenser closer to the English royal court”

WIKIPEDIA
HUGH DESPENSER THE YOUNGER/MARRIAGE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hugh_Despenser_the_Younger# Marriage

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HUGH DESPENSER THE YOUNGER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hugh_Despenser_the_Younger

[302]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDWARD II’S RELATIONSHIP WITH HUGH DESPENSER
THE YOUNGER
13 SEPTEMBER 2015

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2015/09/edward-iis-relati onship-with-hugh.html

””the last word to Edward’s queen Isabella of France, who in about October 1325 refused to return to England from France, and declared “I feel that marriage is a joining together of man and woman, maintaining the undivided habit of life, and that someone has come between my husband and myself trying to break this bond; I protest that I will not return until this intruder is removed, but discarding my marriage garment, shall assume the robes of widowhood and mourning until I am avenged of this Pharisee.”‘

[303]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDWARD II’S RELATIONSHIP WITH HUGH DESPENSER
THE YOUNGER
13 SEPTEMBER 2015

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2015/09/edward-iis-relati onship-with-hugh.html

[304]

” Hugh and his father were exiled from England for a few months, during which Hugh became a pirate in the English channel – a successful one, as Edward III had to pay compensation to Genoese merchants many years later.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDWARD II’S OTHER GREAT FAVOURITE: HUGH
DESPENSER THE YOUNGER
5 FEBRUARY 2006

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2006/02/edward-iis-other- great-favourite-hugh.html

”Piracy – during his exile he became a pirate in the English Channel, “a sea monster, lying in wait for merchants as they crossed the sea”

WIKIPEDIA
HUGH DESPENSER THE YOUNGER/CRIMINALITY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hugh_Despenser_the_Younger#Cri minality

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HUGH DESPENSER THE YOUNGER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hugh_Despenser_the_Younger

”The elder Hugh went to France, but the younger Hugh turned to piracy, for which he proved to have a knack.”

SUSAN HIGGINBOTHAM
HUGH LE DESPENSER THE YOUNGER

http://www.susanhigginbotham.c om/subpages/hughdesp1.html

[305]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDWARD II’S OTHER GREAT FAVOURITE: HUGH
DESPENSER THE YOUNGER
5 FEBRUARY 2006

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2006/02/edward-iis-other- great-favourite-hugh.html

SUSAN HIGGINBOTHAM
HUGH LE DESPENSER THE YOUNGER

http://www.susanhigginbotham.c om/subpages/hughdesp1.html

[306]

WIKIPEDIA
HUGH DESPENSER THE YOUNGER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hugh_Despenser_the_Younger

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDWARD II’S OTHER GREAT FAVOURITE, HUGH DESPENSER THE YOUNGER
5 FEBRUARY 2006

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2006/02/edward-iis-other- great-favourite-hugh.html

[307]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDWARD II’S OTHER GREAT FAVOURITE, HUGH
DESPENSER THE YOUNGER
5 FEBRUARY 2006

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2006/02/edward-iis-other-great-favourite-hugh.html

[308]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE EXILE OF THE DESPENSERS, 29 AUGUST 1321
25 AUGUST 2015

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2015/08/the-exile-of-desp ensers-29-august-1321.html

[309]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE EXILE OF THE DESPENSERS, 29 AUGUST 1321
25 AUGUST 2015

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2015/08/the-exile-of-desp ensers-29-august-1321.html

[310]

”Mortimer became disaffected with his king and joined the growing opposition to Edward II and the Despensers. After the younger Despenser was granted lands belonging to him, he and the Marchers began conducting devastating raids against Despenser property in Wales.”

WIKIPEDIA
ROGER MORTIMER, 1ST EARL OF MARCH/OPPOSITION
TO EDWARD II

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Roger_Mortimer,_1st_Earl_of_Ma rch#Opposition_to_Edward_II

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ROGER MORTIMER, 1ST EARL OF MARCH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Roger_Mortimer,_1st_Earl_of_Ma rch

[311]

”Mortimer became disaffected with his king and joined the growing opposition to Edward II and the Despensers. After the younger Despenser was granted lands belonging to him, he and the Marchers began conducting devastating raids against Despenser property in Wales.”

