Tag archieven: House of Lancaster

Encyclopaedia Britannica versus Astrid Essed about the superior claim of the House of York on the English throne/Encyclopaedia Britannica corrects a mistake [2015]

HISTORICAL FICTION

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_(film)

Richard II King of England.jpg

HISTORICAL IMAGE

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_of_England

KING RICHARD II, [SON OF THE BLACK PRINCE, THE FIRST

SON OF KING EDWARD III AND THEREFORE SUCCESSOR

OF KING EDWARD III], WHO DECLARED ROGER MORTIMER

HIS HEIR PRESUMPTIVE.

ROGER MORTIMER WAS THE SON OF RICHARD II’S FIRST

COUSIN PHILIPPA,

THE DAUGHTER OF THE SECOND SON OF KING EDWARD III,

LIONEL OF ANTWERP

AND THEREFORE NEXT IN LINE TO THE SUCCESSION TO

THE THRONE, AS LONG AS RICHARD II WAS CHILDLESS.

ROGER MORTIMER HAD TWO CHILDREN, EDMUND, 4TH EARL OF

MARCH AND ANNE MORTIMER, WHO MARRIED RICHARD CONISBURGH,

SON OF EDMUND OF LANGLEY, DUKE OF YORK [FOURTH SON

OF EDWARD III]

AFTER HIS DEATH, ROGER MORTIMER PASSED HIS HEIR

PRESUMPTIVE RIGHT TO HIS SON EDMUND, 5TH EARL

OF MARCH, WHO PASSED THIS RIGHT TO HIS NEPHEW

RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK,  SON OF HIS SISTER

ANNE MORTIMER.

WHEN RICHARD II WAS USURPED BY HIS COUSIN

HENRY BOLINGBROKE [LATER KING HENRY IV, SON OF JOHN

OF GAUNT, THE THIRD SON OF KING EDWARD III AND

THEREFORE WITH A LESSER RIGHT TO THE THRONE

THAN EDMUND MORTIMER],

EDMUND, THE SON OF THE LATE ROGER MORTIMER,

BEING THE RIGHTFUL SUCCESSOR, WAS OVERLOOKED.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_III_of_England

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lionel_of_Antwerp,_1st_Duke_of_Clarence

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippa,_5th_Countess_of_Ulster

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Mortimer,_4th_Earl_of_March

ROGER MORTIMER’S SON AND DAUGHTER, EDMUND AND

ANNE MORTIMER

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Mortimer,_5th_Earl_of_March

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anne_de_Mortimer

ANNE MORTIMER’S SON, RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK,

GRANDSON [FROM HIS MOTHER’S SIDE]

OF ROGER MORTIMER

HIS CLAIM TO THE THRONE WAS BASED ON HIS

MATERNAL SIDE AND SUPERIOR TO THE LANCASTERS,

WHO DESCENDED FROM THE THIRD SON OF EDWARD III,

WHILE RICHARD DESCENDED FROM THE SECOND SON

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_York

King Henry IV from NPG (2).jpg

KING HENRY IV, WHO USURPED THE THRONE OF RICHARD II AS

HENRY BOLINGBROKE, HIS COUSIN

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_IV_of_England

File:Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York.jpg

RICHARD OF YORK, CLAIMANT TO THE ENGLISH THRONE

AND ONE OF THE MAIN LEADERS OF THE WAR OF ROSES

[WAR BETWEEN THE HOUSES OF LANCASTER AND YORK,

BOTH DESCENDANTS OF KING EDWARD III]

[HISTORICAL IMAGE]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_York

King Henry V from NPG.jpg

KING HENRY V, SON OF KING HENRY IV

[HISTORICAL IMAGE]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_V_of_England

KING HENRY VI OF ENGLAND, SON OF KING HENRY V

[HISTORICAL IMAGE]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VI_of_England

MARGARET OF ANJOU, QUEEN OF ENGLAND

[HISTORICAL IMAGE]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_of_Anjou

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA VERSUS ASTRID ESSED ABOUT

THE SUPERIOR CLAIM OF THE HOUSE OF YORK ON THE THRONE/

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA CORRECTS A TEXT

WARS OF THE ROSES/ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA CORRECTS A TEXT

AND CHANGES ”USURPATION” IN ”OVERTHROWING” AFTER THE

ASTRID ESSED COMMENTS IN 2015!

READERS!

This you’ll love!

Encyclopaedia Britannica corrected a historical fault they made, due to some

comments from your author, Astrid Essed!

However:

Although they changed it, it would have been nice if they

had mentioned me. Astrid Essed as the person who pointed them on this fact…. 

READ!

As you know, I’ve written a number of articles and comments [and posted

from other authors] about the Wars of the Roses

https://www.astridessed.nl/?s=Wars+of+the+Roses

And writing those articles, I stumbled on Encyclopaedia Britannica, where

originally was written the following about a decisive episode

during the Wars of the Roses, that [in]famous Fight for the English throne

between the two Plantagenet branches of the Royal House,

the Lancasters and the Yorks.

Encyclopaedia Britannica wrote the following:

””House of York, younger branch of the house of Plantagenet<http://www.britann ica.com/EBchecked/topic/ 463365/house-of-Plantagenet> of England<http://www.britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/700965/Eng land>. In the 15th century, having usurped the throne from the house of Lancaster<http://www.britannic a.com/EBchecked/topic/328992/ house-of-Lancaster>, it provided three kings of England—Edward IV, Edward V<http://www.britannica.com/EB checked/topic/179763/Edward-V> , and Richard III—and, in turn defeated, passed on its claims to the Tudor dynasty.”

LETTER TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

In a Letter to the Encyclopaedia Britannica I made clear,

that the term ”usurpation” was wrong, since usurpation

means ””illegal seizure and occupation of a throne.” and it was no usurpation, since a long history preceded it and actually the House of

York, that took over the royal Power in 1461 after the

Battle of Towton, had a stronger claim 

than the House of Lancaster on the English throne,

descending from Lionel

of Antwerp, the second son of king Edward III, in the female

line, while

the Lancasters descended from John of Gaunt,

the third som of king Edward III, in the male line.

 I wrote about that to Encyclopaedia Britannica

”Although you call the overthrowing of the Act

of Accord an usurpation, to my opinion it is no

usurpation at all, since the Lancasters should not have to

be kings all along, due to the superior claim to the throne

of York, as the Lancaster usurpation of King Richard II.”

SEE FOR THE WHOLE LETTER IN WHICH I 

EMPHASIZED THE RIGHT OF FEMALES ON THE ENGLISH THRONE

[THE HOUSE OF YOURK HAD A SUPERIOR

RIGHT ON THE THRONE THROUGH FEMALE DESCENT] ON THE

THRONE]

https://www.astridessed.nl/the-wars-of-the-roseslancaster-and-yorkusurpation-and-the-right-to-the-throne-by-femalesletter-to-encyclopaedia-britannica/ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA ACKNOWLEDGED THEIRFAULT AND CHANGED TEXT FROM ”USURPATION”TO ”OVERTHROWING”!
And you know what!The Encyclopaedia Britannica acknowlegded theirfault and…..changed their textHere was their reaction on my Letter:

On Thursday, March 12, 2015 1:15 PM, ukcustomerservice <ukcustomerservice@britannica. co.uk> wrote:

Dear Astrid Essed,

Thank you for your e-mail.

Please see below the feedback from the Editorial Team regarding the feedback that you have given.

OK, we’ve made a couple of small changes to this article, based on the reader’s message. Here’s the description of the revision in the article history (http://www.britannica.com/top ic/653692/history):

“Changing ‘usurped’ to ‘overthrown’ to acknowledge the contention of the legitimacy of the York claim based on the ‘Mortimer Claim.’ Also mentioned the 14th century practice among the nobility of privileging heir-male claims over heir-general claims.”

House of York, younger branch of the house of Plantagenet of England. In the 15th century, having overthrown the house of Lancaster, it provided three kings of England—Edward IVEdward V, and Richard III—and, in turn defeated, passed on its claims to the Tudor dynasty.”

The revised article can be seen at http://www.britannica.com/E Bchecked/topic/653692/house-of -York.

Kind regards

Britannica Customer Service

If you can include any previous message history in your reply it will speed up the time it takes to reply.

We hope that this is of some help to you.  If you require further assistance with this, please do not hesitate to contact us on 0800 282433 or +44 207 500 7843 for customers outside the UK.

Encyclopædia Britannica (UK) Ltd
Registered in England and Wales: Number 3830890”

THAT WAS THEIR REACTION!

You can understand I was a little proud on that and see the

text about the House of York you can read now!

SEE TEXT ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA UNDER NOTE 1

[NOTE 1, A]

And as an extra Source, under Note 1, my whole Correspondence with the Encyclopaedia Britannica

[B]

ENJOY!

ASTRID ESSED

A

NOTE 1

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

HOUSE OF YORK

https://www.britannica.com/topic/house-of-York

house of York, younger branch of the house of Plantagenet of England. In the 15th century, having overthrown the house of Lancaster, it provided three kings of England—Edward IVEdward V, and Richard III—and, in turn defeated, passed on its claims to the Tudor dynasty.

The house was founded by King Edward III’s fifth son, Edmund of Langley (1341–1402), 1st Duke of York, but Edmund and his own son, Edward, 2nd Duke of York, had for the most part undistinguished careers. Edward, dying childless, passed on the dukedom to his nephew Richard (whose mother was a descendant of Edward III’s second surviving son, Lionel, Duke of Clarence). Richard, 3rd Duke of York (1411–60), was the initial Yorkist claimant to the crown, in opposition to the Lancastrian Henry VI. It may be said that his claim, when it was advanced, was rightly barred by prescription, the house of Lancaster having then occupied the throne for three generations, and that it was really owing to the misgovernment of Queen Margaret of Anjou and her favourites that it was advanced at all. Yet it was founded upon strict principles of lineal descent, for the 3rd Duke of York was descended from Lionel, Duke of Clarence, the second surviving son of Edward III, whereas the house of Lancaster came of John of Gaunt, a younger brother of Lionel. One thing that might possibly have been considered an element of weakness in Richard’s claim was that it was derived through females—an objection actually brought against it by Chief Justice John Fortescue (probably a reflection of the increasingly common practice among the English nobility of passing on their estates to a male heir). But apart from strict legality, Richard’s claim was probably supported in the popular view by the fact that he was descended from Edward III through his father no less than through his mother.

After seeking for many years to correct the weakness of Henry VI’s government, Richard first took up arms and at length claimed the crown in Parliament as his right. The Lords, or those who did not purposely stay away from the House, admitted that his claim was unimpeachable but suggested as a compromise that Henry should retain the crown for life and that Richard and his heirs succeed after his death. This was accepted by Richard, and an act to that effect received Henry’s own assent. But the act was repudiated by Margaret of Anjou and her followers, and Richard was slain at Wakefield fighting against them. In little more than two months, however, his son was proclaimed king at London by the title of

Edward IV, and the bloody victory in the Battle of Towton immediately after drove his enemies into exile and paved the way for his coronation.

After his recovery of the throne in 1471, Edward IV had little more to fear from the rivalry of the house of Lancaster. But the seeds of distrust had already been sown among the members of his own family, and in 1478 his brother Clarence was put to death—secretly, indeed, within the Tower of London, but still by his authority and that of Parliament—as a traitor. In 1483 Edward himself died; and his eldest son, Edward V, after a nominal reign of two months and a half, was put aside by his uncle, the Duke of Gloucester, who became Richard III, and then, it is said, caused him and his brother Richard, Duke of York, to be murdered. But in little more than two years Richard was slain at Bosworth Field by the Tudor Earl of Richmond, who, being proclaimed king as Henry VII, shortly afterwards fulfilled his pledge to marry the eldest daughter of Edward IV and so unite the houses of York and Lancaster.

Here the dynastic history of the house of York ends, for its claims were henceforth merged in those of the house of Tudor.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Jeff Wallenfeldt.
END OF NOTE 1

B

MY CORRESPONDENCE IN EMAIL WITH THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

ADDED

MY LAST REACTION ABOUT THE CHANGES OF ENCYCLOPAEDIA 

BRITANNICA

THE WARS OF THE ROSES/THE HOUSE OF YORK/

REACTION ON ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA’S CHANGES IN

THEIR ARTICLE AFTER MY COMMENTS

ASTRID ESSED

13 MARCH 2015

NOW:

CORRESPONDENCE WITH ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA ON

EMAILOn Thursday, March 12, 2015 1:15 PM, ukcustomerservice <ukcustomerservice@britannica. co.uk> wrote:

Dear Astrid Essed,

Thank you for your e-mail.

Please see below the feedback from the Editorial Team regarding the feedback that you have given.

OK, we’ve made a couple of small changes to this article, based on the reader’s message. Here’s the description of the revision in the article history (http://www.britannica.com/top ic/653692/history):

“Changing ‘usurped’ to ‘overthrown’ to acknowledge the contention of the legitimacy of the York claim based on the ‘Mortimer Claim.’ Also mentioned the 14th century practice among the nobility of privileging heir-male claims over heir-general claims.”

House of York, younger branch of the house of Plantagenet of England. In the 15th century, having overthrown the house of Lancaster, it provided three kings of England—Edward IVEdward V, and Richard III—and, in turn defeated, passed on its claims to the Tudor dynasty.”

The revised article can be seen at http://www.britannica.com/E Bchecked/topic/653692/house-of -York.

Kind regards

Britannica Customer Service

If you can include any previous message history in your reply it will speed up the time it takes to reply.

We hope that this is of some help to you.  If you require further assistance with this, please do not hesitate to contact us on 0800 282433 or +44 207 500 7843 for customers outside the UK.

Encyclopædia Britannica (UK) Ltd
Registered in England and Wales: Number 3830890

______________________________ __
From: Astrid Essed [astridessed@yahoo.com]
Sent: 25 February 2015 04:38
To: ukcustomerservice
Subject: Re: (ESSED, Astrid) Britannica [AM]

TO BRITANNICA CUSTOMER SERVICE

Dear Sir/Madam,

You’re welcome.
I passed this feedback to you with great pleasure.
Thanks very much for your reaction and the trouble you
have taken to pass my feedback to your
Editorial Team.

To make things easier I send you the letter to Encyclopaedia
Britannica as posted on my website, as a later comment
on the same subject

See

THE WARS OF THE ROSES/LANCASTER AND YORK/
USURPATION AND THE RIGHT TO THE THRONE BY
FEMALES/LETTER TO ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

http://www.astridessed.nl/the- wars-of-the-roseslancaster-and -yorkusurpation-and-the-right- to-the-throne-by-femalesletter -to-encyclopaedia-britannica/

Later comment:

THE WARS OF THE ROSES/LANCASTER AND YORK/
USURPATION AND THE RIGHT TO THE THRONE THROUGH
FEMALES

http://www.astridessed.nl/the- wars-of-the-roseslancaster-and -yorkusurpation-and-the-right- to-the-throne-through-females- 2/

See also the page ”Wars of Roses” on my website

http://www.astridessed.nl/?s=W ars+of+the+Roses

I am looking forward to the reaction of your Editorial Team

Kind greetings

Astrid Essed

Amsterdam 
The Netherlands

On Tuesday, February 24, 2015 1:15 PM, ukcustomerservice <ukcustomerservice@britannica. co.uk> wrote:

Dear Ms Essed,

Thank you for your e-mail.

We have passed your comprehensive feedback on to our Editorial Team for review.  Thank you for taking the time to review this content and provide all of this feedback.  When they have reviewed your comments we will let you know their response.

Kind regards

Britannica Customer Service

If you can include any previous message history in your reply it will speed up the time it takes to reply.

We hope that this is of some help to you.  If you require further assistance with this, please do not hesitate to contact us on 0800 282433 or +44 207 500 7843 for customers outside the UK.

Encyclopædia Britannica (UK) Ltd
Registered in England and Wales: Number 3830890

______________________________ __
From: Astrid Essed [astridessed@yahoo.com<mailto: astridessed@yahoo.com>]
Sent: 16 February 2015 22:19
To: enquiries – General Enquiries at Britannica.co.uk
Subject: Comments on your Page about the House of York

TO THE EDITORS OF ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA
YOUR ARTICLE ABOUT THE HOUSE OF YORK
SOME COMMENTS

Dear Editors,

At first I want to express my great admiration for your
large scale History Page about ther various periods
of human history,

http://www.britannica.com/topi c-browse/History

I especially paid attention on your contributions
to the English Late Medieval History and visited
your page about the Hundred Years War between England
and France  with pleasure, learning much of your
information

http://www.britannica.com/topi c-browse/History/Middle-Ages/ Hundred-Years-War

THE WARS OF THE ROSES
YOUR PAGE OF THE HOUSE OF YORK
COMMENTS

A historian myself, I wrote some articles about the
Wars of the Roses [1]
See some of my articles  below.

Regarding your excellent contributions,  I have  read
your page about the House of York with
much interest.

See

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA, HOUSE OF YORK

http://www.britannica.com/EBch ecked/topic/653692/house-of- York

However I want to make some comments on your contribution,
referring to your remarks about the ”usurpation” of the House of
Lancaster by the House of York, as the ”weakness” of the
claim to the throne by Richard, Duke of York, being derived by
females.

