Notes 667-761 at article about Thomas, Earl of Lancaster

File:Thomas Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster.jpg
THOMAS 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

[667]

”Hugh Despenser the Elder, created earl of Winchester by Edward II in 1322, was probably the only man of rank who remained completely loyal to Edward from the beginning to the end of his reign. ”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE MARRIAGES OF THE TWO HUGH DESPENSERS
9 MARCH 2012

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2012/03/marriages-of-two-hugh-despensers.html

 

 

 

 

[668]

”Yet none of this translated into any kind of favour shown to Hugh the Younger himself for the first eleven or twelve years of Edward’s reign, and it was as though the king simply ignored Hugh’s existence, perhaps because Hugh followed the political lead of his maternal uncle Guy Beauchamp, earl of Warwick, who was hostile to the king and to Piers Gaveston, rather than that of his staunchly royalist father.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDWARD II’S RELATIONSHIP WITH HUGH
DESPENSER THE YOUNGER
13 SEPTEMBER 2015

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2015/09/edward-iis-relationship-with-hugh.html

RELATIONSHIP WITH GUY BEAUCHAMP, 10TH EARL OF WARWICK:

THE MOTHER OF HUGH DESPENSER THE YOUNGER WAS ISABELLA
BEAUCHAMP, DAUGHTER OF THE 9TH EARL OF WARWICK AND
SISTER OF THE 10TH EARL OF WARWICK, ONE OF THE EXECUTIONERS
OF PIERS GAVESTON

ISABELLA DE BEAUCHAMP, MOTHER OF HUGH DESPENSER THE YOUNGER

WIKIPEDIA
ISABELLA DE BEAUCHAMP

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isabella_de_Beauchamp

HER SON, HUGH DESPENSER THE YOUNGER

WIKIPEDIA
HUGH DESPENSER THE YOUNGER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugh_Despenser_the_Younger

HER BROTHER, GUY DE BEAUCHAMP, 10TH EARL OF WARWICK,
THEREFORE THE MATERNAL UNCLE OF HUGH DESPENSER
THE YOUNGER

WIKIPEDIA
GUY DE BEAUCHAMP, 10TH EARL OF WARWICK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guy_de_Beauchamp,_10th_Earl_of_Warwick

THE 10TH EARL OF WARWICK WAS ONE OF THE EXECUTIONERS OF
PIERS DE GAVESTON, FAVOURITE OF KING EDWARD II

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_Cornwall

”He joined the baronial opposition to Piers Gaveston, the king’s favourite (and Hugh’s brother-in-law, as Gaveston was married to Eleanor’s sister Margaret).”

WIKIPEDIA
HUGH DESPENSER THE YOUNGER/MARRIAGE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugh_Despenser_the_Younger#Marriage

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HUGH DESPENSER THE YOUNGER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugh_Despenser_the_Younger

[669]

‘He served Edward I on numerous occasions in battle and in diplomacy and was created a baron by writ of summons to Parliament in 1295.”

WIKIPEDIA
HUGH LE DESPENSER, 1ST EARL OF WINCHESTER/LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugh_le_Despenser,_1st_Earl_of_Winchester#Life

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HUGH LE DESPENSER, 1ST EARL OF WINCHESTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugh_le_Despenser,_1st_Earl_of_Winchester

[670]

WIKIPEDIA
ELEANOR DE CLARE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eleanor_de_Clare

[671]

”In May 1306 Hugh le Despenser the younger was knighted, and that summer he married Eleanor de Clare, daughter of Gilbert de Clare, 9th Lord of Clare and 7th Earl of Hertford and Joan of Acre. Eleanor’s grandfather, Edward I, owed the elder Despenser 2,000 marks (£1,000,000 at today’s prices) and the marriage settled this debt, and was a reward for the elder Hugh’s loyal service”

WIKIPEDIA
HUGH DESPENSER THE YOUNGER/MARRIAGE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugh_Despenser_the_Younger#Marriage

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HUGH DESPENSER THE YOUNGER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugh_Despenser_the_Younger

”That the Elder Despenser stood high in Edward I’s favour is proved by the marriage of his son in May or June 1306, when Edward I married the younger Despenser to his eldest granddaughter, Eleanor de Clare.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDWARD II’S OTHER GREAT FAVOURITE, HUGH DESPENSER
THE YOUNGER
5 FEBRUARY 2006

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2006/02/edward-iis-other-great-favourite-hugh.html

[672]

””He was one of the few barons to remain loyal to Edward during the controversy regarding Piers Gaveston. Despenser became Edward’s loyal servant and chief administrator after Gaveston was executed in 1312”

WIKIPEDIA
HUGH LE DESPENSER, 1ST EARL OF WINCHESTER/LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugh_le_Despenser,_1st_Earl_of_Winchester#Life

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HUGH LE DESPENSER, 1ST EARL OF WINCHESTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugh_le_Despenser,_1st_Earl_of_Winchester

[673]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDWARD II’S OTHER GREAT FAVOURITE, HUGH DESPENSER THE
YOUNGER
5 FEBRUARY 2006

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2006/02/edward-iis-other- great-favourite-hugh.html

[674]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDWARD II’S OTHER GREAT FAVOURITE, HUGH DESPENSER THE
YOUNGER
5 FEBRUARY 2006

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2006/02/edward-iis-other- great-favourite-hugh.html

[675]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDWARD II’S OTHER GREAT FAVOURITE, HUGH DESPENSER THE
YOUNGER
5 FEBRUARY 2006

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2006/02/edward-iis-other- great-favourite-hugh.html

[676]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDWARD II’S RELATIONSHIP WITH HUGH DESPENSER
THE YOUNGER
13 SEPTEMBER 2015

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2015/09/edward-iis-relati onship-with-hugh.html

[677]

WIKIPEDIA
ROGER D’AMORY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Roger_d%27Amory

WIKIPEDIA
HUGH DE AUDLEY, 1ST EARL OF GLOUCESTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hugh_de_Audley,_1st_Earl_of_Gl oucester

[678]

WIKIPEDIA
DESPENSER WAR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Despenser_War

[679]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDWARD II’S EXECUTIONS OF 1322
8 JUNE 2009

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2009/06/edward-iis-execut ions-of-1322.html

[680]

”Thomas was put on trial in the great hall of his own castle, the justice Robert Malberthorpe, Edward, the Despensers, the earls of Kent, Pembroke, Richmond, Surrey, Arundel and the Scottish earls of Angus and Atholl sitting in judgement on him.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP WITH EDWARD II
(3)
2 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

[681]

YOUTUBE.COM
SHE WOLVES: ENGLAND’S EARLY QUEENS: ISABELLA AND
MARGARET

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=192QjemfTh0&t=1228s

[682]

”Edward found it difficult to manage without them, and recalled them to England a year later, an action which enraged the queen, Isabella, the more so when Despenser was created Earl of Winchester in 1322.”