WIKIPEDIA
ROGER MORTIMER, 1ST EARL OF MARCH/OPPOSITION
TO EDWARD II

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Roger_Mortimer,_1st_Earl_of_Ma rch#Opposition_to_Edward_II

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ROGER MORTIMER, 1ST EARL OF MARCH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Roger_Mortimer,_1st_Earl_of_Ma rch

”On top of Despenser’s other abuses, it was the final straw. In late 1320 and early 1321, they gradually left court. Roger Mortimer – a long-term supporter and friend of the king – was one of the last to leave, in February 1321, but even he realised that there was no negotiating with Edward, whose stubbornness and determination to protect Despenser must have been exasperating.”

EDWARDTHSECONDBLOGSPOT
THE DESPENSER WAR OF 1321 [PART ONE]
11 MARCH 2007

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2007/03/despenser- war-of-1321-part-one.html

”It’s interesting to note that almost all of the men Edward II treated his enemies in this period – with the notable exception of his cousin, the Earl of Lancaster – were in fact Hugh’s enemies and rivals, many of whom had always been loyal to the king until Hugh’s rise and rise to power. Men like Roger Mortimer, whose family had a long-standing feud with the Despensers, Damory and Audley, Hugh’s rivals for the Clare inheritance, Mowbray and the Earl of Hereford, rivals for land and influence in Wales.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDWARD II’S OTHER GREAT FAVOURITE, HUGH DESPENSER THE YOUNGER
5 FEBRUARY 2006

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2006/02/edward-iis-other- great-favourite-hugh.html

[312]

”the Despensers and Mortimers had a long-standing feud, and Despenser had sworn revenge on Mortimer because of the death of his grandfather, who had apparently been sought out and killed on the battlefield of Evesham in 1265 by Mortimer’s grandfather. [The grandfathers were named, inevitably, Hugh Despenser and Roger Mortimer.]”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE DESPENSER WAR OF 1321 (PART ONE)
11 MARCH 2007

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2007/03/despenser- war-of-1321-part-one.html

”He also supposedly vowed to be revenged on Roger Mortimer because Mortimer’s grandfather had killed Hugh’s grandfather, and once stated (though probably in jest) that he regretted he could not control the wind.”

WIKIPEDIA
HUGH DESPENSER THE YOUNGER/POLITICAL MANOUEVRINGS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hugh_Despenser_the_Younger#Pol itical_manoeuverings

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HUGH DESPENSER THE YOUNGER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hugh_Despenser_the_Younger

[313]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDWARD II’S OTHER GREAT FAVOURITE, HUGH DESPENSER
THE YOUNGER
5 FEBRUARY 2006

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2006/02/edward- iis-other-great-favourite- hugh.html

SUSAN HIGGINBOTHAM
HUGH LE DESPENSER THE YOUNGER

http://www.susanhigginbotham.c om/subpages/hughdesp1.html

[314]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE EXILE OF THE DESPENSERS, 29 AUGUST 1321
25 AUGUST 2015

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2015/08/the-exile-of-desp ensers-29-august-1321.html

[315]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE RISE AND FALL OF A ROYAL FAVOURITE: ROGER DAMORY
(2)
28 JANUARY 2010

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2010/01/rise-and- fall-of-royal-favourite-roger_ 28.html

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
FROM FAVOURITE TO REBEL: THE CAREER OF HUGH AUDLEY
4 NOVEMBER 2008

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2008/11/from-favourite-to-rebel-career-of-hugh.html