But first, the usurpation:

FIRST:

USURPATION OF THE THRONE OF THE HOUSE OF
LANCASTER BY THE HOUSE OF YORK

In your comment you wrote

”House of York, younger branch of the house of Plantagenet<http://www.britann ica.com/EBchecked/topic/ 463365/house-of-Plantagenet> of England<http://www.britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/700965/Eng land>. In the 15th century, having usurped the throne from the house of Lancaster<http://www.britannic a.com/EBchecked/topic/328992/ house-of-Lancaster>, it provided three kings of England—Edward IV, Edward V<http://www.britannica.com/EB checked/topic/179763/Edward-V> , and Richard III—and, in turn defeated, passed on its claims to the Tudor dynasty.” [2]

I think you are wrong here, since, according to my opinion,
there was no  ”usurpation” here, in the classic meaning of the
definition.
To go to the definition of ”usurpation”:

”illegal seizure and occupation of a throne.” [3]

I will not go extensively  into your remark that the House
of York ”passed on its claims to the Tudor dynasty”, which is wrong.
Because, although there was a certain [not Tudor,
but Beaufort/Lancaster] claim to the English throne [4], the
House of York had a far stronger claim to the throne.
I refer to that later.
And smart Henry Tudor [who became King Henry
VII and was undoubtedly aware of that stronger York claim]
claimed the throne as ”right of conquest”,not
by ”right of inheritance”,  after
his victory in the Battle of Bosworth, where he defeated
the Yorkist King Richard III. [5]
And as a ”right of conquest” the legality of Henry’s kingship
was considered generally. [6]

No, the main point I want to focus here is your remark
”’House of York, younger branch of the house of Plantagenet<http://www.britann ica.com/EBchecked/topic/ 463365/house-of-Plantagenet> of England<http://www.britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/700965/Eng land>. In the 15th century, having usurped the throne from the house of Lancaster<http://www.britannic a.com/EBchecked/topic/328992/ house-of-Lancaster>”  [7]

USURPATION
THE ACT OF ACCORD

I said it before
According the definition, usurpation is
”illegal seizure and occupation of a throne.”

That means not only deposing a King
(which was almost a deadly sin in the Middle
Ages), but also through someone
who had none or lesser right to the throne.

In this case, at first there was no deposal of
the throne at all, since there was ”the Act of Accord”
and later, when King Edward IV ascended the
throne, the deposal of King Henry VI  was not as ”illegal”
as it seemed, because of two factors:
The stronger claim of the House of York to the throne,
[the Mortimer claim to the throne],
as the fact, that the House of Lancaster itself rose into power
by usurpation.
But first the Act of Accord

I referred to the fact, that there was no deposal at all
at first, mentioning the Act of Accord in 1460. [8].
that  included, that King Henry VI remained King of England,
but that Richard, Duke of York and his heirs would
succeed Henry, thus desinheriting Henry´s son, Edward of Westminster. [9]

Of course one can put  questions by disinheriting the
Kings´s son, but that’s another story.
The Act of Accord was a legal document, as a
result of negociations between the Duke of York and
the Parliament.(10), after his come back from Ireland
and (indeed) seemed to have tried  to seize the throne.[11]

Admitted, that [the deal of the Duke of York with the Parliament] was power play, since the party
of the Duke of York was on the winning hand in the
Wars of the Roses at that moment, but the Act of Accord
did not come ´´out of the blue´´ either.

ACT OF ACCORD
WHAT HAPPENED BEFORE

Susan Higginbotham, historical fictional writer of
Margaret Anjou, mentions the Act of Accord as
´´York, after all, had bullied her husband (Henry VI, my remark)
into disinheriting his own son in favor of York´´ (12)
and it is her right to see it like that, but I have another vision,
because I take the whole history, which preceeded the Accord Act.
into consideration.

Since King Henry VI’s uncle, Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester,
died in 1447, Richard, Duke of York, was heir presumptive
to the then childless King Henry VI. [13]
But from various reasons, King Henry VI, and his wife,
Queen Margaret of Anjou [14] favourited the party
of the Duke’s adversary, Edmund Beaufort, 1st Duke
of Somerset [who was of the Lancaster Swynford line] [15]
and sent Richard as Lieutenant to Ireland,
obviously in a sort of exile.[16]
Tensions grew high in the 50ths between York and
the Duke of Somerset [with the Queen as his ally],
the King got mental ill and in 1453 became father, which
ended York’s position as heir presumptive, but due
to the mental illness of the King, he became Protector
of the Realm twice.
Enmity between York and Somerset [and Margaret of
Anjou] rose farther and probably they wanted York
to be arrested, so he and his allies armed themselves.
A military confrontation was enevitable and broke out between York [with
his brother in law and his nephew, Warwick the Kingmaker as
allies] and the King [actually the Queen and Somerset],
which was the start of the Wars of the Roses.
After several bloody battles, in 1459, the Coventry Parliament
[probably instigated by Margaret of Anjou] attainted York and his allies [declared them to ”traitors” without trial] and forfeited their lives and
estates [17], which left York [according to my opinion]
no choice than first flee to Ireland and later
trying to seize the throne, resulting in the Act of Accord.

I don’t think either York, however ambitious, was after the
throne, before 1460.
He had enough opportunities to have taken the throne before
that [especially when the King was in his power after the
First Battle of St Albans in 1455], but he never made an attempt
untill he was pushed to the edge by the attainder of 1459. [18]

THE ACT OF ACCORD
AFTERMATH
BLOODY WAR, WAKEFIELD

When the Act of Accord had been accepted by the Lancastrian party,
probably King Henry should have remained King till his death, but
the bloody battles intensified.
Understandably, Margaret of Anjou was furious about her son’s disinheritance
and refused to accept it.
She went to Scotland, asking Mary of Guelders, the Queen Regent,
military support against the Yorkist party[19]  and the military
confrontations went on.
In her absence,  the Battle of Wakefield took place,where the Duke
of York [higly probable] died in battle and his son Edmund Earl of
Rutland, as the Dukes brother in law, the 5th Earl of Salisbury
[the father of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, the ”Kingmaker],
were executed after the battle. [20]
Unlike popular belief, Margaret of Anjou was not present at Wakefield, so
she couldn’t have ordered their executions. [21]
She returned to England and defeated Warwick in the 2nd Battle
of St Albans [22], where she was responsible for the
executions following. [23]
However, she spared the life of John Neville, brother of
the Earl of Warwick, probably since the brother
of her commander  the 3rd Duke of Somerset
[son to the late 2nd Duke of Somerset, enemy of Richard of York]
was a captive in Yorkist hands. [24]

But relieved as she might have been to get rid of the Duke of York,
she had a more formidable military adversary in his son and heir
Edward, now Duke of York, who defeated the Lancastrian forces in
the bloody and decisive Battle of Towton. [25]

THE ACT OF ACCORD/AFTERMATH
THE DUKE OF YORK’S SON AND HEIR’S
ASCENDANCY TO THE THRONE
KING EDWARD IV

Edward of York was not like his father, who had a loyalty
to the throne till he was pushed to the extremes.
Probably hardened by the loss of his father and brother at
Wakefield [where Warwick also lost his father and brother
Edward’s maternal uncle and cousin],as by an attitude
of machiavellistic politics,  he was not inclined
to hold on to the Act of accord, remaining Henry VI King of England.
In fact, since his mental instability, as the reality of
Edward’s victories, he wouldn’t have ruled anyway.
He was imprisoned in the Tower.

At march 1461, Edward was declared King of England, fulfilling
his father’s wishes for his sons.

USURPATION OR NOT?
THE CLAIMS TO THE THRONE OF THE HOUSE
OF YORK

Although you call the overthrowing of the Act
of Accord an usurpation, to my opinion it is no
usurpation at all, since the Lancasters should not have to
be kings all along, due to the superior claim to the throne
of York, as the Lancaster usurpation of King Richard II. [26]

The claims to the throne first.

Richard, Duke of York had superior claims to the throne.
He was the grandson of Edmund of Langley, the fourth son
of King Edward III, but that was not his superior claim, since
the House of Lancaster [The ”King Henry’s” as the Beauforts}
descended from John of Gaunt, the third son of King Edward III.
But it was his mother” side, that gave him the superior claim.[27]

York’s maternal grandfather, Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March,
was the materrnal grandson of Lionel of Antwerp, the SECOND son
of King Edward III and that gave him a greater claim than that of the Lancaster.
See the Family Tree

King Edward III

Lionel of Antwerp [second son to Edward III]

Philippa P lantagenet [Lionel’s daughter], married Edmund Mortimer, 3rd
3th Earl of March

Roger, 4th Earl of March [Philippa Plantagenet’s son]

Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March [son to Roger]

Anne Mortimer [daughter to Roger], maried Richard Conisburtgh
[son of Edmund of Langley, first Duke of York]

Richard, Duke of York [son to Anne Mortimer, descendant of
Lionel of Antwerp, second son of Edward II]

Isabel Plantagenet [daughter to Anne Mortimer and sister to
Richard, Duke of York] [28]

MORTIMERS CLAIM TO THE THRONE

But there was more, which asserted the superior York claims.
Since King Richard II was childless, he appointed as his heir
presumptive, Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March
  [Richard of York’s maternal grandfather].
Roger was the son of Richard II’s cousin Philippa
[Richard II and Philippa were the children of two brothers,
The Black Prince and Lionel of Antwerp, the first and second son
of King Edward III]. [29]

Roger Mortimer never became King, since he died a year before Richard II, but
his heir presumptive right passed to his son, Edmund, 5th Earl of March,
who was the maternal uncle of Richard of York. [30]

However, since Henry Bolingbroke usurped the throne from Richard II, Edmund,
only a boy, was overlooked, so also his superior right to the throne. [31]
However, when Edmund Mortimer [brother to Richard the Duke’s mother,
Anne Mortimer]died childless, York not only inherited his lands and estates,
as his titles, but also his heir presumptive right.

After the death of King Henry VI’s uncle, Humphrey,
Duke of Gloucester, [brother of his father Henry V],York became heir
presumptive till the birth of Henry’s son in 1453, Edward of
Westminster. [32]

WHO WERE THE REAL USURPERS?
LANCASTER USURPATION OF RICHARD II

I have shown above, that it was Henry IV, founder of the House
of Lancaster, who usurped not only the
throne of England by deposing the rightful King Richard II [33],
but also overlooked the rightful heir presumptive, Edmund  Mortimer.
When the right to the throne was justly followed, not King Henry IV,
but Edmund Mortimer had ascended the throne and was probably
succeeded by his nephew Richard, Duke of York.

Therefore it is [with all respect] utter nonsense to speak of
an ”usurpation of the throne” by Edward, son of Richard of York,
in 1461.
The only usurpators were the Lancasters.

Amitted, due to the military succesful reign of King Henry V [34],
the usurpation was forgotten, but that didn’t make it undone.
Therefore it were the Mortimers and their descendant
Richard of York, who should have been Kings from the beginning.

I think that was the reason, that York was ousted of power
and sent to Ireland in the late 40s.
And probably the reason, Margaret of Anjou didn’t trust him. [35]

SECOND:

THE ”WEAKNESS” OF THE CLAIM OF
RICHARD OF YORK, SINCE IT WAS DERIVED
FROM FEMALES?

You justly confirmed the superior claim of York
to the House of Lancaster, as you correctly state,
that was the reign of Henry VI succesful, the claim
was never advanced at all.
I also think, that the only reason York advanced his
claim was the unsuccesful rule of Henry VI,
due to his mental problems, his corrupt advisors,
as the great losses in the Hundred Years War.

But I disagree with you on the point, that the weakness
in the claim of York was, that it was derived from females.

Because although men had the first rights to the throne,
there was no Salic Law in England, that exclude women from
the throne, nor from claims to the throne, which passed
through their descendants.

For example Queen Maud [mother to the later
King Henry II and daughter to King Henry I, who was the
son to William the Conqueror] was declared heiress to
the throne by her father after the death of his only son. [36]
Granted, the Norman barons didn’t accept her after the death
of her father and civil war burst out [37], but were women excluded,
her father should not have declare his daughter heiress.

But moreover, claiming rights to the throne from female line
is done in English history at several occasions and was
considered legally and valid.

FOUR IMPORTANT HISTORICAL OCCASIONS
BY WHICH MEN CLAIMED OR INHERITED THE THRONE
FROM FEMALE LINE

There are at least four important occasions by which men
claimed the throne from female descent.

First:
Stephen of Blois, cousin to Queen Maud [daughter
of King Henry I and heiress to the throne], who claimed
the right to the throne through female line [being a maternal
grandson to William the Conqueror]

The first was in the time of Queen Maud [called also
”Empress Maud because of her earlier marriage with
the Holy Roman Emperor].
Her right to the English throne was challenged by her
cousin, Stephen of Blois, who claimed the throne
through his grandfather, William the Conqueror, who
was his maternal grandfather. [38]
He had men enough, prepared to support his maternal
claim, took the throne, drove his cousin Mathilda and her husband Henry
of Anjou out of the country and a yearlong military struggle, the
anarchy, started. [39]
Eventually, after the death of Stephen’s son and heir,
a deal was made, that Stephen would rule, but had to recognise
Maud’s son, Henry of Anjou, as his heir. [40]

Second:
Henry of Anjou [King Henry II], son to Queen Maud, who inherited the throne through his mother.

After Stephen’s death, Henry of Anjou would become King Henry
II [41], father to Richard Lion Heart [Richard I] (42) and John, King
of England [John Lackland] [43]
Henry II was the founder of the Plantagenet Dynasty. [44]

So here are two men who claimed or inherited their throne
from females.
Stephen of Blois, claiming the throne as a grandson of
William the Conqueror from his mother’s side as
King Henry II, who inherited the throne from his mother’s
side.
No ”weakness” here.

Third
King Edward III, who claimed the French throne through
his mother, Isabella of France
Resulting in the Hundred Years War with France, being the
maternal grandson of the French King Philip IV.

Perhaps most famous is the claim to the French throne,
laid by King Edward III [45], through is mother, Queen
Isabella of France (46), who was the daughter of the French
King, Philip IV (47)
That made Edward III the maternal grandson to a French King.
When the last son of King Philip IV, named Charles IV (48),
died in 1328 without a male heir, the question was
Who is going to be the new King!
His sister Isabella, mother of Edward III, claimed the throne
for her son, but problem was, that since 1316 the Salic
Law was introduced in France (which excluded women as
heirs to the throne). (49)
This was no coincidence, but due to an adultery scandal,
involving the wives of Charles IV and his brother Louis X (50),
The Tour de Nesle Affair (51), questioning the paternity
of the sons of the King.
This was particularly urgent after the death of Louis X, since
the legitimacy of his daughter Joan was in question, (52)
due to her mother´s alleged adultery. (53)

Anyway, Isabella´s claim to the throne for Edward III was
rejected, since she, being a woman, was excluded from the
rights to the throne and couldn´t transmit a right what she
didn´t possess. (54)
But that was the French Law.
Point I want to make is, that claiming through a female
was quite strong in England, which didn´t know the Salic
Law.
Eventually Edward III would claim the French throne
anyway [55], which was one of the causes of the
Hundred Year´s war with France.
And that´s my second point I want to state.
Since no one in England questioned Edward´s claim
through a female and the nobles wholeheartedly supported
him in the war with France, female claims were neither
unusual nor ´´weak´´.

FOURTH
LANCASTER CLAIM TO THE THRONE THROUGH
FEMALE LINE/THE QUESTION EDMUND CROUCHBACK

Since Henry Bolingbroke usurped the throne of Richard II in
1399, becoming King Henry IV, a Lancaster right to the throne
was of the greatest importance, that was superior
to  that of Richard II, son of the first son of Edward III
as the Mortimer right to the throne [descendants of
Lionel of Antwerp, second son of Edward III.
So Henry IV was clever enough not to base his claim on his
fathers side, since John of Gaunt [his father] was the third son
of Edward III.
In stead of that, he based it on the side of his mother, Blanche,
of Lancaster [56], who was the great granddaughter of Edmund Crouchback.[57]
And Edmund Crouchback was the son of King Henry III [58] and the
younger brother of King Edward I. [59]
One could say?
So what about the claim.
Well, here it is.
According to Henry IV [Lancastrian views], this Edmund Crouchback was
not the second son of Henry III, but his first son in stead of Edward I,
but disinherited because of his bodily deformity [a twisted back]

You see the consequences?
That makes King Edward I, II, III and Richard II a sort of usurpers
and the rights to the throne of Richard II as the Mortimers claim
null and void, since Edward III would be an usurper king.
However, it’s a pity for Henry IV and the other Lancasters, who
claimed the Crouchback case, that there is no proof
whatsoever, that Edward I was not the first son of
King Henry III.
So its pure Lancastrian propaganda. [60]

I mentioned this ”Edmund Crouchback claim” as the fourth
historfical example of men, who based their claims on females
or inherited the throne by females.

A proof, that deriving a right to the throne from females,
as has done by Richard, Duke of York, was not ”weak”
at all, but has proven valid and generally accepted through
English history.

EPILOGUE

To my opinion, the deposing of King Henry VI by Edward of York,
son of Richard, Duke of York, was no usurpation, since
The Duke of York [who passed the right to the throne to his
eldest son, Edward] had a superior right to the throne than King Henry VI,
[called the Mortimer claim]
being the descendant of Lionel of Antwerp, second son
of Edward III, while Henry was the descendant of the third son
of Edward III, John of Gaunt.
In fact, after the death of King Richard II, the Dukes uncle,
Edmund Mortimer, who was heir presumptive to Richard II
should have become King of England.
So by deposing Henry VI, Edward of York took his rightful
place on the throne.

The reason why Edmund Mortimer didn’t become King was
lain in the usurpation of Henry IV [grandfather to Henry VI] of
the throne of Richard II, which was not only illegitimate,
but also overlooking the superior Mortimer claim of Edmund
Mortimer.