WIKIPEDIA
HUGH LE DESPENSER, 1ST EARL OF WINCHESTER/LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hugh_le_Despenser,_1st_Earl_of _Winchester#Life

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HUGH LE DESPENSER, 1ST EARL OF WINCHESTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hugh_le_Despenser,_1st_Earl_of _Winchester

[683]

WIKIPEDIA
ISABELLA OF FRANCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Isabella_of_France

[684]

WIKIPEDIA
ISABELLA OF FRANCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Isabella_of_France

YOUTUBE.COM
SHE WOLVES: ENGLAND’S EARLY QUEENS: ISABELLA AND
MARGARET

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=192QjemfTh0&t=1228s

[685]

”He was given a mock trial by Mortimer, Isabella, Henry of Lancaster and a few others at Bristol Castle in October 1326, in what was clearly intended as a parody of Thomas of Lancaster’s trial. He was hanged in his armour, his head was sent to Winchester on a spear, and his body was cut up and fed to dogs.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE ENGLISH EARLS IN THE REIGN OF EDWARD II
22 APRIL 2006

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2006/04/english- earls-in-reign-of-edward-ii. html

[686]

WIKIPEDIA
PIERS GAVESTON, 1ST EARL OF CORNWALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Piers_Gaveston,_1st_Earl_of_ Cornwall

[687]

”Thomas was put on trial in the great hall of his own castle, the justice Robert Malberthorpe, Edward, the Despensers, the earls of Kent, Pembroke, Richmond, Surrey, Arundel and the Scottish earls of Angus and Atholl sitting in judgement on him”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (3}
2 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2010/05/thomas-of- lancaster-and-his.html

[688]

”Two of Edmund’s friends, John Daniel and Thomas de Micheldever, were executed with him.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDMUND FITZALAN, EARL OF ARUNDEL
3 MARCH 2007

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2007/03/edmund-fitzalan-earl-of-arundel.html

”Arundel and his two companions, John Daniel and Robert (not Thomas) de Micheldever, were not granted a trial but merely “beheaded at Hereford without judgement and without being arraigned,” as a later petition of Micheldever’s wife to parliament points out.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
17 NOVEMBER 1326: THE EXECUTION OF THE EARL OF
ARUNDEL
17 NOVEMBER 2011

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2011/11/17-november-1326-execution-of-earl-of.html

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
JOHN DANIEL AND ROBERT DE MICHELDEVER
5 MAY 2009

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2009/05/john-daniel-and-robert-de-micheldever.html

WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND FITZALAN, 9TH EARL OF ARUNDEL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_FitzAlan,_9th_Earl_of_Arundel

[689]

”He joined the baronial opposition to Piers Gaveston, the king’s favourite (and Hugh’s brother-in-law, as Gaveston was married to Eleanor’s sister Margaret).”

WIKIPEDIA
HUGH DESPENSER THE YOUNGER/MARRIAGE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hugh_Despenser_the_Younger#Mar riage

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HUGH DESPENSER THE YOUNGER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hugh_Despenser_the_Younger

[690]

”In the autumn of 1318, Hugh Despenser the Younger was appointed as the chamberlain of the king’s household”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDWARD II’S RELATIONSHIP WITH HUGH DESPENSER
THE YOUNGER
13 SEPTEMBER 2015

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2015/09/edward-iis- relationship-with-hugh.html

[691]

WIKIPEDIA
DESPENSER WAR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Despenser_War

[692]

”He was given a mock trial by Mortimer, Isabella, Henry of Lancaster and a few others at Bristol Castle in October 1326, in what was clearly intended as a parody of Thomas of Lancaster’s trial. He was hanged in his armour, his head was sent to Winchester on a spear, and his body was cut up and fed to dogs.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE ENGLISH EARLS IN THE REIGN OF EDWARD II
22 APRIL 2006

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2006/04/english- earls-in-reign-of-edward-ii. html

[693]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
16 NOVEMBER 1326: CAPTURE OF EDWARD II
16 NOVEMBER 2012

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2012/11/16-november-1326- capture-of-edward-ii.html

”On the Queen’s return to England in September 1326 with Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, Henry joined her party against King Edward II, which led to a general desertion of the king’s cause and overturned the power of Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester, and his namesake son Hugh the younger Despenser.”

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY, 3RD EARL OF LANCASTER/REVENGE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry,_3rd_Earl_of_Lancaster#R evenge

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY, 3RD EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry,_3rd_Earl_of_Lancaster

””Meanwhile, Edward now heard that Henry of Leicester – Thomas of Lancaster’s brother – had also now defected to Isabella. His loyalty had been in doubt anyway, but his desertion was still an enormous problem as Henry, like his brother – had large numbers of men and they were now committed to the enemy cause instead of his own.”

LADY DESPENSER’S SCRIBERY
THE FLIGHT AND CAPTURE OF HUGH DESPENSER AND
EDWARD II 1326

http://www.ladydespensersscrib ery.com/2008/06/01/the-flight- and-capture-of-hugh-despenser- and-edward-ii-1326/

[694]

It was reported by several chroniclers that, since the capture, Hugh had refused all food and water in an attempt to try and starve himself to death before his execution.”