””Not content with the vast lands he and his wife Eleanor had inherited, he had forced his sister-in-law Margaret de Clare and her husband Hugh Audley to exchange some of their South Wales lands, including Gwynllwg, for some English manors of lesser value. In late 1320, he persuaded Edward II to take the rich Gower peninsula into royal hands, against the customs of the Marches – this last act was the final straw for men who were terrified of the consequences of Despenser’s complete control over the king”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SOME LETTERS OF 1321 AND THEIR CONSEQUENCES
18 JANUARY 2007

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2007/01/some-letters-of-1321-and-their.html

[316]

””Hugh Despenser had built up a powerful alliance against himself. The earl of Hereford and Roger Mortimer were the leaders. Edward II’s former favourites Hugh Audley and Roger Damory also abandoned him, not surprisingly. Other important enemies of Despenser included John Giffard of Brimpsfield and Roger, Lord Clifford, whose inheritance from his de Clare mother had been taken by Despenser. (John Mowbray’s mother was also a de Clare). Maurice, Lord Berkeley and his son Thomas, who had recently married Roger Mortimer’s eldest daughter Margaret, formed an important part of the coalition.”

EDWARDTHSECONDBLOGSPOT
THE DESPENSER WAR OF 1321 (PART ONE)
11 MARCH 2007

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2007/03/despenser-war-of-1321-part-one.html

[317]

WIKIPEDIA
DESPENSER WAR/FIRST PHASE: FEBRUARY-AUGUST 1321

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Despenser_War#First_phase:_Feb ruary-August_1321

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
DESPENSER WAR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Despenser_War

[318]

”On 4 May 1321, the Marchers began sacking, looting and pillaging numerous Despenser properties in South Wales.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE DESPENSER WAR OF 1321 (PART ONE)
11 MARCH 2007

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2007/03/despenser-war-of- 1321-part-one.html

YOUTUBE.COM
DESPENSER WAR

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JzTNTr-8WJs

the Marchers’ attacks of May 1321 may have been aimed at the Despensers, but it was the innocent and the poor who suffered most, as numerous petitions and inquisitions attest – held castles against him, and had stolen from him personally, “because they had taken for their own use and wasted the goods of the exiles, which ought rather to have gone to the treasury,” as the Vita Edwardi Secundi says. [11] In November and December 1321, the Marchers reverted to their appalling behaviour of a few months earlier, and began extorting money and stealing goods from those who could least afford it. Roger Mortimer, the one who later became Isabella of France’s favourite, and his followers seized wheat, grain, livestock and other goods worth more than £140 from villagers in Herefordshire, while Maurice, Lord Berkeley demanded that the inhabitants of Lydney in Gloucestershire send him three pounds to support the rebels, or he would burn the village. Not surprisingly, the unfortunate villagers gave him the money

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SIRE HUGH LE DESPENSER, MALEFACTORS AND
EXTORTIONISTS: SOME EVENTS OF NOVEMBER 1321
30 NOVEMBER 2009

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2009/11/sire-huge-le-despenser-malefactors-and.html

[319]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SIRE HUGH LE DESPENSER, MALEFACTORS AND
EXTORTIONISTS: SOME EVENTS OF NOVEMBER 1321
30 NOVEMBER 2009

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2009/11/sire-huge-le-despenser-malefactors-and.html

[320]

”In February 1321 Mortimer, Hereford and Lancaster agreed on an attack on the Despenser lands in Wales”

WIKIPEDIA
DESPENSER WAR/FIRST PHASE FEBRUARY-AUGUST 1321

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Despenser_War#First_phase:_Feb ruary-August_1321

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
DESPENSER WAR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Despenser_War

”’On 30 January 1321, twenty-eight men were ordered not to attend an assembly held by Edward II’s greatest enemy, the earl of Lancaster. This pointed to a powerful and dangerous confederation of the Marcher Lords, led by Hereford and Mortimer, and the northern barons, led by Lancaster. Lancaster played no active role in the coming war and the destruction of Despenser lands – perhaps it was too strange for him to make common cause with men he hated and had until recently been his enemies, i.e., Damory and Audley, and also Bartholomew Badlesmere, as we’ll see. ”

”However, Lancaster held a meeting at Pontefract on 22 February with other (unnamed) magnates, where it was decided to attack the Despenser lands.””