You also remarked the ”weak point” of the Mortimer claim
[York’s right to the throne] his deriving from females.
I’ve shown you four historical examples, by which claims
to the throne [or even inheritance] by females were made,
the most famous Edward III claim to the French throne by
his mother, Queen Isabella [wife to Edward II]
I think I have stated clearly, that the female right is
valid and not weak.

I wrote this letter out of appreciation with your work.
Thank you for reading it.

Much succes with your wortful historical research.

Kind greetings

Astrid Essed

Amsterdam 
The Netherlands

NOTES

[1]

ENGLISH HISTORY/THE WARS OF THE ROSES/
MARGARET OF ANJOU, TWO MAJOR PLAYERS
ASTRID ESSED

http://www.astridessed.nl/engl ish-historythe-wars-of-the- rosesmargaret-of-anjou-and- richard-duke-of-york-two-major -players/

THE WARS OF THE ROSES/
RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK, THE CLAIMS TO THE THRONE
OF LANCASTER AND YORK
ASTRID ESSED

http://www.astridessed.nl/the- wars-of-the-rosesrichard-duke- of-yorkthe-claims-to-the-thron e-of-lancaster-and-york/

THE WARS OF THE ROSES/
CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES/A TRAVEL TO THE PAST
ASTRID ESSED

http://www.astridessed.nl/the- wars-of-the-rosescauses-of-the -wars-of-the-rosesa-travel-to- the-past/

THE WARS OF THE ROSES/MARGARET OF ANJOU/SHE WOLF
OR NOT/COMMENTS ON THE ARTICLE OF MR GARETH RUSELL
ABOUT MARGARET OF ANJOU
ASTRID ESSED

http://www.astridessed.nl/the- wars-of-the-rosesmargaret-of-a njoushe-wolf-or-notcomments-on -the-article-of-mr-gareth-ruse ll-about-margaret-of-anjou/

[2]

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA, HOUSE OF YORK

http://www.britannica.com/EBch ecked/topic/653692/house-of- York

[3]

”illegal seizure and occupation of a throne.”

DICTIONARY.COM<http://dictiona ry.com/>
USURPATION

http://dictionary.reference.co m/browse/usurpation

[4]

”Henry’s main claim to the English throne derived from his mother through the House of Beaufort<http://en.wikipedia.o rg/wiki/House_of_Beaufort>. Henry’s mother, Lady Margaret Beaufort, was a great-granddaughter of John of Gaunt<http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/John_of_Gaunt,_1st_Duke_o f_Lancaster>, Duke of Lancaster, fourth son of Edward III<http://en.wikipedia.org/wi ki/Edward_III_of_England>, and his third wife Katherine Swynford<http://en.wikipedia.o rg/wiki/Katherine_Swynford>. Katherine was Gaunt’s mistress for about 25 years; when they married in 1396, they already had four children, including Henry’s great-grandfather John Beaufort<http://en.wikipedia.o rg/wiki/John_Beaufort,_1st_Ear l_of_Somerset>.”

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY VII OF ENGLAND
ANCESTRY AND EARLY LIFE

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H enry_VII_of_England#Ancestry_a nd_early_life

SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
HENRY VII OF ENGLAND

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H enry_VII_of_England

The Swynford branch of the Lancaster line [the children of John of Gaunt,
son to Edward III and his mistress Kathryn Swynford], called the
”Beauforts”, were legitimised first by King Richard II and later by
King Henry IV [as legitimate son of John of Gaunt, the halfbrother of
the Beauforts], on condition that they should not claim the throne.

YOUTUBE.COM<http://youtube.com />
CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES
MARK GOACHER

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=d2QgaRbIjzQ

”The family is descended from John Beaufort<http://en.wikipedia.o rg/wiki/John_Beaufort> (1371-1410), John of Gaunt’s son by his then-mistress Katherine Swynford<http://en.wikipedia.o rg/wiki/Katherine_Swynford>. Gaunt married Swynford in 1396, and their children were legitimized by Richard II<http://en.wikipedia.org/wik i/Richard_II_of_England> and Pope Boniface IX<http://en.wikipedia.org/wik i/Pope_Boniface_IX>. They had three other children, also Beaufort: Henry, Thomas, and Joan.[1]<http://en.wikipedia.o rg/wiki/House_of_Beaufort#cite _note-FOOTNOTEChisholm1911-1>
The Beauforts were a powerful and wealthy family from the start, and rose to greater power after their (half-)brother and uncle became King Henry IV<http://en.wikipedia.org/wik i/Henry_IV_of_England> in 1399. However, in 1406, Henry IV<http://en.wikipedia.org/wik i/Henry_IV_of_England> decided that although the Beauforts were legitimate, their genetic line could not be used to make any claim to the throne.”

WIKIPEDIA
HOUSE OF BEAUFORT
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H ouse_of_Beaufort

[5]

WIKIPEDIA
BATTLE OF BOSWORTH

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B attle_of_Bosworth_Field

[6]

”So Henry VII didn’t claim the throne through right of inheritance: he claimed it through the right of conquest, not through any of his own royal lineage.”

WOMEN’S HISTORY
LEGITIMATE ENOUGH HERITAGE?
TUDOR’S CLAIM TO THE THRONE [1485]

http://womenshistory.about.com /od/medbritishwomen/ss/Birth- Controversies-and-the-Wars-of- the-Roses_2.htm

” Henry VII acknowledged the necessity of marrying Elizabeth of York to ensure the stability of his rule and weaken the claims of other surviving members of the House of York<http://en.wikipedia.org/w iki/House_of_York>, but he ruled in his own right and claimed the throne by right of conquest and not by his marriage to the heir of the House of York.”

WIKIPEDIA
ELIZABETH OF YORK
WIFE OF THE KING

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E lizabeth_of_York#Wife_of_the_k ing

SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ELIZABETH OF YORK

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E lizabeth_of_York

” It was truly through the defeat of Richard and the ‘right of conquest’ that Henry claimed the throne.”

TUDOR HISTORY
HENRY VII

http://tudorhistory.org/henry7 /

[7]

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA
HOUSE OF YORK

http://www.britannica.com/EBch ecked/topic/653692/house-of- York

[8]

WIKIPEDIA
THE ACT OF ACCORD

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A ct_of_Accord

THE FULL TEXT OF THE ACT OF ACCORD

http://books.google.co.uk/book s?id=X_4UAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA104&dq= inauthor:%22John+Silvester+ Davies%22&output=html_text

BRITAIN EXPRESS
THE ACT OF ACCORD

http://www.britainexpress.com/ History/medieval/act-accord.ht m

HISTORY OF WAR
ACT OF ACCORD, 25 OCTOBER 1460

http://www.historyofwar.org/ar ticles/treaty_act_accord.html

[9]

WIKIPEDIA
THE ACT OF ACCORD

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A ct_of_Accord

BRITAIN EXPRESS
THE ACT OF ACCORD

http://www.britainexpress.com/ History/medieval/act-accord.ht m

HISTORY OF WAR
ACT OF ACCORD, 25 OCTOBER 1460

http://www.historyofwar.org/ar ticles/treaty_act_accord.html

[10]

WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK
THE WEEL OF FORTUNE

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R ichard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_Yo rk#The_wheel_of_fortune_.28145 9.E2.80.931460.29

SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R ichard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_Yo rk

[11]

WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK
THE WEEL OF FORTUNE

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R ichard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_Yo rk#The_wheel_of_fortune_.28145 9.E2.80.931460.29

SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R ichard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_Yo rk

[12]

”Margaret undoubtedly rejoiced over York’s death—York, after all, had bullied her husband into disinheriting his own son in favor of York, and Margaret had every reason to fear for her husband’s future in a government controlled by York—but she did not have what to her might well have been the pleasure of seeing her enemy fall.”

MYTHS ABOUT MARGARET OF ANJOU
SUSAN HIGGINBOTHAM

http://www.susanhigginbotham.c om/subpages/margaretmyths.html

[13]

”The death of Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, in 1447 left York next in line for succession to the throne, and the Beauforts had him sent—virtually banished—to Ireland<http://www.britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/293754/Ire land> as lord lieutenant.”

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA
RICHARD, 3RD DUKE OF YORK

http://www.britannica.com/EBch ecked/topic/653703/Richard- 3rd-duke-of-York

[14]

WIKIPEDIA
MARGARET OF ANJOU

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M argaret_of_Anjou

[15]

Kings favouritism of the Somerset and Suffolk party [which
was the ”peace” party to France, more open for
negociations] against the Gloucester [the Kings uncle
Humphrey  Duke of Gloucester] and York party
[the war party to France]

YOUTUBE.COM<http://youtube.com />
CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES
MARK GOACHER

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=d2QgaRbIjzQ

[16]

”His attitude toward the Council’s surrender of Maine<http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Maine_(province_of_France )>, in return for an extension of the truce with France and a French bride for Henry, must have contributed to his appointment on 30 July as Lieutenant of Ireland<http://en.wikipedia.or g/wiki/Lord_Lieutenant_of_Irel and>. In some ways it was a logical appointment, as Richard was also Earl of Ulster<http://en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Earl_of_Ulster> and had considerable estates in Ireland, but it was also a convenient way of removing him from both England and France.”

WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD DUKE OF YORK
IRELAND

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R ichard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_Yo rk#Ireland_.281445.E2.80.93145 0.29

SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R ichard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_Yo rk

[17]

”In December 1459 York, Warwick and Salisbury had suffered attainder<http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Attainder>. Their lives were forfeit, and their lands reverted to the king; their heirs would not inherit.”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R ichard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_Yo rk#The_wheel_of_fortune_.28145 9.E2.80.931460.29

SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R ichard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_Yo rk

”On this day in 1459 the ‘Wars of the Roses’ between the houses of Lancaster and York took on an increased ferocity. Parliament had not met for three and a half years, since March 1456, when it had been dissolved following the resignation of Richard, duke of York, as Protector and the nominal resumption of authority by the mentally-unstable Henry VI. That summer the seat of government was effectively removed to Coventry, in the Lancastrian heart-lands, and the chief offices of state were allotted to intimates of the queen, Margaret of Anjou.”
ON THIS DAY, 20 NOVEMBER 1459, THE ”PARLIAMENT OF DEVILS
ASSEMBLES AT COVENTRY
HISTORY OF PARLIAMENT ONLINE
http://www.historyofparliament online.org/periods/medieval/ day-20-november-1459- parliament-devils-assembles- coventry

WIKIPEDIA
PARLIAMENT OF DEVILS

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P arliament_of_Devils

[18]

”In December 1459 York, Warwick and Salisbury had suffered attainder<http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Attainder>. Their lives were forfeit, and their lands reverted to the king; their heirs would not inherit.”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R ichard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_Yo rk#The_wheel_of_fortune_.28145 9.E2.80.931460.29

SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R ichard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_Yo rk

”On this day in 1459 the ‘Wars of the Roses’ between the houses of Lancaster and York took on an increased ferocity. Parliament had not met for three and a half years, since March 1456, when it had been dissolved following the resignation of Richard, duke of York, as Protector and the nominal resumption of authority by the mentally-unstable Henry VI. That summer the seat of government was effectively removed to Coventry, in the Lancastrian heart-lands, and the chief offices of state were allotted to intimates of the queen, Margaret of Anjou.”
ON THIS DAY, 20 NOVEMBER 1459, THE ”PARLIAMENT OF DEVILS
ASSEMBLES AT COVENTRY
HISTORY OF PARLIAMENT ONLINE
http://www.historyofparliament online.org/periods/medieval/ day-20-november-1459- parliament-devils-assembles- coventry

WIKIPEDIA
PARLIAMENT OF DEVILS

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P arliament_of_Devils

[19]

WIKIPEDIA
MARGARET OF ANJOU
MILITARY CAMPAIGNS

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M argaret_of_Anjou#Military_camp aigns

SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
MARGARET OF ANJOU

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M argaret_of_Anjou#The_Wars_of_t he_Roses

”While Mary was still mourning the death of King James II<http://en.wikipedia.org/wik i/James_II_of_Scotland>, the Lancastrian Queen Margaret of Anjou<http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Margaret_of_Anjou> fled north across the border seeking refuge from the Yorkists. Mary sympathetically aided Margaret and took Edward of Westminster<http://en.wikipedi a.org/wiki/Edward_of_Westminst er> into her household to keep them out of Yorkist hands.
Mary’s dealings with Margaret were mainly to provide aid to the deposed queen. Mary gave a number of Scottish troops to help Margaret and the Lancastrian cause”

WIKIPEDIA
MARY OF GUELDERS
REGENCY

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M ary_of_Guelders#Regency

SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
MARY OF GUELDERS

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M ary_of_Guelders

[20]

WIKIPEDIA
BATTLE OF WAKEFIELD
CASUALTIES

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B attle_of_Wakefield#Casualties

WIKIPEDIA
BATTLE OF WAKEFIELD

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B attle_of_Wakefield

[21]

”While she was attempting to raise further support for the Lancastrian cause in Scotland,[15]<http://en.wikipe dia.org/wiki/Margaret_of_ Anjou#cite_note-15> her principal commander, Henry Beaufort, 3rd Duke of Somerset<http://en.wikipedia.o rg/wiki/Henry_Beaufort,_3rd_Du ke_of_Somerset>,[16]<http://en .wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_ of_Anjou#cite_note-16> gained a major victory for her at the Battle of Wakefield<http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Battle_of_Wakefield> on 30 December 1460 by defeating the combined armies of the Duke of York and the Earl of Salisbury. Both men were beheaded and their heads displayed on the gates of the city of York. As Margaret was in Scotland at the time the battle had taken place, it was impossible that she issued the orders for their executions despite popular belief to the contrary.”

WIKIPEDIA
MARGARET OF ANJOU
MILITARY CAMPAIGNS

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M argaret_of_Anjou#Military_camp aigns

WIKIPEDIA
MARGARET OF ANJOU

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M argaret_of_Anjou#The_Wars_of_t he_Roses

[22]

WIKIPEDIA
SECOND BATTLE OF ST ALBANS

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S econd_Battle_of_St_Albans

[23]

”Two knights (Lord Bonville<http://en.wikipedia.o rg/wiki/William_Bonville,_1st_ Baron_Bonville> and Sir Thomas Kyriell<http://en.wikipedia.or g/wiki/Thomas_Kyriell>, a veteran leader of the Hundred Years War<http://en.wikipedia.org/wi ki/Hundred_Years_War>) had sworn to let him come to no harm, and remained with him throughout. The next morning Margaret asked her son, the seven-year-old Edward of Westminster, how, not whether, the two knights were to die. Edward, thus prompted, sent them to be beheaded.[6]<http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Second_Battle_of_ St_Albans#cite_note-8>”

WIKIPEDIA
SECOND BATTLE OF ST ALBANS
AFTERMATH

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S econd_Battle_of_St_Albans#Afte rmath

SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
SECOND BATTLE OF ST ALBANS

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S econd_Battle_of_St_Albans

[24]

”John Neville had been captured but was spared execution, as the Duke of Somerset feared that his own younger brother who was in Yorkist hands might be executed in reprisal”

WIKIPEDIA
SECOND BATTLE OF ST ALBANS
AFTERMATH

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S econd_Battle_of_St_Albans#Afte rmath

SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
SECOND BATTLE OF ST ALBANS

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S econd_Battle_of_St_Albans

[25]

WIKIPEDIA
BATTLE OF TOWTON

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B attle_of_Towton

[26]

WARFARE HISTORY BLOG
PRELUDE TO THE WARS OF THE ROSES,
USURPATION,REBELLION AND MEDIEVAL
WARFARE  1387-1403

http://warfarehistorian.blogsp ot.nl/2012/10/prelude-to-wars- of-roses-usurpation.html

”Their son Henry<http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Henry_IV_of_England> usurped the throne in 1399, creating one of the factions in the Wars of the Roses<http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Wars_of_the_Roses>.”

WIKIPEDIA
HOUSE OF LANCASTER

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H ouse_of_Lancaster

[27]

YOUTUBE.COM<http://youtube.com />
CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES
MARK GOACHER

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=d2QgaRbIjzQ

”Though Parliament conceded that Richard had the better claim to the throne, they were unwilling to depose him outright. A compromise was reached, and that compromise was the Act of Accord.”

BRITAIN EXPRESS
THE ACT OF ACCORD

http://www.britainexpress.com/ History/medieval/act-accord.ht m

THE WARS OF THE ROSES/RICHARD, DUKE OF
YORK/THE CLAIMS TO THE THRONE OF LANCASTER
AND YORK
ASTRID ESSED

http://www.astridessed.nl/the- wars-of-the-rosesrichard-duke- of-yorkthe-claims-to-the-thron e-of-lancaster-and-york/

[28]

THE WARS OF THE ROSES/RICHARD, DUKE OF
YORK/THE CLAIMS TO THE THRONE OF LANCASTER
AND YORK
ASTRID ESSED

http://www.astridessed.nl/the- wars-of-the-rosesrichard-duke- of-yorkthe-claims-to-the-thron e-of-lancaster-and-york/

[29]

” During her own lifetime, Philippa was the heir presumptive<http://en.wikipedi a.org/wiki/Heir_presumptive> to her first cousin Richard II<http://en.wikipedia.org/wik i/Richard_II_of_England>; she would have been displaced in the succession by any legitimate children of the king. Richard remained childless, so after her death, her position as first in line for the throne passed to her son, Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March<http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Roger_Mortimer,_4th_Earl_ of_March>. He was killed at the Battle of Kells in Ireland in 1398, making his six-year-old son, Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March<http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Edmund_Mortimer,_5th_Earl _of_March>, Richard’s heir presumptive.”