LADY DESPENSER’S SCRIBERY

HUGH’S LAST JOURNEY 1326

http://www.ladydespensersscribery.com/2008/06/12/hughs-last-journey-1326/

[695]

”In the first three days, the body is still using energy from glucose.[citation needed] After that, the liver starts processing body fat, in a process called ketosis. After depleting fat, the body enters a “starvation mode”.[citation needed] At this point the body “mines” the muscles and vital organs for energy, and loss of bone marrow becomes life-threatening. ”

WIKIPEDIA
HUNGERSTRIKE/MEDICAL VIEW

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hunger_strike#Medical_view

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HUNGERSTRIKE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hunger_strike

”A human can go for more than three weeks without food (Mahatma Gandhi survived 21 days of complete starvation), but water is a different story. ”

……
…..

”THe maximum time an individual can go without water seems to be a week — an estimate that would certainly be shorter in difficult conditions, like broiling heat.”

THE BUSINESS INSIDER
HERE’S HOW MANY DAYS A PERSON CAN SURVIVE
WITHOUT WATER
9 MAY 2014

http://www.businessinsider.com/how-many-days-can-you-survive-without-water-2014-5?international=true&r=US&IR=T

[696]

LADY DESPENSER’S SCRIBERY
HUGH’S LAST JOURNEY 1326
LLANTRISANT TO HEREFORD 1326

http://www.ladydespensersscrib ery.com/2008/06/12/hughs-last- journey-1326/

Henry, who led a fascinating career – …….
He was closely associated with Edward II and Piers Gaveston, before Edward became king and afterwards.”
…..
…..
”Henry later switched sides away from Edward II and fought for the Earl of Lancaster at Boroughbridge in March 1322. He was captured and imprisoned at Scarborough, and was later sent to Devizes Castle, where he evidently escaped – he was pardoned for this in March 1327. I don’t know when that happened, but he joined Roger Mortimer and Queen Isabella, either in France or after they landed in England”
….
…..
”In November 1326, Henry was one of two men – Robert Stangrave was the other – charged with bringing Hugh Despenser the younger from South Wales to Hereford, where he was to be executed. Henry and Stangrave made sure Despenser was treated as humuliatingly as possible…….”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
DE LEYBURNE AND DE SANDWICH
30 JUNE 2007

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2007/06/de-leyburne-and-d e-sandwich.html

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
ENTRAILS AND EMASCULATION
24 NOVEMBER 2006

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2006/11/entrails- and-emasculation.html

[697]

LADY DESPENSER’S SCRIBERY
THE ”TRIAL” OF HUGH DESPENSER
THE YOUNGER

http://www.ladydespensersscrib ery.com/2008/06/16/the-trial-o f-hugh-despenser-the-younger/

[698]

LADY DESPENSER’S SCRIBERY
THE ”TRIAL” OF HUGH DESPENSER
THE YOUNGER

http://www.ladydespensersscrib ery.com/2008/06/16/the-trial-o f-hugh-despenser-the-younger/

[699]

”As had happened at the trial of Thomas of Lancaster in 1322, Hugh was not permitted to speak in his defence”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
ENTRAILS AND EMASCULATION
24 NOVEMBER 2006

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2006/11/entrails-and- emasculation.html

[700]

WIKIPEDIA
WILLIAM TRUSSELL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ William_Trussell

[701]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE CHARGES AGAINST HUGH DESPENSER THE YOUNGER,
NOVEMBER 1326
19 APRIL 2009

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2009/04/charges-against-h ugh-despenser-younger.html

[702]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE CHARGES AGAINST HUGH DESPENSER THE YOUNGER,
NOVEMBER 1326
19 APRIL 2009

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2009/04/charges-against-h ugh-despenser-younger.html

[703]

LADY DESPENSER’S SCRIBERY
EXECUTION DAY NOVEMBER 24TH 1326

http://www. ladydespensersscribery.com/ 2008/06/25/execution-day- november-24th-1326/

[704]

”His loyal fellow captive, Simon of Reading was also sentenced to hang for having allegedly insulted the Queen (which probably wasn’t a difficult thing to do). However he was hung far below Despenser as his crimes were considered to be less (they could hardly have been more!) and he was hung until dead.”

LADY DESPENSER’S SCRIBERY
EXECUTION DAY NOVEMBER 24TH 1326

http://www. ladydespensersscribery.com/ 2008/06/25/execution-day- november-24th-1326/

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
BRIEF BIOGRAPHIES: SIMON OF READING
22 NOVEMBER 2011

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2011/11/brief-biographies-simon-of-reading.html

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
24 NOVEMBER 1326: EXECUTION OF HUGH DESPENSER
THE YOUNGER, LORD OF GLAMORGAN
24 NOVEMBER 2016

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2016/11/24-november-1326-execution-of-hugh.html

[705]

” Mortimer was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland by Edward II on 23 November 1316”
…….
…….
”He returned to England and Wales in 1318[9] and was then occupied for some years with baronial disputes on the Welsh border”

WIKIPEDIA
ROGER MORTIMER. 1ST EARL OF MARCH/MILITARY ADVENTURES
IN IRELAND AND WALES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Roger_Mortimer,_1st_Earl_of_Ma rch#Military_adventures_in_Ire land_and_Wales

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ROGER MORTIMER. 1ST EARL OF MARCH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Roger_Mortimer,_1st_Earl_of_Ma rch

”By the autumn of 1320, the situation in England was already very tense. At this time, Roger Mortimer returned to England from Ireland, where he had served as King’s Lieutenant and Justiciar. ”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE DESPENSER WAR OF 1321 (PART ONE)
11 MARCH 2007

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2007/03/despenser-war-of- 1321-part-one.html

[706]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE DESPENSER WAR OF 1321 (PART ONE)
11 MARCH 2007

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2007/03/despenser-war-of- 1321-part-one.html

WIKIPEDIA
DESPENSER WAR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Despenser_War

[707]

”Mortimer and Hereford promptly began their attack on the Despenser lands.[4] NewportCardiff and  Caerphilly were seized by Mortimer in an intense eight-day campaign.[4] Mortimer and Hereford then set about pillaging Glamorgan and Gloucestershire, before marching north to join Lancaster at Pontefract.[4] The barons then swore an alliance at Sherburn-in-Elmet in June, naming their faction the “contrariants” and promising to remove the Despensers for good.”