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE DESPENSER WAR OF 1321 (PART ONE)
11 MARCH 2007

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2007/03/despenser-war-of- 1321-part-one.html

”A letter of 27 February 1321 told Edward II that the Marcher lords or at least some of them, furious with Despenser, had met Thomas of Lancaster five days earlier and decided to “raise disturbances and begin some mischief”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (3)
2 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

[321]

WIKIPEDIA
DESPENSER WAR/FIRST PHASE: FEBRUARY-AUGUST 1321

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Despenser_War#First_phase:_Feb ruary-August_1321

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
DESPENSER WAR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Despenser_War

YOUTUBE.COM
DESPENSER WAR

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=JzTNTr-8WJs

[322]

”The king travelled to Gloucester and called upon the Marcher Lords to join him there; Mortimer and Hereford declined.[5] Mobi lising more forces, Edward marched on to Bristol, and repeated his call for the Marcher Lords to convene with him there in May.[6] They again declined”

WIKIPEDIA
DESPENSER WAR/FIRST PHASE: FEBRUARY-AUGUST 1321

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Despenser_War#First_phase:_Feb ruary-August_1321

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
DESPENSER WAR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Despenser_War

YOUTUBE.COM
DESPENSER WAR

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=JzTNTr-8WJs

[323]

”Mortimer and Hereford then set about pillaging Glamorgan and Gloucestershire, before marching north to join Lancaster at Pontefract.[10] The barons then swore an alliance at Sherburn-in-Elmet in June, naming their faction the “contrariants” and promising to remove the Despensers for good”

WIKIPEDIA
DESPENSER WAR/FIRST PHASE: FEBRUARY-AUGUST 1321

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Despenser_War#First_phase:_Feb ruary-August_1321

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
DESPENSER WAR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Despenser_War

”On 28 June, Thomas met the Marchers, or some of them, at Sherburn near Pontefract, where an indenture was drawn up approving the actions against the Despensers.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (2)
2 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2010/05/thomas-of-lancaster-and-his.html

YOUTUBE.COM
DESPENSER WAR

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=JzTNTr-8WJs

”Thomas and his allies had hoped to attract the northern lords to their cause, but they were largely unsuccessful; the twenty-five men who put their seals to the document were mostly Thomas’s own retainers”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (3)
2 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2010/05/thomas-of-lancaster-and-his.html

” Rather than join the rebel lords in the Welsh march where he to held lands, instead Lancaster held meetings, firstly at Sherburn and latterly at Doncaster seeking to test the water of opposition and perhaps bring about a coalition of northern and Welsh barons. In the end it came to nothing as the northern lords preferred to stay out of affairs that did not impact on them.

THE MORTIMER HISTORY SOCIETY
A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE AND EXECUTION OF
THOMAS OF LANCASTER, A GUEST POST
BY STEPHEN SPINKS
22 MARCH 2017

https://themortimersblog.wordpress.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traitor-the-life-execution-of-thomas-of-lancaster-a-guest-post-by-stephen-spinks/

SEE ALSO THE ARTICLE ON THE WEBLOG OF STEPHEN SPINKS

A ROYAL TRAITOR: THE LIFE AND EXECUTION OF
THOMAS OF LANCASTER
22 MARCH 2017

https://fourteenthcenturyfiend.com/2017/03/22/a-royal-traitor-the-life-execution-of-thomas-of-lancaster/

[324]

”Lancaster and his Marcher allies, despite Edward’s prohibition, did meet on 29 November, though probably at Pontefract rather than Doncaster, and the Sempringham annalist says that “they were sworn together a second time to maintain that which they had commenced.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SIRE HUGE LE DESPENSER, MALEFACTORS AND
EXTORTIONISTS: SOME EVENTS OF NOVEMBER
1321
30 NOVEMBER 2009