WIKIPEDIA
PHILIPPA, 5TH COUNTESS OF ULSTER

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P hilippa,_5th_Countess_of_Ulste r

[30]

” During her own lifetime, Philippa was the heir presumptive<http://en.wikipedi a.org/wiki/Heir_presumptive> to her first cousin Richard II<http://en.wikipedia.org/wik i/Richard_II_of_England>; she would have been displaced in the succession by any legitimate children of the king. Richard remained childless, so after her death, her position as first in line for the throne passed to her son, Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March<http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Roger_Mortimer,_4th_Earl_ of_March>. He was killed at the Battle of Kells in Ireland in 1398, making his six-year-old son, Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March<http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Edmund_Mortimer,_5th_Earl _of_March>, Richard’s heir presumptive.”

WIKIPEDIA
PHILIPPA, 5TH COUNTESS OF ULSTER

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P hilippa,_5th_Countess_of_Ulste r

[31]

” A great-grandson of King Edward III of England<http://en.wikipedia.or g/wiki/Edward_III_of_England>, he was heir presumptive<http://en.wikipedi a.org/wiki/Heir_presumptive> to King Richard II of England<http://en.wikipedia.or g/wiki/Richard_II_of_England>, his cousin once removed, when Richard II was deposed in favour of Henry IV<http://en.wikipedia.org/wik i/Henry_IV_of_England>. Edmund Mortimer’s claim to the crown was the basis of rebellions and plots against Henry IV and his son Henry V<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki /Henry_V_of_England>, and was later taken up by theHouse of York<http://en.wikipedia.org/w iki/House_of_York> in the Wars of the Roses<http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Wars_of_the_Roses>, though Mortimer himself was a important and loyal vassal of Henry V and Henry VI”

WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND MORTIMER, 5TH EARL OF MARCH

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E dmund_Mortimer,_5th_Earl_of_Ma rch

[32]

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD OF WESTMINSTER, PRINCE OF WALES

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E dward_of_Westminster,_Prince_o f_Wales

[33]

WARFARE HISTORY BLOG
PRELUDE TO THE WARS OF THE ROSES,
USURPATION,REBELLION AND MEDIEVAL
WARFARE  1387-1403

http://warfarehistorian.blogsp ot.nl/2012/10/prelude-to-wars- of-roses-usurpation.html

”Their son Henry<http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Henry_IV_of_England> usurped the throne in 1399, creating one of the factions in the Wars of the Roses<http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Wars_of_the_Roses>.”

WIKIPEDIA
HOUSE OF LANCASTER

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H ouse_of_Lancaster

[34]

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY V OF ENGLAND
CAMPAIGN

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H enry_V_of_England#1415_campaig n

SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY V OF ENGLAND

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H enry_V_of_England

[35]

WIKIPEDIA
MARGARET OF ANJOU
ENMITY BETWEEN MARGARET AND THE DUKE OF YORK

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M argaret_of_Anjou#Enmity_betwee n_Margaret_and_the_Duke_of_ York

SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
MARGARET OF ANJOU

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M argaret_of_Anjou

[36]

”Meanwhile, Matilda’s younger brother, William Adelin<http://en.wikipedia.org /wiki/William_Adelin>, died in the White Ship<http://en.wikipedia.org/w iki/White_Ship> disaster of 1120, leaving England facing a potential succession crisis. On Henry V’s death, Matilda was recalled to Normandy<http://en.wikipedia.o rg/wiki/Duchy_of_Normandy> by her father, who arranged for her to marry Geoffrey of Anjou<http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Geoffrey_Plantagenet,_Cou nt_of_Anjou> to form an alliance to protect his southern borders. Henry I had no further children and nominated Matilda as his heir, making his court swear an oath<http://en.wikipedia.org/w iki/Oath> of loyalty to her and her successors, but the decision was not popular in the Anglo-Norman<http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Anglo-Norman> court.”

WIKIPEDIA
EMPRESS MATHILDA

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E mpress_Matilda

[37]

WIKIPEDIA
THE ANARCHY

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T he_Anarchy

[38]

WIKIPEDIA
STEPHEN, KING OF ENGLAND

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S tephen,_King_of_England

BIOGRAPHY
STEPHEN OF BLOIS

http://www.biography.com/peopl e/stephen-of-blois-9493736

”Adela of Normandy also known as Adela of Blois and Adela of England (c. 1067[1]<http://en.wikipedia.or g/wiki/Adela_of_Normandy#cite_ note-Women_and_Gender-1> – 8 March 1137), and Saint Adela in Roman Catholicism,[2]<http://en.wiki pedia.org/wiki/Adela_of_Norman dy#cite_note-catholic.org-2> was, by marriage, Countess of Blois<http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Blois>, Chartres<http://en.wikipedia.o rg/wiki/Chartres>, and Meaux<http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Meaux>. She was a daughter ofWilliam the Conqueror<http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/William_I_of_England> and Matilda of Flanders<http://en.wikipedia.o rg/wiki/Matilda_of_Flanders>. She was also the mother of Stephen, King of England<http://en.wikipedia.or g/wiki/Stephen_of_England> and Henry of Blois<http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Henry_of_Blois>, Bishop of Winchester<http://en.wikipedia .org/wiki/Bishop_of_Winchester >.”

WIKIPEDIA
ADELA OF NORMANDY

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A dela_of_Normandy

[39]

WIKIPEDIA
THE ANARCHY

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T he_Anarchy

[40]

”The Treaty of Wallingford, also known as the Treaty of Winchester or the Treaty of Westminster, was an agreement reached in England<http://en.wikipedia.or g/wiki/England> the summer of 1153. It effectively ended a civil war known as the Anarchy<http://en.wikipedia.or g/wiki/The_Anarchy> (1135–54), caused by a dispute between Empress Matilda<http://en.wikipedia.or g/wiki/Empress_Matilda> and her cousin King Stephen of England<http://en.wikipedia.or g/wiki/Stephen_of_England> over the English crown. The Treaty of Wallingford allowed Stephen to keep the throne until his death (which was to come in October 1154), but forced Stephen to recognise Matilda’s son Henry of Anjou (also called Henry FitzEmpress), who later became Henry II<http://en.wikipedia.org/wik i/Henry_II_of_England>, as his heir.”

TREATY OF WALLINGFORD, ALSO KNOWN
AS THE TREATY OF WINCHESTER

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T reaty_of_Wallingford

[41]

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY II OF ENGLAND

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H enry_II_of_England

[42]

WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD I OF ENGLAND

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R ichard_I_of_England

(43)

WIKIPEDIA
JOHN, KING OF ENGLAND

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J ohn,_King_of_England

[44]

WIKIPEDIA
HOUSE OF PLANTAGENET

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H ouse_of_Plantagenet

(45)

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD III OF ENGLAND

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E dward_III_of_England

(46)

WIKIPEDIA
ISABELLA OF FRANCE

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/I sabella_of_France

(47)

WIKIPEDIA
PHILIP IV OF FRANCE

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P hilip_IV_of_France

(48)

WIKIPEDIA
CHARLES IV OF FRANCE

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C harles_IV_of_France

(49)

´´ In 1316, a principle was established denying women succession to the French throne.´´

SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
HUNDRED YEAR´S WAR

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H undred_Years%27_War

(50)

WIKIPEDIA
LOUIS X OF FRANCE

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L ouis_X_of_France

(51)

WIKIPEDIA
TOUR DE NESLE AFFAIR

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T our_de_Nesle_Affair

(52)

´´Louis’ second wife Clementia was pregnant at the time of his death, leaving the succession in doubt. A son would have primacy over Louis’ daughter, Joan<http://en.wikipedia.org/w iki/Joan_II_of_Navarre>.[32]<h ttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lo uis_X_of_France#cite_note-32> A daughter, however, would have a weaker claim to the throne, and would need to compete with Joan’s own claims – although suspicions hung over Joan’s parentage following the scandal in 1314´´

WIKIPEDIA
LOUIS X OF FRANCE

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L ouis_X_of_France

(53)

WIKIPEDIA
TOUR DE NESLE AFFAIR

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T our_de_Nesle_Affair

(54)

´´The French rejected the claim, maintaining that Isabella could not transmit a right which she did not possess.´´

WIKIPEDIA
HUNDRED YEAR´S WAR

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H undred_Years%27_War

(55)

´´ For about nine years (1328-1337), the English had accepted the Valois succession to the French throne. But the interference of the French king, Philip VI, in Edward III’s war against Scotland, led Edward III to reassert his claim to the French throne.
Several overwhelming English victories in the war—especially at Crecy<http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Battle_of_Cr%C3%A9cy>, Poitiers<http://en.wikipedia.o rg/wiki/Battle_of_Poitiers>, and Agincourt<http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Battle_of_Agincourt>— raised the prospects of an ultimate English triumph. However, the greater resources of the French monarchy precluded a complete conquest. Starting in 1429, decisive French victories at Patay<http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Battle_of_Patay>, Formigny<http://en.wikipedia.o rg/wiki/Battle_of_Formigny>, and Castillon<http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Battle_of_Castillon> concluded the war in favor of France, with England permanently losing most of its major possessions on the continent.´´

WIKIPEDIA
HUNDRED YEAR´S WAR

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H undred_Years%27_War

[56]

WIKIPEDIA
BLANCHE OF LANCASTER

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B lanche_of_Lancaster

[57]

WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND CROUCHBACK

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E dmund_Crouchback

[58]

WIKIPEDIA
HENRY III OF ENGLAND

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H enry_III_of_England

[59]

WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD I OF ENGLAND

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E dward_I_of_England

[60]

LANCASTER ”EDMUND CROUCHBACK”
CLAIM TO THE THRONE

YOUTUBE.COM<http://youtube.com />
CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES
MARK GOACHER

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=d2QgaRbIjzQ

Reacties uitgeschakeld voor Encyclopaedia Britannica versus Astrid Essed about the superior claim of the House of York on the English throne/Encyclopaedia Britannica corrects a mistake [2015]

Opgeslagen onder Divers

Rozenoorlogen tussen Huizen York en Lancaster/Onzininformatie over hoofdrolspeler Richard Neville, 16e Graaf van Warwick, de ”Kingmaker”

Ontdek 02-2019: Game of Thrones

HISTORISCHE ACCURATESSE IS HET EERSTE VEREISTE BIJDE BESCHRIJVING VAN HISTORISCHE GEBEURTENISSEN!DAARAAN ONTBRAK HET IN TIJDSCHRIFT ”ONTDEK” MET ALSTHEMA THE GAME OF THRONES

Image result for edward iv in the white queen

750 × 447Images may be subject to copyright. Find out moreImage credits
AFBEELDING/HISTORISCHE FICTIERICHARD NEVILLE, 16 DE GRAAF VAN WARWICK [ACHTERIN] MET ZIJNNEEF EN KONING, EDWARD IV [VOORAAN], VAN WIE HIJ DE EERSTEJAREN VAN ZIJN KONINGSCHAP DE VOORNAAMSTE ADVISEUR ENBONDGENOOT WAS TOTDAT ZIJ DOOR EEN SAMENSPEL VAN FACTOREN GEBROUILLEERD RAAKTEN EN RICHARD NEVILLE OVERLIEP NAAR HET HUIS VAN LANCASTER, DE AARTSVIJANDEN VAN EDWARD IV[DIE TOT HET HUIS VAN YORK BEHOORDE]DE LANCASTERS EN DE YORKS, BEIDEN BEHOREND TOT HET ENGELSE KONINGSHUIS PLANTAGENET, VOERDEN EEN DERTIG JAAR DURENDE, VERBITTERDE STRIJD OM DE ENGELSE TROON, DE ROZENOORLOGEN OF COUSINS WAR GENOEMD
https://www.astridessed.nl/the-wars-of-the-rosescauses-of-the-wars-of-the-rosesa-travel-to-the-past/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wars_of_the_Roses

747 × 696

AFBEELDING HISTORISCHE FICTIEKONING EDWARD IV 
MET AAN DE ZIJKANT MARGARET BEAUFORT, MOEDERVAN HENRY TUDOR [DE LATERE HENRY VII, DIE NA ZIJN OVERWINNINGIN DE SLAG BIJ BOSWORTH IN 1485, HET OFFICIELE EINDE VAN DE ROZENOORLOGEN, TROUWDE MET ELISABETH OF YORK, EDWARD IV”S OUDSTE DOCHTER, WAARMEE DE HUIZEN VAN LANCASTER EN YORKWAREN VERENIGD.HENRY VI EN ELISABETH OF YORK WAREN DE OUDERS VAN DE LATERE HENRY VIII]NAAST MARGARET BEAUFORT [BEHOREND TOT DE ONWETTIGE TAK VAN HET HUIS VAN LANCASTER, DE BEAUFORTS], HAAR DERDE MANTHOMAS STANLEY, EERSTE GRAAF VAN DERBY
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_Margaret_Beaufort
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Stanley,_1st_Earl_of_Derby

KONING EDWARD IVAFBEELDING HISTORISCHE FICTIE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England
Richard Neville
Warwick as drawn in the Rous Roll. He displays on his shield the arms of Montagu quartering Monthermer. The bull’s head is the crest of the Neville family, the eagle is the crest of Montagu.

RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK, 5TH EARL OF SALISBURY[RICHARD NEVILLE, 16DE GRAAF VAN WARWICK, VIJFDE GRAAF VAN SALISBURY, BIJGENAAMD ”DE KINGMAKER”[AFBEELDING IS HISTORISCHE NON FICTIE]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

Image result for edward iv in the white queen

RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK, WITH ON THE BACKGROUND HIS WIFE AND TWO DAUGHTERSHISTORICAL FICTIONRICHARD NEVILLE, 16 DE GRAAF VAN WARWICK, MET OP DE ACHTERGROND ZIJN VROUW EN DOCHTERS/HISTORISCHE FICTIE

Related image

RICHARD NEVILLE, 16 DE GRAAF VAN WARWICK, DE KINGMAKERHISTORISCHE FICTIE

DE KINGMAKER EN ZIJN DOCHTERS LADY ANNE EN LADYISOBEL [UIT DE SERIE ”THE WHITE QUEEN]


HISTORISCHE FICTIE [AFBEELDING]RICHARD NEVILLE, 16 DE GRAAF VAN WARWICK, AAN DE VOORAVOND VAN DE SLAG BIJ BARNET IN 1471 [DE DEFINITIEVE EINDSTRIJD TUSSEN HEM EN ZIJN NEEF KONING EDWARD IV, VAN WIE HIJ DE VOORMALIGE EN BELANGRIJKSTE ADVISEUR WAS.IN DEZE SLAG SNEUVELDE WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Barnet

Battle of Barnet
Part of the Wars of the Roses

Late 15th-century artistic portrayal of the battle: Edward IV (left), wearing a circlet and mounted on a horse, leads the Yorkist charge and pierces the Earl of Warwick (right) with his lance; in reality, Warwick was not killed by Edward.