WIKIPEDIA
DESPENSER WAR/FIRST PHASE: FEBRUARY-AUGUST 1321

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Despenser_War#First_phase:_Feb ruary.E2.80.93August_1321

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
DESPENSER WAR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Despenser_War

[708]

”They must have realised that Edward would come after them, to avenge himself on the men who had not only attacked his friends but killed, assaulted and robbed his subjects and ousted them from their homes – the Marchers’ attacks of May 1321 may have been aimed at the Despensers, but it was the innocent and the poor who suffered most, as numerous petitions and inquisitions attest – held castles against him, and had stolen from him personally, “because they had taken for their own use and wasted the goods of the exiles, which ought rather to have gone to the treasury,” as the Vita Edwardi Secundi says.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SIRE HUGE LE DESPENSER, MALEFACTORS AND EXTORTIONISTS:
SOME EVENTS OF NOVEMBER 1321
30 NOVEMBER 2009

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2009/11/sire-huge-le- despenser-malefactors-and.html

[709]

”Thomas was put on trial in the great hall of his own castle, the justice Robert Malberthorpe, Edward, the Despensers, the earls of Kent, Pembroke, Richmond, Surrey, Arundel and the Scottish earls of Angus and Atholl sitting in judgement on him. Four of these men – Edward, Kent, Richmond and Pembroke – were Thomas’s first cousins, while Surrey, Atholl and Angus had once served in his retinue. The result was a foregone conclusion, and Thomas was not allowed to speak in his own defence as his crimes were deemed ‘notorious’.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (3)
2 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

”Lancaster was tried by a tribunal consisting of, among others, the two DespensersEdmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel, and King Edward. Lancaster was not allowed to speak in his own defence, nor was he allowed to have anyone to speak for him.”

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER/LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster# Life

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

[710]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDWARD II’S EXECUTIONS OF 1322
8 JUNE 2009

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2009/06/edward-iis- executions-of-1322.html

YOUTUBE.COM
SHE WOLVES: ENGLAND’S EARLY QUEENS:
ISABELLA AND MARGARET

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=192QjemfTh0&t=1412s

[711]

” In January 1322 Edward finally overcame the resistance along the River Severn and advanced into the Welsh Marches; the situation was now impossible and, after attacking and burning Bridgnorth,[14] Roger Mortimer and his uncle, Roger Mortimer de Chirk surrendered to the King at Shrewsbury on 22 January 1322.”

WIKIPEDIA
DESPENSER WAR/SECOND PHASE: OCTOBER 1321-MARCH 1322

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Despenser_War#Second_phase:_ October_1321-March_1322

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
DESPENSER WAR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Despenser_War

[712]

” In August 1323 Mortimer, aided by the Constable, Stephen de Segrave, drugged the warders and escaped”

WIKIPEDIA
ROGER MORTIMER. 1ST EARL OF MARCH/OPPOSITION
TO EDWARD II

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Mortimer,_1st_Earl_of_March#Opposition_to_Edward_II

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ROGER MORTIMER. 1ST EARL OF MARCH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Mortimer,_1st_Earl_of_March

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
ROGER MORTIMER ESCAPES THE TOWER, 1323
4 AUGUST 2013

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2013/08/roger-mortimer-escapes-from-tower-1323.html

[713]

WIKIPEDIA
ISABELLA OF FRANCE/TENSIONS IN GASCONY, 1323-5

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Isabella_of_France#Tensions_in _Gascony.2C_1323-5

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ISABELLA OF FRANCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Isabella_of_France

[714]

”Edward’s political enemies were gathering at the French court, and threatening his emissaries; Isabella was dressed as a widow, claiming that Hugh Despenser had destroyed her marriage with Edward;”

WIKIPEDIA
ISABELLA OF FRANCE/TENSIONS IN GASCONY, 1323-5

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Isabella_of_France#Tensions_in _Gascony.2C_1323-5

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ISABELLA OF FRANCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Isabella_of_France

”Queen Isabella announced in public at the French court that she was refusing to return to her husband. The Vita Edwardi Secundi, which was written by one of Edward II’s clerks and which abruptly ends shortly after this, records Isabella’s speech:
“I feel that marriage is a joining together of man and woman, maintaining the undivided habit of life, and that someone has come between my husband and myself trying to break this bond; I protest that I will not return until this intruder is removed, but discarding my marriage garment, shall assume the robes of widowhood and mourning until I am avenged of this Pharisee.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
OCTOBER/NOVEMBER 1325: ISABELLA REFUSES
TO RETURN TO EDWARD (1)
7 NOVEMBER 2015

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2015/11/octobernovember-1 325-isabella-refuses.html

[715]

”She set Edward an ultimatum, and must have been deeply hurt by his utter refusal to consider her feelings; in long rambling letters to herself, her brother Charles IV and French bishops and noblemen, and in a speech to parliament in London in November 1325, Edward II showed that his greatest priority was to defend Hugh Despenser against all accusations. And of course he completely refused to send Hugh away from him.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
OCTOBER/NOVEMBER 1325: ISABELLA REFUSES
TO RETURN TO EDWARD (1)
7 NOVEMBER 2015

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2015/11/octobernovember-1 325-isabella-refuses.html

[716]

”What a wonderful figurehead for an invasion! A beautiful young woman, badly treated and ignored by her vicious husband and his evil lover, deprived of her children and her income and her friends. Mortimer and Isabella really were masters of propaganda and public relations. Many, many men in England were prepared to fight for the cause of a young woman come to ‘liberate’ them, where they wouldn’t have followed Mortimer alone”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
RANDOM MUSINGS ON ISABELLA AND MORTIMER
5 FEBRUARY 2006

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2006/02/random- musings-on-isabella-and.html

[717]

”Isabella betrothed her son Edward of Windsor to a daughter of the Count of Hainault in modern-day Belgium in order to secure ships, mercenaries and cash to invade England. ”

HISTORY EXTRA
ISABELLA OF FRANCE: THE REBEL QUEEN
20 JULY 2016

http://www.historyextra.com/ar ticle/international-history/is abella-france-rebel-queen

[718]

”Edward II’s remaining half-brother, the earl of Norfolk was the first to join Isabella and his brother the earl of Kent.(9) Henry of Lancaster, brother to the executed Thomas came to the queen at Dunstable.”