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2009/11/sire-huge-le- despenser-malefactors-and.html

[325]

”The Marchers seized victuals from local inhabitants and pillaged the countryside – not only Despenser manors – all the way from Yorkshire to London. ”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE EXILE OF THE DESPENSERS, 29 AUGUST 1321
29 AUGUST 2015

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2015/08/the-exile-of-desp ensers-29-august-1321.html

[326]

”The barons then swore an alliance at Sherburn-in-Elmet in June, naming their faction the “contrariants” and promising to remove the Despensers for good”

WIKIPEDIA
DESPENSER WAR/FIRST PHASE: FEBRUARY-AUGUST 1321

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Despenser_War#First_phase:_Feb ruary-August_1321

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA

DESPENSER WAR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Despenser_War

[327]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE EXILE OF THE DESPENSERS, 29 AUGUST 1321
29 AUGUST 2015

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2015/08/the-exile-of-desp ensers-29-august-1321.html

[328]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE EXILE OF THE DESPENSERS, 29 AUGUST 1321
29 AUGUST 2015

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2015/08/the-exile-of-desp ensers-29-august-1321.html

[329]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE EXILE OF THE DESPENSERS, 29 AUGUST 1321
29 AUGUST 2015

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2015/08/the-exile-of-desp ensers-29-august-1321.html

[330]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE EXILE OF THE DESPENSERS, 29 AUGUST 1321
29 AUGUST 2015

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2015/08/the-exile-of-desp ensers-29-august-1321.html

[331]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE EXILE OF THE DESPENSERS, 29 AUGUST 1321
29 AUGUST 2015

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2015/08/the-exile-of-desp ensers-29-august-1321.html

[332]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE EXILE OF THE DESPENSERS, 29 AUGUST 1321
29 AUGUST 2015

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2015/08/the-exile-of-desp ensers-29-august-1321.html

[333]

”Lancaster arrived in August to support him and a tense stand-off ensued, with the younger Despenser threatening the rebels from a ship on the River Thames, and the barons threatening to begin to destroy royal properties and lands outside London unless he desisted.”

WIKIPEDIA
DESPENSER WAR/FIRST PHASE: FEBRUARY-AUGUST 1321

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Despenser_War#First_phase:_Feb ruary-August_1321

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
DESPENSER WAR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Despenser_War

YOUTUBE
DESPENSER WAR

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=JzTNTr-8WJs&t=237s

[334]

”Lancaster arrived in August to support him and a tense stand-off ensued, with the younger Despenser threatening the rebels from a ship on the River Thames, and the barons threatening to begin to destroy royal properties and lands outside London unless he desisted.”

WIKIPEDIA
DESPENSER WAR/FIRST PHASE: FEBRUARY-AUGUST 1321

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Despenser_War#First_phase:_Feb ruary-August_1321

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
DESPENSER WAR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Despenser_War

[335]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE EXILE OF THE DESPENSERS, 29 AUGUST 1321
29 AUGUST 2015

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2015/08/the-exile-of-desp ensers-29-august-1321.html

[336]

WIKIPEDIA
CHESS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Chess

[337]

The Earl of Pembroke, a moderate baron with strong French links, intervened in an attempt to defuse the crisis.[16] Edward continued to refuse to negotiate or exile the Despensers, so Pembroke arranged for Queen Isabella to publicly go down on her knees to appeal to Edward to exile the Despensers.[17] This provided him with a face-saving excuse to exile the Despensers and defuse the crisis, but it was clear Edward intended to arrange their return at the first opportunity”

WIKIPEDIA
DESPENSER WAR/FIRST PHASE: FEBRUARY-AUGUST 1321

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Despenser_War#First_phase:_Feb ruary-August_1321

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
DESPENSER WAR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Despenser_War