VIJFTIENDE EEUWSE VOORSTELLING VAN DE SLAG BIJ BARNET
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Barnet

DE UITEINDELIJKE STRIJD TUSSEN RICHARD NEVILLE EN KONING EDWARD IV, WAS EEN ONDERDEEL VAN DE ROZENOORLOGEN, DE 30 JAAR DURENDE STRIJD OM DE ENGELSE TROON TUSSEN HET HUIS VAN LANCASTER EN HET HUIS VAN YORK, TWEE TAKKEN VAN HET ENGELSE KONINGSHUIS PLANTAGENET [DAT HEERSTE VAN 1154 TOT 1485]DE ROZENOORLOGEN DUURDEN VAN 1455 TOT 1485, WAARMEE EENEINDE KWAM AAN HET HUIS PLANTAGENET

ZIE VOOR ACHTERGRONDINFORMATIE EN OORZAKEN VAN DE ROZENOORLOGEN

ROZENOORLOGEN TUSSEN HUIZEN YORK EN LANCASTER/ONZININFORMATIE OVER HOOFDROLSPELER RICHARD NEVILLE, 16E GRAAF VAN WARWICK ”DE KINGMAKER”

AANDe Redactie van Magazine ”Ontdek”Aflevering:De geschiedenis achter Game of ThronesUitgegeven in 2019
[Wegens drukke werkzaamheden is deze historische kritiek nu, september 2021, aan u verstuurd.Onderstaand magnum opus, want zo mag ik het wel noemen, is door mij aangevangen in september 2019, kort na lezing van uw tijdschriftDuik dus even in uw archieven]
Onderwerp:
Onzininformatie over Richard Neville, de 16de Graaf van Warwick, beter bekend als ”The Kingmaker”

Geachte Redactie,
Alvorens met mijn kritiek los te barsten, een oprecht woord van waardering.Als groot fan van de nu afgelopen grootse serie ”Game of Thrones” heb ik het buitengewoon gewaardeerd, dat u een uitgebreide achtergrondspecial hebt samengesteld, waarin u op een diversiteit aan aspecten over de serie zelf, maarook op een aantal historische perioden, zoals de Vikingen, de eerste christenen, kaliefen in het Midden-Oosten en andere onderwerpen, bent ingegaan.Of het allemaal historisch klopt, wat u schrijft, heb ik nog niet in detail kunnen nagaan, omdat ik nog niet alles heb gelezen [aanstonds zult u begrijpen, waarom ik dit naar voren breng], maar wat ik er wel van gelezen heb, komtals redelijk betrouwbaar en goed doorwrocht over.
Totdat ik bij het gedeelte over de Rozenoorlogen kwam [blz 20 t/m 25 van uw Magazine] en, excusez les mots,op een aantal ronduit onzinopmerkingen van uw kant stuitte.Kijk, DAT u de Rozenoorlogen in uw special hebt betrokken, vind ik interessant en is bijna vanzelfsprekend, omdat The Game of Thrones er in belangrijke mate op is gebaseerd.Of beter uitgedrukt:Schrijver George R.R. Martin heeft zich door die Rozenoorlogen in belangrijke mate laten inspireren, met hoog kwalitatief resultaat!
Maar als u nader op die Rozenoorlogen ingaat, mag verwacht worden, dat u met historisch juiste informatie komt.Anders zeg ik:Schrijf er dan niet over.
Ik ben nog niet in de gelegenheid geweest, alles en detail te lezen [wel enkele passages], wat u over die Rozenoorlogen geschreven hebt, vanwege een druk bezette agenda [misschien komt er nog een aanvullende brief, waarin ik u daarover te grazen neem, als ik dat nodig acht], maar ronduit belachelijk en historisch totale NONSENS [nogmaals, excusez lets mots] was, wat u over een van de hoofdrolspelers, Richard Neville, 16 de Graaf van Warwick, ook wel ”the Kingmaker” genoemd [1], hebt neergeschreven.
UW SCHRIJFSEL OVER RICHARD NEVILLE, DE KINGMAKER
Eerst maar eens uw schrijfsel over Richard Neville, de Kingmaker, wat te lezen is.Ik lees [en u nu met mij] bladzijde 24, links bovenaan:
”VERRADER WILDE ZELF OP DE TROON
De Graaf van Warwick, bijgenaamd ”The Kingmaker” steunde Hendrik VI van het Huis van Lancaster met zijn rijkdom., welsprekendheid en leger.Hij liep over toen zijn neef van het huis York als Eduard IV werd gekroond.Uit machtswellust nam de Graaf van Warwick na een veldslag de koning gevangenen probeerde hij zelf op de Engelse troon te komen.”
Einde uw tekst
Dit, waarde Redactie, is een warwinkel van nonsens, taalverwarring en historische inaccuratesse.
TEN EERSTE:
Richard Neville, de 16e Graaf van Warwick, liep, hoewel aanvankelijk inderdaadeen ”aanhanger” van koning Hendrik VI [van het Huis van Lancaster, klopt], NIETover naar het Huis van York, NADAT zijn neef Eduard, 7e Earl [Graaf] of Marchen zoon van Richard, de hertog van York, als Eduard IV tot koning werd gekroond:Neen, hij [Richard Neville dus] was al jaren in oppositie tegen koning Hendrik VI, waarbij hij samenwerkte met zijn eigen vader  Richard, de vijfde Graaf van Salisbury en de hertog van York, vader van de latere Eduard IV [vanaf hier aangeduid als Edward, het was tenslotte een Engelse koning!]
Bovendien was hij juist de grote voortrekker van de kroning van neef Edward totkoning Edward IV! [2]
Ik kom hierop aanstonds uitgebreider terug.
TEN TWEEDE:
U schrijft
”Uit machtswellust nam de Graaf van Warwick na een veldslag de koning gevangenen probeerde hij zelf op de Engelse troon te komen.”
Dat ..machtswellust” is een zeer kort door de bocht en simplistische verklaringvoor de oorzaken tot het latere conflict tussen koning Edward IV en Richard Neville [van nu af aan aangeduid met de Graaf Warwick of Warwick], waarover aanstonds uitleg volgt.
Het klopt, dat Warwick de koning gevangen nam, maar het is aperte nonsens om neer te pennen, dat Warwick zelf op de Engelse troon wilde komen!Hij had [en dat was erg belangrijk in de Middeleeuwen!] in geen enkel opzicht, niet eens in de verte, recht op die troon, omdat hij niet tot het Huis Plantagenet behoorde en er ook niet zijdelings van afstamde.Kortom:Naar Middeleeuwse mores zou niemand voor hem gevochten hebben en al evenmin was er een schijn van kans, dat hij als koning zou zijn geaccepteerd.Wel probeerde hij, door een slimme wijze van uithuwelijking van zijn tweewettige dochters [hij had ook nog een onwettige dochter, Margaret]. [3],zo dicht bij de troon te komen, dat hij effectief macht kon uitoefenen.
Hierop kom ik terug.
TEN DERDE:Taalverwarring:
U schrijft
”Uit machtswellust nam de Graaf van Warwick na een veldslag de koning gevangenen probeerde hij zelf op de Engelse troon te komen”
Uit bovenstaande zin wordt volstrekt niet duidelijk om welke koning het nu ging en om welke veldslag.U had moeten aangeven, dat het hier ging om koning Edward IV [want zoalsu het hebt  neergeschreven, kon het ook wel om koning Hendrik VI, vanaf nu aangeduid als Henry VI,  gaan] en dat het ging om de volgende veldslag:The  Battle of Edgecote in 1469, waaraan de slimme Warwick overigens niet zelf deelnam….] [4]
Dergelijke duidelijkheid is van groot belang, omdat het anders de toch al ingewikkelde verwikkelingen rond de Rozenoorlogen nog gecompliceerder maakt!

ACHTERGRONDGRAAF WARWICK EN DE ROZENOORLOGEN
Om Graaf Warwick te kunnen begrijpen, moet hij gezien worden tegen het licht van de Rozenoorlogen, waarin hij zo’n belangrijke rol speelde.
Om de Rozenoorlogen te kunnen begrijpen, moet je iets afweten van het toenmalige recht van opvolging op de Engelse troon en de verwikkelingenrond de regering van koning Richard II. [5]Want de Rozenoorlogen wortelen diep en zijn in feite gezaaid door de afzettingvan Richard II.[6]

ROZENOORLOGEN:
We beginnen met de voorgeschiedenis van de Rozenoorlogen, waarover u al geschreven hebt in uw Magazine.Globaal lezend heb ik echter gezien, dat u weliswaar de Rozenoorlogen alssuccessiestrijd aanmerkt, maar niet duidelijk hebt gemaakt, hoe het zat met de exacte claims van de Huizen Lancaster en York [De Tweede en Derde Zoon problematiek, zie onderstaand] en ook niet naar de wortels van het conflict gegaan bent.Daarom krijgt u hier deze informatie gratis en voor niets.Eigenlijk zou u mij hiervoor moeten betalen, HAHAHAHAHA
De Rozenoorlogen, ook wel ”the Cousins War” genoemd [7] [pas een eeuw na het conflict raakte de term ”Rozenoorlogen;’ in zwang] waren een 30 jaar lang durend binnenlands militair conflict [burgeroorlog dus]  tussen tweetakken van het toenmalige Engelse Koningshuis, het Huis Plantagenet[aan de macht vanaf 1154 tot 1485], de Huizen Lancaster en York.Een ”adellijke” burgeroorlog, die hoogst bloedig werd uitgevochten, waarbijde diverse adellijke families partij kozen voor Lancaster en York , weer van kant wisselden, als het hen zo uitkwam en verraad, kuiperijen, intriges en bloedige veldslagen elkaar afwisselden.Voor meer verdieping en informatie [die u ook deels hebt beschreven] zie noot 8
GEZAAID ZAAD
Maar het conflict begon niet bij de eerste militaire veldslag of liever gezegd schermutseling, de Eerste Slag bij St Albans in 1455 [9]Ook niet bij het gerezen en hoogopgelopen conflict tussen de vrouw vande vreedzame en geestelijk labiele koning Henry VI, de strijdbare Margaretha van Anjou [10]en haar gunsteling, Edmund Beaufort, Duke [hertog] of Somerset [behorend tot de Beauforts, de onwettige tak van het Huis Lancaster en neef van de Lancaster koning Henry VI] enerzijds en anderszijdsRichard, de hertog van York [vader van de latere koning Edward IV], ook een [weliswaar verdere] neef van koning Henry VI[11]Neen, het wortelde in de afzetting van koning Richard II door zijn neef, de latere koning Henry IV. [12]

RICHARD II/PRIMOGENITUUR RECHT
Ik heb weleens gekscherend opgemerkt, dat de diepere oorzaken van de Rozenoorlogen scholen in het feit, dat Edward III, de Engelse koning, die deHonderdjarige oorlog tegen Frankrijk startte, ook een soort successiestrijd [13],teveel zoons had.Het uiteindelijke Rozenoorlog conflict woedde dan ook tussen de nakomelingenvan de tweede zoon van Edward III [van wie de hertog van York van moederskant afstamde] en de derde zoon van Edward III [waartoe het Huis van Lancaster behoorde, de wettige tak en de onwettige tak]
Genoemde Koning Richard II was een zoon Edward of Woodstock, beter bekend als ”’De Zwarte Prins” [14] de oudste zoon van Edward III en volgde zijn grootvader Edward III op tienjarige leeftijd op, omdat zijn eigen vader reeds was overleden.En bij de Engelse troonopvolging gold het primogenituur recht [recht van de eerstgeborene] [15]Als de koning overleed, volgde zijn oudste zoon op.Wanneer deze overleed, diens zoon/nageslachtEn pas als zijn dynastie was uitgestorven, kwam de lijn van de tweede zoon aan de beurt,En zo ging het door.Vrouwen hadden in Engeland het recht op troonsopvolging, maar door de uitgesproken patriarchale samenleving in Middeleeuws Engeland probeerde men dat zoveel mogelijk te voorkomen. [16]
Door een aantal oorzaken en hoogoplopende conflicten met zijn edelen liep het helemaal mis met de regering van Richard II en werd deze uiteindelijk door zijn neef Henry Bolingbroke [Bolingbroke, naar het kasteel waar hij geboren was], afgezet [Richard II was kinderloos] [17] en liet Bolingbroke zichzelf kronen tot Henry IV en werd daarmee de  grootvader van Henry VI, die koning was tijdens het begin van de Rozenoorlogen. [18]
EN DAAR WRONG DE SCHOEN!
Niet alleen, dat de wettige koning van Engeland, Richard II, werd afgezet, was van doorslaggevend belang [19] maar ook door wie, namelijk door zijn neef Henry Bolingbroke, zoon van de DERDE zoon vanEdward III, John of Gaunt [Jan van Gent, hij was in Gent geboren gedurende Edward III’s oorlog tegen Frankrijk], hertog van Lancaster [die titel had hij gekregen via zijn eerste vrouw, Blanche van Lancaster, die de dochter was van de hertog van Lancaster] [20]
Maar in feite waren er nog de nakomelingen van de TWEEDE zoon van Edward III, Lionel of Antwerp [Lionel van Antwerpen, in Antwerpen geboren] [21], die dus een sterkere claim hadden op de Engelse troon.Lionel of Antwerp had echter geen zoons gehad, maar een dochter,  Philippa Plantagenet [22] en Philippa’s kleinzoon [zij was al overleden tijdens de afzetting van neef Richard II] Edmund was ten tijde van de afzetting van Richard II een kind van acht jaar en kon dus gemakkelijk opzij geschoven worden. [23]
TWEEDE EN DERDE ZOON VAN EDWARD III
Waar het dus op neer kwam was, dat de nakomelingen van de TWEEDE zoonvan Edward III [Lionel of Antwerp], door die van de DERDE zoon [John of Gaunt dus] opzijgeschoven waren, terwijl in feite die ”tweede zoon” nakomelingen een groter recht hadden op de Engelse troon!En Richard, de hertog van York, die met bondgenoten uiteindelijk de strijd tegenLancaster aan zou gaan, was via zijn moeders kant [Anne Mortimer] [24], een afstammeling van de TWEEDE zoon van Edward III, Lionel of Antwerp![Richard’s moeder, Anne Mortimer, was via de kant van haar vader, Roger Mortimer, de achterkleindochter van Lionel of Antwerp, zie de stamboom onder noot 25]

Om het lekker simpel te houden was Richard, de hertog van York [ik kan er ook niets aan doen, dat ze allemaal onder elkaar trouwden] van vaderskant ook nog eens de kleinzoon van de VIERDE ZOON van Edward III, Edmund of Langley, hertog van York.
Maar zijn recht op de troon, dat superieur was boven Lancaster, kwam van zijn MOEDERSKANT!, afstammende van de TWEEDE zoon! [25]
Dus samengevat:
De hertog van York, vader van de latere koningen Edward IV en Richard III [die de laatste Plantagenet koning was], had een sterkere claim op de troon dan Lancaster, omdat hij van moederskant afstamde van de TWEEDE zoon van Edward III en Lancaster van de DERDE zoon.

LANCASTERS OP DE TROON
Wat het nog simpeler maakte was echter, dat de regerende koningen sinds de afzetting van Richard III dus uit het Huis Lancaster kwamen en al vanaf 1399 koning waren, wat ze een zekere legitimiteit gaf.
Onder koning Henry IV, de feitelijke usurpator [26] van de Engelse troon,brak er nog geen dynastieke twist uit [denk eraan, dat de claimant van deEngelse troon, zoals gezegd, een jongen van 8 jaar was bij afzettingvan Richard II] [27], maar bij zijn zoon Henry V, de grote militaire leider inde nog voortwoedende Honderdjarige Oorlog, gestart door overgrootvader Edward III [28], zag je al het prille begin, belichaamd in het Southampton complot in 1415, waarbij onder andere Richard Conisburgh, de derde Graaf van Cambridge en de vader van Richard, de latere hertog van York met handlangers had geprobeerd, koning Henry V af te zetten ten gunste van zijn [ Conisburgh’s] zwager, Edmund Mortimer, de broer van zijn vrouw Anne Mortimer [Edmund was [de ”achtjarige jongen” met de grotere claim, ten tijde van de afzetting vanRichard II en oom van moederskant van de latere Richard, hertog van York.]Dat hele complot mislukte en de complotteurs werden geexecuteerd. [29]R.I.P. [30]
KONING HENRY VI/HET FEEST KAN BEGINNEN/ROZENOORLOGEN
Maar het werd pas echt hommeles onder koning Henry VI, kleinzoon van usurpator koning Henry IV [onze ”Bolingbroke]Belangrijke oorzaak was de ontevredenheid, ontstaan door hetvoor Engeland rampzalige verloop van de Honderdjarige Oorlog, het feit,dat de vreedzame Henry VI het tegenovergestelde was van een flinke militaire leider EN vooral het feit, dat de arme man ernstige psychische problemen had, waardoor ambitieuze mannen probeerden zichzelf en hun familie naar voren te schuiven en grip op de macht te krijgen.Waardoor de Engelse troon een speelbal werd in handen van mannen met echte en vermeende claims.
Tegen deze achtergrond laaide de strijd op tussen de Huizen Lancaster en York,aanvankelijk nog om de controle over de koning, maar gaandeweg om de troomzelf.
Grote tegenstanders waren bij het uitbreken van de strijd enerzijds Richard, derde hertog van York, als afstammeling van de TWEEDE zoon van Edward III[Lionel of Antwerp] [31] de man met de sterkste claim op de troon.Anderszijds Edmund Beaufort, de tweede hertog van Somerset, behorend tot de onwettige tak van het Huis van Lancaster [32], die namens koning Henry VI optrad en gunsteling was van diens strijdbare vrouw, Margaret of Anjou.[33]Gaandeweg echter werd het steeds openlijker een strijd tussen York en zijn bondgenoten enerzijds en Margaretha van Anjou, de vrouw van de koning [de koning kon door zijn psychische problemen vaak niet effectief regeren] en haar bondgenoten anderszijds, zeker na cde geboorte van haar en de koning’s zoon in 1453.
Het verbale en politieke steekspel tussen de heren [York en Somerset], die beurtelings ”protectors of the realm” [een soort regenten, vervangers van de koning] waren in de tijd, dat koning Henry VI niet kon regeren [staat voor: geestelijke inzinking] [34] duurde voort tot de eerste militaire confrontatie in de Rozenoorlogen, de Eerste Slag bij St Albans [35], waarin Beaufort, de tweede hertog van Somerset, sneuvelde [36]
Daarna ging het van Kwaad tot Erger [lees noot 37] , ondanks EEN poging om de partijen te verzoenen, de door de vreedzame koning Henry VI goedbedoelde maar te laat gekomen geinstigeerde ”Loveday]] [door u genoemd in uw artikel: complimenten, niet veel mensen kennen deze gebeurtenis!] [38], maar daarna ging het al snel helemaal mis!En vanaf het sluiten van het Act of Accord [tussen York en koning Henry VI] [39] al snel gevolgd door de Slag bij Wakefield, waarin de hertog van York omkwam [40], ging het er niet meer om, wie koning Henry VI controleerde, maar een keihard gevecht om de troon.GAME OF THRONES! [41]

When you play the game of thrones, you win or you die.There is no middle ground….” [42]Ja, DAT bewezen die Rozenoorlogen wel!