FOURTEENTHCENTURYFIEND.COM
ISABELLA, WIFE,QUEEN, REBEL (PART THREE)
10 MAY 2017

https://fourteenthcenturyfiend.com/2017/05/10/isabella-wife-queen-rebel-part-three/

[719]

”The Queen departed for France on 9 March 1325, and in September she was joined by her son, the heir to the throne, Prince Edward.[26] Isabella’s negotiations were successful, and it was agreed that the young Prince Edward would perform homage in the king’s place, which he did on 24 September.[2] Not long after this, Edmund joined the queen and prince in Paris. A circle of opposition was emerging around the queen, including the exiled Roger Mortimer. Edmund, who had previously been steadfast in his support for his half-brother, now joined the plot against the king.[27] Though he still distrusted Mortimer, his hatred for the Despensers seems to have been even greater at this point”

WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND OF WOODSTOCK, 1ST EARL OF KENT/DEPOSITION OF
EDWARD II

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edmund_of_Woodstock,_1st_Earl_ of_Kent#Deposition_of_Edward_ II

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND OF WOODSTOCK, 1ST EARL OF KENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edmund_of_Woodstock,_1st_Earl_ of_Kent

[720]

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD II OF ENGLAND/ABDICATION

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_II_of_England#Abdication

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD II OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_II_of_England

[721]

”Following the removal of the Despensers, Roger set to work in restoring the status of his supporters, primarily in the Marches, and hundreds of pardons and restorations of land/money were made in the first year of the new king’s reign.”

WIKIPEDIA
ROGER MORTIMER, 1ST EARL OF MARCH/POWERS WON AND LOST

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Roger_Mortimer,_1st_Earl_of_Ma rch#Powers_won_and_lost

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ROGER MORTIMER, 1ST EARL OF MARCH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Roger_Mortimer,_1st_Earl_of_Ma rch

[722]

”Upon his death his titles and estates were forfeited, but in 1323 his younger brother Henry successfully petitioned to take possession of the Earldom of Leicester, and in 1326 or 1327 Parliament posthumously reversed Thomas’s conviction’

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER/LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster# Life

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster

[723]

”Henry did not participate in his brother’s rebellions; he later petitioned for his brother’s lands and titles, and on 29 March 1324 he was invested as Earl of Leicester.”

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY, 3RD EARL OF LANCASTER/PETITION FOR SUCCESSION
AND INHERITANCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry,_3rd_Earl_of_Lancaster#P etition_for_succession_and_inh eritance

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY, 3RD EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry,_3rd_Earl_of_Lancaster

[724]

”In 1327 he was made chief of the Council of Regency, and after entering a petition in Parliament he was reinstated to much of the Lancastrian inheritance and allowed the title of Earl of Lancaster.”

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA
HENRY, 3RD EARL OF LANCASTER

https://www.britannica.com/bio graphy/Henry-3rd-Earl-of-Lanca ster

”Henry was appointed “chief advisor” for the new king Edward III of England,[2] and was also appointed captain-general of all the king’s forces in the Scottish Marches.[3] He was appointed Constable of Lancaster Castle and High Sheriff of Lancashire in 1327. ”

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY, 3RD EARL OF LANCASTER/FULL RESTORATION AND
REWARD

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry,_3rd_Earl_of_Lancaster#F ull_restoration_and_reward

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY, 3RD EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry,_3rd_Earl_of_Lancaster

[725]

”In 1327 he was made chief of the Council of Regency”

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA
HENRY, 3RD EARL OF LANCASTER

https://www.britannica.com/bio graphy/Henry-3rd-Earl-of-Lanca ster

[726]

”Edward’s death was, as Mark Ormrod notes, “suspiciously timely”, as it simplified Mortimer’s political problems considerably, and most historians believe that Edward probably was murdered on the orders of the new regime, although it is impossible to be certain”

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD II OF ENGLAND/DEATH AND AFTERMATH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_II_of_England#Death_and _aftermath

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD II OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_II_of_England

[727]

HISTORY EXTRA
THE BIG DEBATE: WAS EDWARD II REALLY MURDERED?
25 APRIL 2016

http://www.historyextra.com/ar ticle/premium/big-debate-was-e dward-ii-really-murdered

A NOTE ON THE DEATHS OF EDWARD II
IAN MORTIMER

http://www.ianmortimer.com/Edw ardII/death.htm

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE FIESCHI LETTER, EDWARD II’S MOVEMENTS IN 1326, AND
MANUELE FIESCHI
10 DECEMBER 2015

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2015/12/the-fieschi-lette r-edward-iis-movements.html

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT]
ODDITIES IN THE NARRATIVES OF EDWARD II’S DEATH
10 OCTOBER 2007

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2007/10/oddities-in-narra tive-of-edward-iis.html

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE EARL OF KENT’S PLOT OF 1329/30
REVISITED
2 MAY 2014

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2014/05/the-earl-of-kents -plot-of-132930.html

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
19 MARCH 1330: THE EXECUTION OF THE EARL OF KENT
19 MARCH 2014

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2014/03/19-march-1330-exe cution-of-earl-of-kent.html

[728]

”He was charged with fourteen crimes, including: the murder of Edward II”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE EXECUTION OF ROGER MORTIMER
29 NOVEMBER 2006

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2006/11/execution-of-roge r-mortimer.html

[729]