”It fell to Queen Isabella, only a few weeks after bearing her youngest child Joan, to break the deadlock: she went down on her knees before her husband and begged him, for the good of his realm, to exile the Despensers.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE EXILE OF THE DESPENSERS
29 AUGUST 2015

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2015/08/the-exile-of-desp ensers-29-august-1321.html

YOUTUBE
DESPENSER WAR

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=JzTNTr-8WJs&t=237s

YOUTUBE.COM
SHE WOLVES, ENGLAND’S EARLY QUEENS

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=192QjemfTh0&t=1171s

[338]

”Scarborough was soon besieged by Pembroke, Warenne, Percy and Clifford, and on 19 May Gaveston surrendered to the besiegers.[76] The terms of the surrender were that Pembroke, Warenne and Percy would take Gaveston to York, where the barons would negotiate with the king. If an agreement could not be reached by 1 August, Gaveston would be allowed to return to Scarborough. The three swore an oath to guarantee his safety.[77] After an initial meeting with the King in York, Gaveston was left in the custody of Pembroke, who escorted him south for safekeeping.[78]On 9 June, Pembroke left Gaveston at the rectory at Deddington in Oxfordshire, while he himself left to visit his wife.[79] When Warwick found out about Gaveston’s whereabouts, he immediately rode out to capture him. The next morning he appeared at the rectory, where he took Gaveston captive and brought him back to his castle at Warwick.[80] Pembroke, whose honour had been affronted, appealed for justice both to Gaveston’s brother-in-law Gloucester and to the University of Oxford, but to no avail”

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL/RETURN AND DEATH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall#Return_and_death

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Co rnwall

”As far as Pembroke is concerned, the seizing and execution of a prisoner in his custody was a breach of the most fundamental chivalric codes, and a serious affront to his honour. The event must therefore be seen as pivotal in turning his sympathies away from the rebels and towards the King.”

WIKIPEDIA

AYMER DE VALENCE, 2ND EARL OF PEMBROKE/THE ORDINANCES
AND PIERS GAVESTON

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Aymer_de_Valence,_2nd_Earl_of_ Pembroke#The_Ordinances_and_Pi ers_Gaveston

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
AYMER DE VALENCE, 2ND EARL OF PEMBROKE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Aymer_de_Valence,_2nd_Earl_of_ Pembroke

[339]

The Earl of Pembroke, a moderate baron with strong French links, intervened in an attempt to defuse the crisis.[16] Edward continued to refuse to negotiate or exile the Despensers, so Pembroke arranged for Queen Isabella to publicly go down on her knees to appeal to Edward to exile the Despensers.[17] This provided him with a face-saving excuse to exile the Despensers and defuse the crisis, but it was clear Edward intended to arrange their return at the first opportunity”

WIKIPEDIA
DESPENSER WAR/FIRST PHASE: FEBRUARY-AUGUST 1321

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Despenser_War#First_phase:_ February-August_1321

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
DESPENSER WAR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Despenser_War

YOUTUBE
DESPENSER WAR

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=JzTNTr-8WJs&t=237s

[340]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE EXILE OF THE DESPENSERS, 29 AUGUST 1321
’29 AUGUST 2015

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2015/08/the-exile-of-desp ensers-29-august-1321.html

[341]

‘Mortimer became disaffected with his king and joined the growing opposition to Edward II and the Despensers. After the younger Despenser was granted lands belonging to him, he and the Marchers began conducting devastating raids against Despenser property in Wales.”