Het tijdperk brak aan  van de door u ook genoemde koning Edward IV, de Rozenoorlogkoning [43], die een redelijk stabiel bewind gevoerd heeft, slechts onderbroken door de Warwick opstand [44], waarover straks meer.Edward IV werd, niet geheel volgens wet en recht, opgevolgd door zijn broer Richard [Richard III]. [45]En tijdens zijn regering werden de Rozenoorlogen definitief beslecht in de Slag bij Bosworth in 1485 [46] tussen Richard III en Henry Tudor [de latere koning Hendrik VII][47], zoon van Margaret Beaufort [48] [uit het Huis van Beaufort en achterkleindochter van John of Gaunt en Katherine Swynford en aldus behorende tot de onwettige tak van het Huis Lancaster, die later was gewettigd].Bosworth werd gewonnen door Henry Tudor, waarbij niet alleen een definitief einde kwam aan de Rozenoorlogen, maar ook aan het Huis Plantagenet. [49]en in feite aan de Engelse Middeleeuwen.Richard III was de laatste koning uit het Huis Plantagenet.Het tijdperk van de Tudors [50] brak aan.
Henry Tudor, die zichzelf in feite koning maakte ”by right of conquest”  [51] was, bezegelde zijn legitimiteit als kining door te trouwen met Elisabeth of York, oudste dochter van koning Edward IV. [52]Slimme politieke zet:Want feite had Elisabeth of York [zoals zij werd genoemd en ook heette] natuurlijk koningin moeten worden, als dochter van Edward IV,die niet alleen koning geweest was, maar via zijn vader de hertog van York die superieure claim op de troon had geerfd, boven Lancaster en zeker boven de Beauforts, die onwettige [en later gewettigde tak van het Huis van Lancaster [53] [superieure York claim, weet u nog: via de TWEEDE zoonvan Edward III, Lionel of Antwerp….] [54]
Maar ja, Elisabeth of York was geen strijdbare Margaret of Anjou [55], anders had ze wel gevochten voor haar recht op de troon!Nu werd zij in plaats van Queen by right [heersend monarch], Queen consort [echtgenote van de ko ning][56]
Militaire overwinningen, he….Overigens waren Henry Tudor [Henry VII] en Elisabeth of York de ouders vande latere Henry VIII en dus de grootouders van koningin Elisabeth I.EN de voorouders van alle latere Engelse koningen!
Nou Redactie, was dat een mooi college over de Rozenoorlogen of niet somsHAHAHAHAHA!
NU naar Graaf Warwick, waar het om was begonnen en ZIJN plaats in die Rozenoorlogen.

RICHARD NEVILLE, 16DE GRAAF VAN WARWICK/DE KINGMAKER/THE STORY
De geschiedenis van de Kingmaker is fascinerend en door uw redactie deelsverkeerd verteld en neergeschreven.Dat heb ik hierboven al gecorrigeerd:
Nu een uitgebreider curriculum vitae, om een modern woord te gebruiken:Geboren als Richard Neville in 1428, was hij de zoon van Richard Neville,[door zijn huwelijk, via het recht van zijn vrouw]  5e Graaf van Salisbury [57] en Alice Montegu, 5e Gravin van Salisbury [Salisbury was in feite haar bezit en haar wettelijke titel] [58]Richard Neville stamde uit het Geslacht Neville, een oud-adellijke geslacht [teruggaand van nog voor Willem de Veroveraar] [59], dat als bondgenoten vanRichard, hertog van York, een doorslaggevende rol zou spelen in de Rozenoorlogen. [60]
De Nevilles waren ook verwant aan de hertog van York!Want de tante van Richard Neville [de zuster van zijn vader] Cecily Neville, wasgetrouwd met de hertog van York. [61]Dus simpeler gezegd:
Richard Neville, onze latere ”Kingmaker” was de volle neef van de latere koning Edward IV [zoon dus van de hertog van York en Lady Cecily Neville]
De titel ”Graaf van Warwick” verwierf Richard Neville door zijn huwelijk metLady Anne Beauchamp, de dochter van de dertiende Graaf van Warwick.Door een aantal sterfgevallen binnen de Familie Warwick, werd Richard Neville[jure uxoris: bij het recht van zijn vrouw] [62], de 16e Graaf van Warwick.Genoeg over de ingewikkelde erfelijkheidskwesties binnen de Middeleeuwse Engelse adel.Nu waar het om begonnen is:De Rozenoorlogen.
DIE ROZENOORLOGEN EN DE ROL VAN GRAAF WARWICK, IN VOGELVLUCHT
De wortels van de Rozenoorlogen, dat gewapende conflict tussen de HuizenLancaster en York, dat broeder tegen broeder en neef tegen neef opzette [63] en de mannelijke lijn van zowel het Huis van Lancaster als York zou uitroeien [64], alsmede een groot deel van de Middeleeuwse Engelse adel, lagen, zoals ik al schreef, in het verleden en wel bij de afzetting van Richard II door zijn neef, Henry of Bolingbroke [de latere Henry IV] [zie uitgebreid relaas, hierboven] En zie noot 65
Maar hoewel het zaad reeds in 1399 [bij de afzetting van Richard II dus] was gezaaid, brak het feitelijke conflict uit tijdens de regering van Henry VI, kleinzoon van Henry IV, hoewel het al voorbodes had in the Southampton plot [66],waarbij de vader van de hertog van York, Richard Conisburgh [derde Graaf van Richmond] had geprobeerd [zonder enig succes!], Henry V af te zetten ten gunste van zijn [Richard of Conisburgh’s] zwager, Edmund Mortimer, 5e Graaf van March en feitelijke troonopvolger van Richard II, die in 1399 aan de kant was geschoven door de neef van zijn [Edmund’s] moeder, Henry of Bolingbroke [latere Henry IV] [67]

GOEDHet gewapende conflict brak dus uit onder de regering van Henry VI, in 1455,56 jaar na de afzetting van Richard II.
Uiteraard gingen er groeiende spanningen aan vooraf, met name tussenEdward IV’s vader Richard, de [derde, zal ik niet steeds meer vermelden] hertog van York, die in feite de superieure rechten op de troon had [als neef van Edmund Mortimer en via moederszijde afstammeling van de TWEEDE zoon van Edward III, Lionel of Antwerp] [68], met als grote tegenspeler Edmund Beaufort [behorend dus tot de onwettige tak van het Huis van Lancaster], tweede hertog van Somerset. [69]Tussen die twee, van wie Edmund Beaufort een grote gunsteling was van de strijdbare Margaretha van Anjou, vrouw van Henry VI, barstte vanaf eind veertiger jaren tot 1455 [toen Somerset sneuvelde in de Eerste Slag bij St Albans] [70] een verbitterde machtsstrijd uit, waarbij op een zeker moment edelen partij gingen kiezen.
Grote spelers waren dus de hertog van York en de hertog van Somerset, waarbij de sympathie van de Kroon [in feite Margaretha van Anjou] duidelijk aan de kant van Somerset lag en er een steeds grotere vijandschap ontstond tussen Margaretha van Anjou en de hertog van York
Een machtsstrijd tussen twee machtige mannen dus, die in feite escaleerde door het feit, dat Henry VI een  vrome en zachtmoedige man,[In de Middeleeuwen was zachtmoedigheid niet bepaald handig voor een koning, die een keihard leider en een bekwaam militair moest zijn, wilde hij zijn macht handhaven], geen spoor van overwicht had.Rampzalig was bovendien, dat de man heftige psychische problemen had [71], waardoor hij hele periodes niet kon regeren en er een soort Regentschap[Protectoraat] werd ingesteld, beurtelings ingevuld door Somerset en York. [72]
Wat Henry VI miste aan vastberadenheid en overwicht, was aanwezig in Margaretha van Anjou, maar in die tijd was er voor een vrouw geen directe regeermacht weggelegd [wat ze wel graag wilde] [73], wat haar echter niet belette, het vuurtje flink op te stoken [zo zat zij nu eenmaal in elkaar], waardoor het conflict alleen maar excaleerde.
Naast de zwakke regering van de onevenwichtige Henry VI en de daaruitvolgende spanningen tussen de adel, speelde het slechte verloopvan de Honderdjarige Oorlog en sociale onrust ook een belangrijke rol. [74]
WHERE THE EARL OF WARWICK IS COMING IN
Wat opvalt aan de Rozenoorlogen was, dat de keuze, die edellieden maakten[voor Lancaster, dus trouw aan koning Henry VI] of voor York [een bondgenoot van de hertog van York [die steeds openlijker tegenover de koning kwam te staan, hoewel hij zijn trouw aan de koning bleef volhouden] [75], niet zozeer gebaseerd was op principes [het al dan niet erkennen van de betere claim op de troon, die de hertog van York inderdaad had] [76] en zelfs niet op het feit, dat ”s konings positie steeds onhoudbaarder werd door zijn psychische problemen [77], maar door hetzij eigen persoonlijke belangen, hetzij conflicten met andere edellieden.Het is niet teveel gezegd, dat heel veel edellieden tot begin vijftiger jaren nog de kat uit de boom keken.Zo ook Warwick, die het aanvankelijke protest en verzet in 1452, van zijn aangetrouwde oom, de hertog van York [de man van Warwick’s tante van vaderszijde, Cecily Neville] niet steunde, zoals vrijwel alle edelen, die trouw bleven aan Henry VI. [78]Maar dat zou om diverse redenen veranderen, waardoor Warwick EN zijn vader, ook een Richard Neville, de 5de Graaf van Salisbury, de trouwste bondgenoten werden van de hertog van York.Drie Richards, door historische fictie-schrijver Con Iggulden in zijn serie over de Rozenoorlogenaangeduid [hij refereerde aan de vijftiger jaren van die vijftiende eeuw] metde aparte benaming ”Trinity” in het Nederlands [correcter] vertaald als ”Het Drievoudig Verbond” [79]Maar goed:Wat Warwick triggerde om gaandeweg te belanden in het kamp van zijn aangetrouwde oom Richard, de hertog van York, was zijn conflict met zijn zwager, de 2de hertog van Somerset.[Somerset was getrouwd met de halfzuster van Warwick’s vrouw Anne Beauchamp.Zij heette Eleanor Beauchamp] [80]JA, dezelfde Somerset, die de aartsvijand/rivaal was van de hertog van York en een diehard gunsteling van Margaretha van Anjou, de vrouw van koning Henry VI.Dat Warwick/Somerset conflict ging, zoals zo vaak bij de Middeleeuwse adel, over land en dreef Warwick in de armen van de hertog van York. [81]Hierdoor, maar ook naarmate het conflict tussen de hertog van York en Somerset [lees ook de koning en vooral zijn vrouw Margaretha van Anjou] verder opliep en York [tijdelijk] Protector of the Realm [een soort regent] werd[de koning was weer eens uitgeschakeld], kwam ook de vader van Warwick [dus de broer van York’s vrouw Cecily Neville] steeds meer in het kamp van York [82] en vormden deze drie Richards, Richard, de hertog van York, Richard Neville, de vijfde Graaf van Salisbury en diens zoon, Richard Neville, de 16e Graaf van Warwick, een geducht bondgenootschap in de vijftiger jaren van de vijftiende eeuw!Daarnaast woedde ook nog een vernietigend conflict tussen de Huizen Neville[met aan het hoofd Warwick’s vader] en Henry Percy, 2de Graaf van Northumberland, over land, wat de geschiedenis in zou gaan als de Percy-Neville feud [de Percy Neville vete] [83]En de Percy’s waren felle verdedigers van de Kroon, dus langs deze lijnen ontvouwde het conflict zich ook nog eens.En alles liep zo hoog en fel op, dat in de eerste Rozenoorlog veldslag, de Eerste Slag om St Albans, Warwick’s vader [en zijn zoon en York] tegenover Henry Percy en de hertog van Somerset zouden komen te staan, die beiden sneuvelden, waardoor het zaad van verbittering en haat [hun zoons wilden wraak] verder werd gezaaid. [84][Extra pijnlijk, omdat die Henry Percy weer getrouwd was met een zuster van Warwick’s vader, Lady Eleanor, waardoor ook de neven tegenover elkaar kwamen te staan!]”[85]
Maar samengevatHet voor Engeland rampzalige verloop van de Honderdjarige oorlog, de mentale instabiliteit van de koning, dat Percy Neville conflict en allerlei andere conflicten tussen edelen, triggerden die Rozenoorlogen. [86]En in deze atmosfeer maakte een man als Warwick zijn carriere!

WARWICK EN KONING EDWARD IVTOEN NOG THICK AS BROTHERS………….
Wat in de vijftiger jaren begon als een schermutseling tussen de aanhangers van de hertog van York [met als bondgenoten Warwick en zijn vader ook een Richard Neville, weet u nog?] enerzijds en de getrouwen van koning Henry VI anderszijds [87], De zogenaamde Eerste Slag bij St Albans [88], werd gaandeweg steeds grimmiger, wat uiteindelijk uitmondde in een verbitterde burgeroorlog en een regelrechte strijd om de troon.Zie voor dat verloop noot 89, waarin de strijdbare vrouw, Margaretha van Anjou, steeds meer de leider van de Lancaster Partij werd.Ook wel begrijpelijk:Ze verdedigde niet alleen haar incapabele echtgenoot, maar ook de rechten van haar in 1453 geboren zoon, de toenmalige Prince of Wales, Edward of Westminster [90]
Om een lang en bitter verhaal kort te maken:Na de nederlaag in de Slag bij Ludlow Bridge in 1459 waren de drie Richards gedwongen, in ballingschap te gaan, York en zijn tweede zoon Edmund, Earl of Rutland, naar Ierland, Warwick, zijn vader en York’s oudste zoon Edward, Earl of March [later Edward IV] naar Calais [91], ze kwamen terug, overwonnen aanvankelijk [92], waarna York koning Henry het recht van troonsopvolging afdwong [93], maar leden een bittere nederlaag in Wakefield, waarbij de hertog van York sneuvelde [of na afloop van de strijd gedood], zijn tweede zoon Edmund werd geexecuteerd, Warwick’s vader werd geexecuteerd en Warwick’s broer Sir Thomas Neville, sneuvelde. [94]Een militaire ramp dus, maar ook een persoonlijke tragedie,voor Warwick en Edward [latere Edward IV], die op dat moment pas 18 jaar oud was.Want beiden waren hun vader en een broer kwijt.
Natuurlijk triggerde deze rampzalige verliezen deze twee heren, zowel om wraak te willen nemen als wel om nu echt voor de troon te gaan, wat in 1461 lukte, toen Edward, mede door inspanning van Warwick, tot koning werd gekroond na een aantal klinkende York overwinningen! [95]De nieuwe, jongere generatie York Leiders was dus aanmerkelijk harder en ging verder.Voor vader York was de troonsopvolging van Henry VI genoeg [96], de zoon echter ging direct voor de hoofdprijs.DE TROON!

EDWARD EN WARWICKPARADISE?OR TROUBLE IN PARADISE…..THE BEGINNING:
In het begin van de heerschappij van Edward IV leek alles nog zo goed te gaan.Warwick was king’s best ally and trusted advisor[97], bekwaam als hij was op diplomatiek gebied.Vooral op de Fransen maakte hij indruk.Zo merkte de Gouverneur van Abbeville op in een brief aan de Franse koningLouis XI [Lodewijk XI]:[vertaald naar het Engels]””They have but two rulers, M. de Warwick and another whose name I have forgotten.” [98]
Naar mijn mening vulden Warwick en zijn koning Edward IV elkaar perfect aan.Warwick had het politieke inzicht en hoewel een redelijk goed militair, was het Edward IV, die een brilliant legeraanvoerder was en zelden een veldslag  verloor.Zelfs op zijn achttiende had hij in de slag bij St Mortimers Cross in 1461, kort na de dood van zijn vader en broer [99] Jasper Tudor [oom van de latere koning Henry VII] , halfbroer [van moederskant] van koning Henry VI, verslagen en een zeer ervaren legeraanvoerder. [100]
Zelf schrijf ik in mijn artikel ”The Causes of the wars of the Roses/A travel to the Past:”I myself hold the opinion, that when King Edward would have concentratedon the military (he was an extremely capable military commander) and the Earl of Warwick on ruling and diplomacy, they whould have been made a deadly double and perhapsruled England happily together, if at least Edward had not fallen ill and diedso untimely.” [101]
Het was een Golden Couple:
Edward IV, jong en een van de mooiste mannen van zijn tijd, een brilliant legeraanvoerder en Warwick, charmant, geslepen, zeer ervaren, een goed militair maar een nog veel betere diplomaat.
Helaas…..het mocht niet duren….
Het is nu eenmaal zo
”When you play the Game of Thrones, you win or you die.There is no middleground” [102]
Maar naast die machtsstrijd, die er ook tussen hen was, was het breekpunt het Geheime Huwelijk, dat Edward IV sloot met Elizabeth Woodville, weduwe van nota bene een Lancaster supporter, de edelman John Grey, die in de Tweede Slag om St Albans was gesneuveld [1461, uitgevochten tussen Warwick en Margaretha van Anjou/supporters, beslissende Lancaster overwinning] [103]Warwick was aan het onderhandelen over een politiek zeer voordelig huwelijk met de Franse prinses Bona, schoonzuster van de Franse koning Louis XI, toen bleek, dat de koning [zonder Warwick in kennis te stellen, al met Elizabeth Woodville getrouwd was. [104]Niet alleen een klap voor Warwick’s ego, die in het buitenland voor gek stond, de dame was ook nog eens weduwe van een man, die supporter geweest was van de Lancaster erfvijand!En tot overmaat van ramp begon de koning de aanzienlijke familie van zijn koningin, de Wooodvilles, te bevoordelen en aanzienlijke posities te geven, waardoor Warwick aan macht inboette! [105]Van Warwick’s kant dus wel begrijpelijk, dat zijn wrok gevoed werd en daarmee zijn zijn vervolgstappen beter te verklaren.Wat uw opmerking:”Uit machtswellust nam de Graaf van Warwick na een veldslag de koning gevangenen probeerde hij zelf op de Engelse troon te komen.’ [106], dus wel zeer simplistisch maakt!
HEBT U ZOVER NOG MEEGELEZEN?/MOOI!/DAN STAAT U ECHT OPEN VOOR KRITIEK EN BENT U BEREID, BIJ TE LEREN:
VERVOLG:
EDWARD AND WARWICKDE BREUK
Ondanks de strubbelingen over het Geheime Huwelijk van de koningen de toenemende invloed van de Woodvilles [de familie van Edward IV’s koningin], hield, om het even populair te zeggen, Edward IV nog van Warwick.Zo werd zijn broer, George Neville, tot Aartsbisschop van York benoemd en in juli 1465, toen de tragische [voormalige] koning Henry VI gevangen genomen werd, begeleidde Warwick hem naar gevangenschap in The Tower. [107]