YOUTUBE.COM
SHE WOLVES: ENGLAND’S EARLY QUEENS: ISABELLA AND
MARGARET

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=192QjemfTh0&t=1443s

WIKIPEDIA
ROGER MORTIMER, 1ST EARL OF MARCH/POWERS WON AND LOST

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Roger_Mortimer,_1st_Earl_of_Ma rch#Powers_won_and_lost

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ROGER MORTIMER, 1ST EARL OF MARCH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Roger_Mortimer,_1st_Earl_of_Ma rch

WIKIPEDIA
ISABELLA OF FRANCE/AS REGENT, 1326-30

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Isabella_of_France#As_regent.2 C_1326.E2.80.9330

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ISABELLA OF FRANCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Isabella_of_France

[730]

”The new regime also faced some key foreign policy dilemmas, which Isabella approached from a realist perspective.[115]  The first of these was the situation in Scotland, where Edward II’s unsuccessful policies had left an unfinished, tremendously expensive war. Isabella was committed to bringing this issue to a conclusion by diplomatic means. Edward III initially opposed this policy, before eventually relenting,[116] leading to the Treaty of Northampton. Under this treaty, Isabella’s daughter Joan would marry David Bruce (heir apparent to the Scottish throne) and Edward III would renounce any claims on Scottish lands, in exchange for the promise of Scottish military aid against any enemy except the French, and £20,000 in compensation for the raids across northern England. No compensation would be given to those earls who had lost their Scottish estates, and the compensation would be taken by Isabella.[117] Although strategically successful and, historically at least, “a successful piece of policy making”,[118] Isabella’s Scottish policy was by no means popular and contributed to the general sense of discontent with the regime.”

WIKIPEDIA
ISABELLA OF FRANCE/AS REGENT: 1326-30

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Isabella_of_France#As_regent. 2C_1326.E2.80.9330

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ISABELLA OF FRANCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Isabella_of_France

[731]

”By the end of 1328 the situation had descended into near civil war once again, with Lancaster mobilising his army against Isabella and Mortimer.[125] In January 1329 Isabella’s forces under Mortimer’s command took Lancaster’s stronghold of Leicester, followed by Bedford; Isabella ……..
and Edward III marched rapidly north, resulting in Lancaster’s surrender. He escaped death but was subjected to a colossal fine, effectively crippling his power”

WIKIPEDIA
ISABELLA OF FRANCE/AS REGENT 1326-30

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isabella_of_France#As_regent.2C_1326.E2.80.9330

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ISABELLA OF FRANCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isabella_of_France

[732]

”The man who read out the above charges against Despenser was Sir William Trussell, who had fled the country after the battle of Boroughbridge and returned with Mortimer and Isabella. A mere two years after Despenser’s execution, he and Thomas Wake, who had read out the charges against Hugh Despenser the Elder, joined the earl of Lancaster’s rebellion against Isabella and Mortimer. Many of the pair’s erstwhile allies fled abroad with Wake and Henry Beaumont, “fearing the cruelty and tyranny of the said earl of March,” i.e. Mortimer, who had awarded himself a grandiose earldom – even Despenser never went that far – and “who at that time was more than king in the kingdom.” They plotted an invasion of England in the summer of 1330.

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE CHARGES AGAINST HUGH DESPENSER THE
YOUNGER, NOVEMBER 1326
19 APRIL 2009

http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.nl/2009/04/charges-against-hugh-despenser-younger.html

”Hating the favourites of Edward II, Wake joined Queen Isabella in 1326 and was a member of the small council which advised the young king, Edward III; soon, however, he broke away from the queen and her ally, Roger Mortimer, and in conjunction with his father-in-law, now earl of Lancaster, he joined the malcontent barons.He was possibly implicated in the plot which cost his brother-in-law, Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent, his life in 1330, and he fled to France, returning to England after the overthrow of Isabella and Mortimer.”

WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS WAKE, 2ND BARON WAKE OF LIDDELL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Wake,_2nd_Baron_Wake_of_Liddell

[733]

WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND OF WOODSTOCK, 1ST EARL OF KENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edmund_of_Woodstock,_1st_Earl_ of_Kent

[734]

”Thomas was put on trial in the great hall of his own castle, the justice Robert Malberthorpe, Edward, the Despensers, the earls of Kent, Pembroke, Richmond, Surrey, Arundel and the Scottish earls of Angus and Atholl sitting in judgement on him. ”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP
WITH EDWARD II (3)
2 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/thomas-of-lancast er-and-his.html

[735]

”After Edward II’s downfall in 1327, a campaign to canonise Thomas of Lancaster began in earnest. Edward’s half-brother the earl of Kent – one of the men who condemned Thomas to death, and also one of the men who sat in judgement on the younger Despenser and accused him of murdering Thomas, hypocrisy which doesn’t seem to have bothered anyone at the time – visited Pope John XXII in 1329 to ask him to canonise Thomas.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
SAINT THOMAS OF LANCASTER
16 MAY 2010

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2010/05/saint-thomas-of-l ancaster.html

[736]

”Hugh Despenser the Elder, earl of Winchester, hanged, drawn and quartered at Bristol on 26 October 1326 at the orders of Roger Mortimer, Queen Isabella, Henry of Lancaster, and others. One of his crimes was complicity in the earl of Lancaster’s execution; the fact that the earl of Kent, one of his judges, had also condemned Lancaster to death doesn’t seem to have bothered anybody.”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
LOTS OF DEAD EARLS
30 JULY 2008

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2008/07/lots-of-dead-earl s.html

[737]

”His trial took place in the main square of Hereford, in the presence of Queen Isabella and her son, who had turned fourteen a few days earlier, Edward II’s half-brother Kent, Roger Mortimer, and countless supporters. ”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
ENTRAILS AND EMASCULATION
24 NOVEMBER 2006

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2006/11/entrails-and-emas culation.html

[738]

”In the autumn of 1328, Edmund and his brother Thomas joined Henry of Lancaster in a conspiracy against Isabella and Mortimer.”

WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND OF WOODSTOCK,1ST EARL OF KENT/DEPOSITION OF
EDWARD II

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edmund_of_Woodstock,_1st_Earl_ of_Kent#Deposition_of_Edward_I I

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND OF WOODSTOCK, 1ST EARL OF KENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edmund_of_Woodstock,_1st_Earl_ of_Kent

[739]

WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND OF WOODSTOCK, 1ST EARL OF KENT/DEATH AND AFTERMATH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edmund_of_Woodstock,_1st_Earl_ of_Kent#Death_and_aftermath

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND OF WOODSTOCK, 1ST EARL OF KENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edmund_of_Woodstock,_1st_Earl_ of_Kent

[740]

”At this point he became involved in another plot against the court, when he was convinced by rumours that his brother was still alive.[34][g] It later emerged that Roger Mortimer himself was responsible for leading Edmund into this belief, in a form of entrapment”

WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND OF WOODSTOCK, 1ST EARL OF KENT/DEATH AND AFTERMATH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edmund_of_Woodstock,_1st_Earl_ of_Kent#Death_and_aftermath

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND OF WOODSTOCK, 1ST EARL OF KENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edmund_of_Woodstock,_1st_Earl_ of_Kent

[741]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE EARL OF KENT’S PLOT OF 1329/30 REVISITED
2 MAY 2014

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2014/05/the-earl-of-kents -plot-of-132930.html

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
19 MARCH 1330: EXECUTION OF THE EARL OF KENT
19 MARCH 2014

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2014/03/19-march-1330-exe cution-of-earl-of-kent.html

[742]

WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND OF WOODSTOCK, 1ST EARL OF KENT/
DEATH AND AFTERMATH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edmund_of_Woodstock,_1st_Earl_ of_Kent#Death_and_aftermath

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND OF WOODSTOCK, 1ST EARL OF KENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edmund_of_Woodstock,_1st_Earl_ of_Kent

[743]

”He was charged with fourteen crimes, including: the murder of Edward II; procuring the death of Edward’s half-brother Kent;

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE EXECUTION OF ROGER MORTIMER
29 NOVEMBER 2006

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2006/11/execution-of-roge r-mortimer.html

[744]

WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND OF WOODSTOCK, 1ST EARL OF KENT/
FAMILY BACKGROUND AND EARLY YEARS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edmund_of_Woodstock,_1st_Earl_ of_Kent#Family_background_and_ early_years

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND OF WOODSTOCK, 1ST EARL OF KENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edmund_of_Woodstock,_1st_Earl_ of_Kent

[745]

”The executioner was unwilling to take part in the judicial murder of a king’s son and fled, and so the unfortunate Kent had to wait around in his shirt for many hours until a common felon under sentence of death was offered his freedom if he agreed to wield the axe.  ”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
19 MARCH 1330 :  EXECUTION OF THE EARL OF KENT
19 MARCH 2014

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2014/03/19-march-1330-exe cution-of-earl-of-kent.html

[746]

”The day after the arrest, 20 October, Edward III issued the following proclamation:

“Whereas the king’s affairs and the affairs of his realm have been directed until now to the damage and dishonour of him and his realm and to the impoverishment of his people, as he has well perceived and as the facts prove*, wherefore he has, of his own knowledge and will, caused certain persons to be arrested, to wit the earl of La Marche [i.e. Roger Mortimer], Sir Oliver de Ingham, and Sir Simon de Bereford, who have been principal movers of the said affairs, and he wills that all men shall know that he will henceforth govern his people according to right and reason, as befits his royal dignity**, and that the affairs that concern him and the estate of his realm shall be directed by the common counsel of the magnates of the realm and in no other wise…”.

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
19 OCTOBER 1330: EDWARD III’S ARREST OF ROGER MORTIMER
19 OCTOBER 2012

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2012/10/19-october-1330- edward-iiis-arrest-of.html

[747]

”The day after the arrest, 20 October, Edward III issued the following proclamation:

“Whereas the king’s affairs and the affairs of his realm have been directed until now to the damage and dishonour of him and his realm and to the impoverishment of his people, as he has well perceived and as the facts prove*, wherefore he has, of his own knowledge and will, caused certain persons to be arrested, to wit the earl of La Marche [i.e. Roger Mortimer], Sir Oliver de Ingham, and Sir Simon de Bereford, who have been principal movers of the said affairs, and he wills that all men shall know that he will henceforth govern his people according to right and reason, as befits his royal dignity**, and that the affairs that concern him and the estate of his realm shall be directed by the common counsel of the magnates of the realm and in no other wise…”.

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
19 OCTOBER 1330: EDWARD III’S ARREST OF ROGER MORTIMER
19 OCTOBER 2012

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2012/10/19-october-1330- edward-iiis-arrest-of.html

[748]

”He was charged with fourteen crimes, including: the murder of Edward II; procuring the death of Edward’s half-brother Kent;

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE EXECUTION OF ROGER MORTIMER
29 NOVEMBER 2006

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2006/11/execution-of-roge r-mortimer.html

[749]

”He was charged with fourteen crimes, including: the murder of Edward II”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE EXECUTION OF ROGER MORTIMER
29 NOVEMBER 2006

http://edwardthesecond. blogspot.nl/2006/11/execution- of-roger-mortimer.html

[750]

”The tension increased after Edward and Philippa, who had married at York Minster on 24 January 1328, had a son on 15 June 1330”

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD III OF ENGLAND/EARLY LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_III_of_England#Early_ life

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD III OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_III_of_England

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD, THE BLACK PRINCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward,_the_Black_Prince

[751]

”The son of William Montagu, 2nd Baron Montagu, he entered the royal household at an early age and became a close companion of the young Prince Edward. The relationship continued after Edward was crowned king following the deposition of Edward II in 1327. In 1330, Montagu was one of Edward’s main accomplices in the coup against Roger Mortimer, who until then had been acting as the king’s protector.”
…..
…..
”Modern historians have called William Montague Edward’s “most intimate personal friend”[3] and “the chief influence behind the throne from Mortimer’s downfall in 1330 until his own death in 1344”

WIKIPEDIA
WILLIAM MONTAGU, 1ST EARL OF SALISBURY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ William_Montagu,_1st_Earl_of_S alisbury

WIKIPEDIA
EARLS OF SALISBURY, SECOND CREATION (1337)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Earl_of_Salisbury#Earls_of_Sal isbury.2C_Second_Creation_.281 337.29

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA

EARL OF SALISBURY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Earl_of_Salisbury

”The title was created for a second time in 1337 for William Montacute. It was inherited later by Richard Neville the Kingmaker, upon whose death the title went into abeyance because multiple individuals were entitled to inherit it.”