WIKIPEDIA
ROGER MORTIMER, 1ST EARL OF MARCH/OPPOSITION
TO EDWARD II

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Roger_Mortimer,_1st_Earl_of_Ma rch#Opposition_to_Edward_II

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ROGER MORTIMER, 1ST EARL OF MARCH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Roger_Mortimer,_1st_Earl_of_Ma rch

”Secondly, Despenser’s determination to build himself a huge ‘empire’ in South Wales was a huge problem. In the Middle Ages, land was power, and every landowner’s greatest fear was that a neighbour or an enemy would take over his land with impunity, without being stopped by the king. Therefore, Despenser’s actions in South Wales worried many. He didn’t let even family ties stop him; in May 1320, he forced his sister-in-law Margaret de Clare and her husband Hugh Audley to exchange their valuable lordship of Newport for some of his English lands of lesser value, and his machinations against them had begun almost as soon as the Clare lands were divided in 1317. At first, Edward II had tried to protect Audley, but as time went on and his infatuation with Despenser developed, he allowed his new favourite to gain control of Newport.”

EDWARDTHSECONDBLOGSPOT
THE DESPENSER WAR OF 1321 [PART ONE]
11 MARCH 2007

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2007/03/despenser- war-of-1321-part-one.html

”Thirdly, Despenser was abusing his position as Chamberlain by refusing anyone permission to see the king unless he himself or his father were present. He was controlling patronage and depriving the barons of their influence over Edward, and he frequently demanded bribes before he would allow anyone to see the king. He answered petitions as he wanted, ‘throwing back answers’, replaced Edward’s household officials with his own supporters, and didn’t allow Edward to take advice from anyone but himself or his father.”

EDWARDTHSECONDBLOGSPOT
THE DESPENSER WAR OF 1321 [PART ONE]
11 MARCH 2007

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2007/03/despenser- war-of-1321-part-one.html

[342]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE EXILE OF THE DESPENSERS, 29 AUGUST 1321
’29 AUGUST 2015

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2015/08/the-exile-of- despensers-29-august-1321.html

[343]

”Hugh and his father were exiled from England for a few months, during which Hugh became a pirate in the English channel – a successful one, as Edward III had to pay compensation to Genoese merchants many years later.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDWARD II’S OTHER GREAT FAVOURITE: HUGH
DESPENSER THE YOUNGER
5 FEBRUARY 2006

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2006/02/edward- iis-other-great-favourite- hugh.html

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE EXILE OF THE DESPENSERS, 29 AUGUST 1321
’29 AUGUST 2015

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2015/08/the-exile-of- despensers-29-august-1321.html

[344]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE EXILE OF THE DESPENSERS, 29 AUGUST 1321
’29 AUGUST 2015

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2015/08/the-exile-of- despensers-29-august-1321.html

[345]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE EXILE OF THE DESPENSERS, 29 AUGUST 1321
’29 AUGUST 2015

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2015/08/the-exile-of- despensers-29-august-1321.html

[346]

ABOUT THE ROYAL PARDONS THE KING WAS NOT
PREPARED TO MAINTAIN

I wrote about that at the beginning of chapter Six

”PRELUDE

In chapter five I wrote, that Thomas of Lancaster cooperated
well with the King in the unsuccesful siege of Berwick  [in the war
against the Scots][277]
But as I wrote earlier, the fragile co operation between
the two most powerful men, was ruined by the following
remark of the King
””When this wretched business is over, we will turn our hands to other matters. For I have not forgotten the wrong that was done to my brother Piers.” [278]
That despite the earlier pardons for the murder
of Piers Gaveston, the King had issued in
1313 [279] and the extended pardons to Lancaster and
his allies, given at the Treaty
of Leake. [280]
To say it again:
A king must rise above his personal feelings and must
be true to his word.
Edward II couldn’t or wouldn’t do that……

That being said:
Understandably Thomas of Lancaster, knowing
that the King’s remark about Piers Gaveston was directly aimed against him,
said ”Hasta la vista” and left Berwick. [281]
And from that moment, relations between the two men deterioriated again.

[347]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE EXILE OF THE DESPENSERS, 29 AUGUST 1321
’29 AUGUST 2015

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2015/08/the-exile-of-desp ensers-29-august-1321.html

Reacties uitgeschakeld voor Notes 251-347 at article about Thomas, Earl of Lancaster

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