MAAR TOEN KWAM DE KLAPPER [OF KLAPPERS], DIE WARWICK EN EDWARD IV UIT ELKAAR DREEF!
Terwijl Warwick de Koninklijke Opdracht kreeg, zowel met de Fransen en de Boergondiers [elkaars vijanden, de Bourgondiers waren de bondgenoten van de Engelsen geweest gedurende de Honderdjarige Oorlog] [108] te onderhandelen over een huwelijk van de zuster van de koning [Margaret] met een van de twee partijen en Warwick langzamerhand de aandacht verschoof naar de Fransen, bij wie hij een uitstekende reputatie genoot [109], sloot Edward IV een geheim verdrag met de Bourgondiers [uiteindelijk werd Margaret uitgehuwelijkt aan de Boergondische Graaf Karel de Stoute] [110], waardoor Warwick weer voor Gek stond!Zaken liepen nog meer uit de hand, omdat de schoonvader van de koning, Richard Woodville, Graaf Rivers, fel voor de verbintenis met de Boergondiers was. [111]Maar los daarvan:Het WAS verstandige en wijze politiek van Warwick, de voorkeur te geven aan een Franse alliantie:Frankrijk was een machtige monarchie en de voormalige tegenstander in de door Engeland begonnen Honderdjarige Oorlog [112] en als bondgenoot veel waardevoller dan het Graafschap Boergondie!
MAAR ER GEBEURDE MEER TUSSEN WARWICK EN EDWARD IV
Want tot overmaat van ramp weigerde Edward IV een huwelijk goed te keuren tussen Warwick’s oudste dochter en zijn [Edward IV’s] broer George, de hertog van Clarence. [113]Waarmee de maat voor Warwick vol was en duidelijk werd, dat Graaf Rivers [de schoonvader van Edward IV] de machtsstrijd had gewonnen.Niet alleen een klap voor Warwick persoonljk, maar ook voor de gehele Familie Neville, waarvan Warwick het Hoofd was. [114]
Om een lang Verhaal kort te maken:
Warwick stoorde zich niet aan het verbod van de koning, maar huwelijkte zijn dochter Isabel vrolijk uit aan ’s Konings broer George, hertog van Clarence, die ook al zo zijn eigen ambities had en graag met Warwick opliep, ook al omdat hij de illusie had [en misschien was dat ook Warwick’s intentie], dat Warwick Edward IV door hem zou willen vervangen als koning [115] [en vergeet ook niet, dat Warwick, na de koning, de rijkste man in Engeland was en dat een huwelijk met zijn dochter een zeer lucratieve zaak was. [116]Het Paar trouwde in 1469 in Calais, met de zegen van de Aartsbisschop van York, George Neville, broer van Warwick. [117]
Daarna escaleerde de Zaak snel en een wervelwind aan gebeurtenissen volgde
Warwick orchestreerde een opstand in het Noorden, waarmee hij schijnbaar niets te maken had [slim!], onder leiding van een mysterieuze ”Robin van Redesdale” [118], keerde  [in 1469] met schoonzoon George PLantagenet terug naar Engeland, ’s koning’s troepen werden door Robin of Redesdale verslagen in de slag bij Edgecote [119], waarna de vader en broer van deKoningin gevangengenomen werden en geexecuteerd [120]
Drama ging door:Later werd de koning zelf gevangengezet, weer vrijgelaten door Warwick [121], een tijd leek dat dan weer redelijk te gaan tussen de koning en Warwick [de koning had Warwick en George hun verraad vergeven] [122], totdat de bom weer barstte, Warwick en George opnieuw in opstand kwamen en de koning gedwongen was, Engeland te verlaten en met een kleine groep getrouwen, waaronder zijn toen zeer loyale broer Richard. hertog van Gloucester en zijn boezemvriend, Lord Hastings [123].De koning ging in ballingschap  naar Bourgondie, waar zijn zuster Margaret inmiddels met Graaf van Bourgondie Karel de Stoute getrouwd was. [124]
Warwick sloot intussen een bondgenootschap met Margaretha van Anjou en plaatste de geestelijk instabiele koning Henry VI opnieuw op de troon [maar Warwick regeerde uiteraard] [125]Hiermee was Warwick definitief naar de kant van Lancaster overgelopen,iets wat enkele jaren daarvoor nog ondenkbaar was [zijn eigen vader en broer waren omgekomen tijdens de strijd in 1461] [126]Zijn bondgenootschap met Margaretha van Anjou werd bezegeld [voor wat, hoort wat!] door het huwelijk tussen Warwick’s jongste dochter Anne Neville en Margaretha’s en Henry VI’s zoon, Edward of Westminster, de Lancaster Prince of Wales. [127]

Het Einde verliep tragisch, want Warwick’s periode van macht was een korte vreugde.Edward IV [wat was ook anders te verwachten] keerde naar Engeland terug met een leger [geholpen door zijn zwager Graag Karel de Stoute van Bourgondie] en versloeg Warwick in de slag bij Barnet [128], waarbij Warwick en zijn broer John, de Eerste Markies van Montagu, sneuvelden.Warwick’s schoonzoon George Plantagenet had zich inmiddels weer verzoend met broer Edward, waarschijnlijk gepiqueerd omdat Warwick zijnkaarten niet meer op hem als koning zette. [129]

Zie voor een zeer interessant overzicht van Warwick’s carriere de documentaire van de Britse historicus Dan Jones [130]
Met de dood van Warwick kwam feitelijk een einde aan de machtspositie van de Familie Neville.Erbij gezegd moet nog worden, dat zij tot een van de weinige adellijke Families behoorden, die aan de kant van het Huis van York stonden.De meeste adelsfamilies waren Lancaster, en dus koning Henry VI, trouw gebleven. [131]Want de monarchie was nog praktisch sacraal en het afzetten van een koning, ook al was dat al wel gebeurd met Edward II [hoewel ten gunste van zijn eigen zoon] en Richard II [usurpatie door zijn neef Henry Bolingbroke, waarmee die het zaad van die ellende van de Rozenoorlogen werd gezaaid] [132], het afzetten van een koning dus, was nog net geen heiligschennis.

Margaretha van Anjou, die ook met een troepenmacht naar Engeland was gezeild, maar helaas voor de Lancaster zaak te laat in Engeland aankwam om samen met Warwick Edward IV in een militaire tangpositie te nemen, werd in mei 1471 door Edward IV verslagen in de slag bij Tewkesbury, waarbij de kans op een Lancaster heerschappij verkeken was. [133]Tijdens het leven van Edward IV, althans.
Na de dood van Edward IV bemachtigde zijn broer Richard, de hertog vanGloucester, de troon, als Richard III [Zie noot 45]] en werd hij, na twee jaar koningschap, zoals ikal in bovenstaande had vermeld, in de slagbij Bosworth verslagen door Henry Tudor, de latere Hendrik VII,  zoon van Margaret Beaufort [uit het Huis van Beaufort en achterkleindochter van John of Gaunt en Katherine Swynford en aldus behorende tot de onwettige tak van het Huis Lancaster, die later was gewettigd].Hiermee kwam niet alleen definitief een einde aan de Rozenoorlogen, maar ookaan het Huis Plantagenet.Het tijdperk van de Tudors brak aan. [Zie noten 46 t/m 50]
EPILOOG
Aanleiding tot mijn schrijven, een Opus, dat ik in september 2019 ben begonnen en nu heb voltooid, is uw ongenuanceerde uitspraakover een van de belangrijkste Spelers tijdens de Rozenoorlogen, Richard Neville,16e Graaf van WarwickNogmaals herhaald mijn reden tot kritiek:Op bladzijde 24 van uw uitgave ”De geschiedenis achter de Game of Thrones”,schreef u dus:”VERRADER WILDE ZELF OP DE TROON
De Graaf van Warwick, bijgenaamd ”The Kingmaker” steunde Hendrik VI van het Huis van Lancaster met zijn rijkdom., welsprekendheid en leger.Hij liep over toen zijn neef van het huis York als Eduard IV werd gekroond.Uit machtswellust nam de Graaf van Warwick na een veldslag de koning gevangenen probeerde hij zelf op de Engelse troon te komen.”
Einde uw tekst
In bovenstaande heb ik u niet alleen uitgelegd, waarom deze Passage uituw tijdschrift kort door de bocht, verward en historisch onjuist is [ik verwijsnaar het begin van mijn schrijven], ook heb ik u meegenomen opeen Reis door de Tijd, met uitgebreide informatie over de achtergrondenvan de Rozenoorlogen, tegen welks licht de carriere van Richard Neville,bijgenaamd ”The Kingmaker” gezien moet worden.
Mensen zijn complexe wezens en zelden is iemand alleen ”de verrader” en handelt/zij hij alleen ”uit machtswellust”Handelingen van mensen, zeker uit voorbije tijden, die qua wereldbeelden opvattingen ver afstaan van de onze, moeten bekeken worden vanuitde complexiteit, die zij verdienen.
Ik hoop, dat ik met dit commentaar ertoe heb bijgedragen, dat u inhet vervolg complexe historische gebeurtenissen en ontwikkelingenniet zult afdoen met goedkope one liners, maar recht doetaan de tijd, waarin een en ander dient te worden geplaatst en deafwegingen die iemand tot zijn gedrag hebben bewogen, ook meeweegt.
Alleen dan doet u recht aan de historische werkelijkheid, voor zover wij die kennen.
Een gecompliceerd en veelzijdig carrierepoliticus [om maar eenmodern woord te gebruiken] als de Graaf van Warwick verdient beter.
Vriendelijke groeten
Astrid EssedAmsterdam 
NOTEN
Voor uw gemak heb ik de bijbehorende noten in links ondergebrachtZie voor noten 1 t/m 133
LINKS

OF

https://www.dewereldmorgen.be/community/noten-1-t-m-133-bij-brief-aan-historisch-tijdschrift-ontdek-over-verkeerde-historische-informatie-over-de-rozenoorlogen/

FYSIEKE NOTEN

[1]

Richard Neville, de 16de Graaf van Warwick, werd bekend als ”the Kingmaker”omdat hij twee koningen in het zadel heeft geholpen, eerst zijn neef Edward, de 7de Earl [Graaf] of March en zoon van Richard, hertog van York.Edward werd na een aantal overwinningen op de Lancasters, in 1461,tot koning gekroond, waarbij Warwick een beslissende rol speelde.Nadat er een breuk was ontstaan met zijn neef, koning Edward IV, trachtte Warwick George Plantagenet, de broer van Edward IV, die inmiddels metWarwick’s dochter getrouwd was [tegen de wil van Edward IV], op de troon te brengen.Toen dat mislukte, liep Warwick over naar de kant van Lancaster, zette de in 1461 afgezette koning Hendrik VI weer op de troon en bracht een huwelijktot stand tussen zijn jongste dochter Anne Neville en de zoon van koning Hendrik VI en zijn strijdbare vrouw, Margaretha van Anjou, Edward van Westminster.Tenslotte sneuvelde Warwick in de slag bij Barnet, de eindstrijd tegen zijnneef, koning Edward IV [die vanuit ballingschap in Bourgondie met een leger naar Engeland was teruggekeerd.
ZIE OP WIKIPEDIA:
”After a failed plot to crown Edward’s brother, George, Duke of Clarence, Warwick instead restored Henry VI to the throne.”
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

WIKIPEDIAEDWARD IV OF ENGLAND
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England

LUMINARIUMRICHARD NEVILLE, EARL OF WARWICK
http://www.luminarium.org/encyclopedia/warwick.htm

[2]

YOUTUBE.COMBRITAIN’S BLOODY CROWNTHE KINGMAKER MUST DIE[WARS OF THE ROSES DOCUMENTARY]

[3]
NEVILL FEASTA GLIMPSE AT WARWICK’S NATURAL DAUGHTER MARGARET
https://nevillfeast.wordpress.com/2011/08/24/a-glimpse-at-warwicks-natural-daughter-margaret/

ONCE UPON A TIME IN HISTORYMARGARET ALMOST-NEVILLE
http://cupboardworld.blogspot.com/2014/08/margaret-almost-neville.html

[4]

WIKIPEDIABATTLE OF EDGECOTE MOOR
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Edgecote_Moor

LUMINARIUMTHE BATTLE OF EDGECOTE
http://www.luminarium.org/encyclopedia/edgecote.htm

[5]

WIKIPEDIA RICHARD II OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_of_England

[6]

YOUTUBE.COMTHE CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES

”Henry was by now fully determined to take the throne, but presenting a rationale for this action proved a dilemma.[2] It was argued that Richard, through his tyranny and misgovernment, had rendered himself unworthy of being king.[98] However, Henry was not next in line to the throne; the heir presumptive was Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, great-grandson of Edward III’s second surviving son, Lionel. Bolingbroke’s father, John of Gaunt, was Edward’s third son to survive to adulthood”
WIKIPEDIARICHARD II OF ENGLAND/DOWNFALL
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_of_England#Downfall

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIA RICHARD II OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_of_England

[7]

Door tijdgenoten werd het conflict ”Cousins war” genoemd, omdat de Huizen Lancaster en York aan elkaar verwant waren, beiden behorend tot het Huis Plantagenet, en zij cousins [neven, vaak verre neven] van elkaar waren.De term ”Rozenoorlogen”, verwijzend naar de symbolen de Witte Roos [Huis van York] en de Rode Roos [Huis van Lancaster] is pas een eeuw later in zwang gekomen, met name door Shakespeare’s koningsdrama ”Henry VI, bestaande uit drie delenIn deel 1 romantiseert Shakespeare de gebeurtenissen [er is geen enkel historisch bewijs voor, dat het ook zo is gegaan] door de vertegenwoordigers van het Huis van York en Het Huis van Lancaster een respectievelijk witte en rode roos te laten plukken als ”strijd” symbool:
‘PLANTAGENET

Since you are tongue-tied and so loath to speak,
In dumb significants proclaim your thoughts:
Let him that is a true-born gentleman
And stands upon the honour of his birth,
If he suppose that I have pleaded truth,
From off this brier pluck a white rose with me.

SOMERSET

Let him that is no coward nor no flatterer,
But dare maintain the party of the truth,
Pluck a red rose from off this thorn with me.

WARWICK

I love no colours, and without all colour
Of base insinuating flattery
I pluck this white rose with Plantagenet.

SUFFOLK

I pluck this red rose with young Somerset
And say withal I think he held the right.

VERNON

Stay, lords and gentlemen, and pluck no more,
Till you conclude that he upon whose side
The fewest roses are cropp’d from the tree
Shall yield the other in the right opinion.

SOMERSET

Good Master Vernon, it is well objected:
If I have fewest, I subscribe in silence.
RICHARD

PLANTAGENET

And I.

VERNON

Then for the truth and plainness of the case.
I pluck this pale and maiden blossom here,
Giving my verdict on the white rose side.

SOMERSET

Prick not your finger as you pluck it off,
Lest bleeding you do paint the white rose red
And fall on my side so, against your will.

VERNON

If I my lord, for my opinion bleed,
Opinion shall be surgeon to my hurt
And keep me on the side where still I am.

SOMERSET

Well, well, come on: who else?

Lawyer

Unless my study and my books be false,
The argument you held was wrong in you:

To SOMERSETIn sign whereof I pluck a white rose too.
RICHARD

PLANTAGENET

Now, Somerset, where is your argument?

SOMERSET

Here in my scabbard, meditating that
Shall dye your white rose in a bloody red.
RICHARD

PLANTAGENET

Meantime your cheeks do counterfeit our roses;
For pale they look with fear, as witnessing
The truth on our side. SHAKESPEARE, HENRY VI, PART ONE, SCENE IV, LONDON, THE TEMPLE GARDEN http://shakespeare.mit.edu/1henryvi/full.html

”PLANTAGENET” IS RICHARD PLANTAGENET, DE HERTOG VAN YORK, MET ALS SYMBOOL DE WITTE ROOS
SOMERSET, HENRY BEAUFORT, POLITIEKE TEGENSTANDER  VAN DE HERTOG VAN YORK EN BEHOREND TOT DE ONWETTIGE TAK VAN HET HUIS LANCASTER, MET ALS SYMBOOL DE RODE ROOS

[8]

WIKIPEDIA
WARS OF THE ROSES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wars_of_the_Roses
YOUTUBE.COM
THE CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES

WARS OF THE ROSES/CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES/A TRAVEL TO THE PAST
ASTRID ESSED
3 FEBRUARY 2015

[9]
WIKIPEDIAFIRST BATTLE OF ST ALBANS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Battle_of_St_Albans

[10]

WIKIPEDIAENMITY OF MARGARET AND THE DUKE OF YORK  

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_of_Anjou#Enmity_between_Margaret_and_the_Duke_of_York

ORIGINELE BRONWIKIPEDIA MARGARET OF ANJOU
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_of_Anjou

ENGLISH HISTORY/THE WARS OF THE ROSES/MARGARET OF ANJOU AND RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK, TWO MAJOR PLAYERSASTRID ESSED11 JANUARY 2015
https://www.astridessed.nl/english-historythe-wars-of-the-rosesmargaret-of-anjou-and-richard-duke-of-york-two-major-players/

[11]

Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset,[a]KG ( c. 1406 – 22 May 1455), was an English nobleman and an important figure in the Wars of the Roses and in the Hundred Years’ War. He also succeeded in the title of 4th Earl of Somersetand was created 1st Earl of Dorset and 1st Marquess of Dorset (previously held by his father and later forfeited), and Count of Mortain. He was known for his deadly rivalry with Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York.”