WIKIPEDIA
EARL OF SALISBURY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Earl_of_Salisbury

”William was, with Roger Damory and Hugh Audley, one of the triumvirate of ‘favourites’ who wielded a great deal of influence at Edward II’s court in the middle years of his reign.  His namesake son and heir, a close friend of Edward III, became earl of Salisbury in 1337. ”

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
WILLIAM MONTECUTE, ANOTHER ROYAL FAVOURITE (1)
6 JANUARY 2011

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2011/01/william-montacute -another-royal.html

”Eventually, Edward decided to take direct action against Mortimer. Aided by his close companion William Montagu and a small number of other trusted men, Edward took Mortimer by surprise at Nottingham Castle on 19 October 1330. Mortimer was executed and Edward III’s personal reign began.”

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD III OF ENGLAND/EARLY LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_III_of_England#Early_li fe

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD III OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_III_of_England

YOUTUBE.COM
SHE WOLVES: ENGLAND’S EARLY QUEENS: ISABELLA AND
MARGARET

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=192QjemfTh0&t=1899s

[752]

” on 19 October, Montague led a force of twenty three armed men into the castle by a secret tunnel. Up in the keep, Isabella, Mortimer and other council members were discussing how to arrest Montague, when Montague and his men appeared.[136] Fighting broke out on the stairs and Mortimer was overwhelmed in his chamber. Isabella threw herself at Edward’s feet, famously crying “Fair son, have pity on gentle Mortimer!“”

WIKIPEDIA
ISABELLA OF FRANCE, MORTIMER’S FALL FROM POWER, 1330

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Isabella_of_France#Mortimer.27 s_fall_from_power.2C_1330

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ISABELLA OF FRANCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Isabella_of_France

”Eventually, Edward decided to take direct action against Mortimer. Aided by his close companion William Montagu and a small number of other trusted men, Edward took Mortimer by surprise at Nottingham Castle on 19 October 1330. Mortimer was executed and Edward III’s personal reign began.”

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD III OF ENGLAND/EARLY LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_III_of_England#Early_li fe

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD III OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_III_of_England

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
19 OCTOBER 1330: EDWARD III’S ARREST OF ROGER MORTIMER
19 OCTOBER 2012

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2012/10/19-october-1330-e dward-iiis-arrest-of.html

YOUTUBE.COM
SHE WOLVES: ENGLAND’S EARLY QUEENS: ISABELLA AND
MARGARET

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=192QjemfTh0&t=1899s

[753]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE EXECUTION OF ROGER MORTIMER
29 NOVEMBER 2006

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2006/11/execution-of- roger-mortimer.html

[754]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE EXECUTION OF ROGER MORTIMER
29 NOVEMBER 2006

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2006/11/execution-of- roger-mortimer.html

[755]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE EXECUTION OF ROGER MORTIMER
29 NOVEMBER 2006

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2006/11/execution-of- roger-mortimer.html

[756]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE EXECUTION OF ROGER MORTIMER
29 NOVEMBER 2006

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2006/11/execution-of- roger-mortimer.html

[757]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
THE EXECUTION OF ROGER MORTIMER
29 NOVEMBER 2006

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2006/11/execution-of- roger-mortimer.html

”Accused of assuming royal power and of various other high misdemeanours, he was condemned without trial and ignominiously hanged at Tyburn on 29 November 1330, his vast estates forfeited to the crown.”

WIKIPEDIA
ROGER MORTIMER, 1ST EARL OF MARCH/POWERS WON AND LOST

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Roger_Mortimer,_1st_Earl_of_ March#Powers_won_and_lost

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ROGER MORTIMER, 1ST EARL OF MARCH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Roger_Mortimer,_1st_Earl_of_ March

[758]

”The title was created for a second time in 1337 for William Montacute. It was inherited later by Richard Neville the Kingmaker, upon whose death the title went into abeyance because multiple individuals were entitled to inherit it.”

WIKIPEDIA
EARL OF SALISBURY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Earl_of_Salisbury

WIKIPEDIA
EARLS OF SALISBURY, SECOND CREATION (1337)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Earl_of_Salisbury#Earls_of_ Salisbury.2C_Second_Creation_. 281337.29

ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
EARL OF SALISBURY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Earl_of_Salisbury

[759]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
19 OCTOBER 1330: EDWARD III’S ARREST OF ROGER MORTIMER
19 OCTOBER 2012

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2012/10/19-october-1330- edward-iiis-arrest-of.html

[760]

WIKIPEDIA
ROGER MORTIMER, 1ST EARL OF MARCH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Roger_Mortimer,_1st_Earl_of_Ma rch

[761]

Through his son Sir Edmund Mortimer, he is an ancestor of the last Plantagenet monarchs of England from King Edward IV to Richard III. By Edward IV’s daughter, Elizabeth of York, the Earl of March is an ancestor to King Henry VIII and to all subsequent monarchs of the United Kingdom.”

WIKIPEDIA
ROGER MORTIMER, 1ST EARL OF MARCH/ROYAL DESCENDANTS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Roger_Mortimer,_1st_Earl_of_Ma rch#Royal_descendants

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ROGER MORTIMER, 1ST EARL OF MARCH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Roger_Mortimer,_1st_Earl_of_Ma rch

Reacties uitgeschakeld voor Notes 667-761 at article about Thomas, Earl of Lancaster

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