WIKIPEDIAEDMUND OF BEAUFORT, 2ND DUKE OF SOMERSET
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Beaufort,_2nd_Duke_of_Somerset

HOUSE OF BEAUFORT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Beaufort

YOUTUBE.COMTHE CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES

[12]

WIKIPEDIARICHARD II OF ENGLAND/DOWNFALL
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_of_England#Downfall

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIARICHARD II OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_of_England

[13]

Toen de laatste koning uit het Franse geslacht Capet, koning Charles IV overleed, was zijn naaste mannelijke bloedverwant de zoon van zijn zusterIsabella of France, de Engelse koning Edward IIIDe Franse troon werd door zijn moeder Isabella [die toen de macht achter de troon was] voor hem geclaimd, maar aangezien vrouwen in Frankrijk waren  uitgesloten van de erfopvolging, kon de zoon van een vrouw [Isabella was de dochter van de in 1314 overleden koning Philips IV en zuster van Charles IV]ook niet opvolgen
Gevolg was uiteindelijk, dat Edward III later de Honderdjarige Oorlog startteom de Franse troon te bemachtigen

WIKIPEDIAHUNDRED YEAR’S WAR/ORIGIN OF THE CONFLICT
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hundred_Years%27_War#Origin_of_the_conflict

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA HUNDRED YEARS WAR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hundred_Years%27_War

[14]

WIKIPEDIAEDWARD, THE BLACK PRINCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_the_Black_Prince

[15]

WIKIPEDIAPRIMOGENITURE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primogeniture

[16]
KONING HENRY I, ZOON VAN WILLEM DE VEROVERAAR, LIET DE EDELEN ZWEREN, ZIJN ENIG OVERGEBLEVEN KIND, DOCHTER MATHILDA, TE ERKENNEN ALS KONINGIN VAN ENGELANDDIT DEDEN ZE ZEER TEGEN HUN ZIN, MAAR NA DE DOOD VAN HENRY I KWAMEN DE EDELEN DAARTEGEN IN OPSTAND EN CLAIMDE DE NEEF VAN MATHILDA, STEPHEN VAN BLOIS, EEN KLEINZOON VAN WILLEN DE VEROVERAAR VAN MOEDERSKANT, DE TROONEEN JARENLANGE STRIJD TUSSEN MATHILDA EN STEPHEN BRANDDE LOS, DE ANARCHY GENAAMD, MAAR EINDIGDE TOCH IN EEN OVERWINNING VOOR MATHILDA, OMDAT IN HET VERDRAG VAN WALLINFORD [OOK WEL BEKEND ALS VERDRAG VAN WINCHESTER] WERD BEPAALD, DAT STEPHEN TIJDENS ZIJN LEVEN KONING ZOU ZIJN, MAAR DAT MATHILDA’S ZOON, DE LATERE HENRY II [VADER VAN RICHARD LEEUWENHART EN JAN ZONDER LAND] HEM ZOU OPVOLGEN
ZIE:

”Meanwhile, Matilda’s younger brother, William Adelin, died in the White Ship disaster of 1120, leaving Matilda’s father and England facing a potential succession crisis. On Emperor Henry V’s death, Matilda was recalled to Normandy by her father, who arranged for her to marry Geoffrey of Anjou to form an alliance to protect his southern borders. Henry I had no further legitimate children and nominated Matilda as his heir, making his court swear an oath of loyalty to her and her successors, but the decision was not popular in the Anglo-Norman court. Henry died in 1135, but Matilda and Geoffrey faced opposition from Anglo-Norman barons. The throne was instead taken by Matilda’s cousin Stephen of Blois, who enjoyed the backing of the English Church. Stephen took steps to solidify his new regime but faced threats both from neighbouring powers and from opponents within his kingdom.”

WIKIPEDIA EMPRESS MATHILDA
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empress_Matilda

WIKIPEDIATHE ANARCHY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Anarchy

”Stephen announced the Treaty of Winchester in Winchester Cathedral: he recognised Henry FitzEmpress as his adopted son and successor, in return for Henry doing homage to him. Other conditions included:

  • Stephen promised to listen to Henry’s advice, but retained all his royal powers;
  • Stephen’s remaining son, William, would do homage to Henry and renounce his claim to the throne, in exchange for promises of the security of his lands;
  • Key royal castles would be held on Henry’s behalf by guarantors, whilst Stephen would have access to Henry’s castles;
  • The numerous foreign mercenaries would be demobilised and sent home.[4]

Stephen and Henry sealed the treaty with a kiss of peace in the cathedral.[5] Henry II later rewarded Wallingford for its assistance in the struggle by giving the town its royal charter in 1155.”
TREATY OF WALLINGFORD/TERMS OF THE TREATY
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Wallingford#Terms_of_the_treaty

ORIGINELE BRON
TREATY OF WALLINGFORD

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Wallingford

THE WARS OF THE ROSES/LANCASTER AND YORK/USURPATION AND THE RIGHT TO THE THRONE THROUGH FEMALESASTRID ESSED17 FEBRUARY 2015
https://www.astridessed.nl/the-wars-of-the-roseslancaster-and-yorkusurpation-and-the-right-to-the-throne-through-females-2/

[17]

‘Henry was by now fully determined to take the throne, but presenting a rationale for this action proved a dilemma.[2] It was argued that Richard, through his tyranny and misgovernment, had rendered himself unworthy of being king.[98] However, Henry was not next in line to the throne; the heir presumptive was Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, great-grandson of Edward III’s second surviving son, Lionel. Bolingbroke’s father, John of Gaunt, was Edward’s third son to survive to adulthood”
WIKIPEDIARICHARD II OF ENGLAND/DOWNFALL
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_of_England#Downfall

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIA RICHARD II OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_of_England

YOUTUBE.COMBRITAIN’S BLOODIEST DYNASTYTYRANNYPART 4 OF 4[RICHARD II]

Henry IV (15 April 1367 – 20 March 1413), also known as Henry Bolingbroke (/ˈbɒlɪŋbrʊk/), was King of England from 1399 to 1413.”
WIKIPEDIAHENRY IV OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_IV_of_England

[18]

WIKIPEDIAHENRY IV OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_IV_of_England

[19]
Voor het eerst in de geschiedenis van het Huis Plantagenet was met afzetting van een koning de erfelijke lijn verbroken:Er was al eerder een koning afgezet, koning Edward II, door toedoen van zijn van hem vervreemde vrouw, Isabella of France en haar bondgenoot [wellicht minnaar] Roger Mortimer, maar dat was geweest ten gunste van zijn [Edward II’s] eigen zoon, de latere Edward III, waarmee de opvolgingslijn niet werd verbroken
WIKIPEDIAEDWARD II OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_II_of_England


YOUTUBE.COM
THE CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES

[20]

JOHN OF GAUNT, OFTEWEL JAN VAN GENT, WERD HERTOG VAN LANCASTER ”JURE UXORIS”/BIJ HET RECHT VAN ZIJN VROUWZIJN VROUW, BLANCHE VAN LANCASTER, WAS DE DOCHTER VAN HENRY GROSMONT, HERTOG VAN LANCASTER EN JOHN OF GAUNT ERFDE BIJ DE DOOD VAN ZIJN SCHOONVADER DIENS HERTOGELIJKE TITELBLANCHE OF LANCASTER WAS DE MOEDER VAN DE LATERE KONING HENRY IV [HENRY OF BOLINGBROKE], DIE ZIJN NEEF,KONING RICHARD II, AFZETTE ALS KONING

ZIE
Jure uxoris (a Latin phrase meaning “by right of (his) wife”[1][2]) is a title of nobility used by a man because his wife holds the office or title suo jure (“in her own right”). Similarly, the husband of an heiress could become the legal possessor of her lands. For example, married women in England were legally incapable of owning real estate until the Married Women’s Property Act 1882.

WIKIPEDIAJURE UXORIS

WIKIPEDIAJOHN OF GAUNT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_of_Gaunt

”On 19 May 1359 at Reading Abbey, John married his third cousinBlanche of Lancaster, younger of the two daughters of Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster. Both shared a common descent from King Henry III. The wealth she brought to the marriage was the foundation of John’s fortune. Blanche died on 12 September 1368 at Tutbury Castle, while her husband was overseas. 
WIKIPEDIAJOHN OF GAUNT/MARRIAGES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_of_Gaunt#Marriages

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIAJOHN OF GAUNT
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_of_Gaunt

WIKIPEDIABLANCHE OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blanche_of_Lancaster

”Henry was the son of John of Gaunt (the fourth son of Edward III) and Blanche of Lancaster. ”
WIKIPEDIAHENRY IV OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_IV_of_England

[21]

WIKIPEDIALIONEL OF ANTWERP, 1ST DUKE OF CLARENCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lionel_of_Antwerp,_1st_Duke_of_Clarence

[22]

Philippa of Clarence (16 August 1355 – 5 January 1382) was the suo jureCountess of Ulster.  

WIKIPEDIAPHILIPPA, 5TH COUNTESS OF ULSTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippa,_5th_Countess_of_Ulster

[23]

‘Henry was by now fully determined to take the throne, but presenting a rationale for this action proved a dilemma.[2] It was argued that Richard, through his tyranny and misgovernment, had rendered himself unworthy of being king.[98] However, Henry was not next in line to the throne; the heir presumptive was Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, great-grandson of Edward III’s second surviving son, Lionel. Bolingbroke’s father, John of Gaunt, was Edward’s third son to survive to adulthood”
WIKIPEDIARICHARD II OF ENGLAND/DOWNFALL
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_of_England#Downfall

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIA RICHARD II OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_of_England


YOUTUBE.COM
THE CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES

[24]

”Born on 27 December 1388,[2][3][4] Anne Mortimer was the eldest of the four children of Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March (1374–1398), and Eleanor Holland(1370–1405).[3] She had two brothers, Edmund, 5th Earl of March (1391–1425), and Roger (1393–1413?), as well as a sister, Eleanor.[3]

Anne’s father was a descendant of Lionel, Duke of Clarence, second surviving son of King Edward III of England, an ancestry which made Mortimer a potential heir to the throne during the reign of the childless King Richard II. Upon Roger Mortimer’s death in 1398, this claim passed to his son and heir, Anne’s brother Edmund, Earl of March.[5] In 1399, Richard II was deposed by Henry IV, of the House of Lancaster, making Edmund Mortimer a dynastic threat to the new king, who in turn placed both Edmund and his brother Roger under royal custody.”

WIKIPEDIA

ANNE DE MORTIMER/EARLY LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anne_de_Mortimer#Early_life

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIA

ANNE DE MORTIMER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anne_de_Mortimer

[25]

KORTE STAMBOOM/AFSTAMMING RICHARD, HERTOG VAN YORK VAN DE TWEEDEZOON VAN EDWARD III

VOORAF:
KING EDWARD III [married with Philippa of Hainault
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_III_of_England

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippa_of_Hainault

A

LIONEL OF ANTWERP, FIRST DUKE OF CLARENCE ENDE TWEEDE ZOON VAN EDWARD III [ [married with Elizabeth de Burgh, 4th Countess of Ulster]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lionel_of_Antwerp,_1st_Duke_of_Clarence

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_de_Burgh,_4th_Countess_of_Ulster
B
PHILIPPA OF CLARENCE, 5TH COUNTESS OF ULSTER, DOCHTER VAN LIONEL OF ANTWERP EN ELIZABETH DE BURGH:
PHILIPPA OF CLARENCE, 5TH COUNTESS OF ULSTER[Married with Edmund Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March] 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippa,_5th_Countess_of_Ulster

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Mortimer,_4th_Earl_of_March

C

ROGER MORTIMER, FOURTH EARL OF MARCH, ZOON VAN PHILIPPA OF CLARENCE EN EDMUND MORTIMER, 3RD EARL OF MARCH.[Married with Alianore Holland
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Mortimer,_4th_Earl_of_March

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alianore_Holland,_Countess_of_March

D

ANNE DE MORTIMER, DOCHTER VAN ROGER MORTIMER, 4RD EARLOF MARCH EN ALIANORE HOLLAND [Married Richard of Conisburgh, Third Earl of Cambridge en zoonvan Edmund of Langley, First Duke of York,, vierde zoon van Edward III ]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anne_de_Mortimer
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_of_Conisburgh,_3rd_Earl_of_Cambridge
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_of_Langley,_1st_Duke_of_York

RICHARD, THIRD DUKE OF YORK [Titel erfde hij van de oudere broervan zijn vader Richard Conisburgh, genaamd Edmund, second Duke of York,die kinderloos overleed][Married Cecily Neville, uit de beroemde en invloedrijke familie Neville]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_York
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_York

RICHARD, HERTOG VAN YORK WAS DE VADER VAN DE LATERE KONINGEN EDWARD IV EN RICHARD III [MOEDER WAS CECILY NEVILLE]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_III_of_England

[26]

WIKIPEDIAUSURPATOR

https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Usurpator

[27]

WIKIPEDIAEDMUND MORTIMER, 5TH EARL OF MARCH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Mortimer,_5th_Earl_of_March


YOUTUBE.COM
THE CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES

[28]

WIKIPEDIAHENRY V OF ENGLAND
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_V_of_England

[29]

WIKIPEDIASOUTHAMPTON PLOT
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southampton_Plot

[30]

WIKIPEDIASOUTHAMPTON PLOT
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southampton_Plot

NEVILFEASTLETTERS OF RICHARD EARL OF CAMBRIDGE TO HENRY V
https://nevillfeast.wordpress.com/2011/03/10/letters-from-richard-earl-of-cambridge-to-henry-v/

TEXT

In 1415, when his son, Richard (later duke of York), was four years old, Richard, earl of Cambridge, was “accused of a treasonable conspiracy, indicted, convicted and beheaded” (p45). This has come to be known as the Southampton Plot. During his captivity he wrote two letters to the king, Henry V: a letter of confession and a plea for mercy, “but neither had any effect upon Henry” (p45).

Cambridge’s letter of confession:

My most dredfulle and sovereyne lege Lord, lyke to yowre hynesse to wete touchyng the purpose cast ageyns ʒowre hye estate. Havyng ye Erle of Marche by his aune assent, and by the assent of myself, Wher of y most me repent of all worde [worldly] thyng and by the acord of the lord Scrop and Sir Thomas Grey, to have hadde ye forseyd erle into the lond of Walys wyth outyn yowre lycence, takying upon hym the sovereynte of ʒys lond; ʒyf yondyr manis persone wych they callyn kynge Richard hadde nauth bene alyve, as Y wot wel yat he nys not alyve, for the wyche poynt I putte me holy in ʒowre grace. And as for ye forme of a proclamacyon wych schulde hadde bene cryde in ye Erle name, as he heyre to the Corowne of Ynglond ageyns ʒow, my lege lord, calde by auntreu [untrue] name Harry of Lancastre usurpur of Yngland, to the entent to hadde made the more people to hadde draune to hym and from ʒow, of the wych crye Scrop knew not of by me, but Grey dyd, havyng wyth the erle a baner of ye Armes of Ynglond, havyng also ye coroune of Speyne on a palet, wych, my lege Lord, is one of ʒowre weddys, for ye wych offence y put me holy in ʒowre grace. And as for ye p’pose takyn by Unfrevyle and Wederyngtoun for ye bryngyng in of that persone whych they namyd kyng Richard, and Herry Percye oute of Scotland wyth a power of Scottys, and theyre power togedyrs neyming to theyme able to geve ʒow a bataylle, of ye wych entent Sir Thomas Grey wyste of, and i also, but nauth Scrop as by me; of ye wych knawing i submytte me holy into ʒowre grace. And as touchyng the Erle of Marche, and Lusy hys man, they seyden me both yat the Erle was nauth schreven of a great whyle, but at all hys confessours putte hym in penaunce to clayme yat yey callyddyn hys ryth that wold be that tyme that every iknew, heny thyng yat ever to hym longyd … … … Of ye which poynttes and artycles here befor wretyn, and of al odyr wych now arne nauth in mynde, but treuly as oft as heny to myn mynd fallyn i schal deuly and treuly certefye now thee of, besekyng to now, my lege Lord, for hys love yat syffyrd passyoun on ye good fryday see compassyoun on me ʒowre lege men, and yf heny of thes persones whos names arne contenyd in ʒyz tyme, i schalle be redy wyth the myth of god to make hyt good, as ʒee my lege Lord will awarde me.

_____________________

_____________________

A plea for mercyMyn most dredfull and sovereyne Lege Lord, i Richard York ʒowre humble subgyt and very lege man, beseke ʒow of Grace of al maner offenses wych y have done or assentyd to in heny kynde, by steryng of odyr folke eggynge me yer to, where in y wote wel i have hyll offendyd to ʒowre Hynesse; besechyng ʒow at the reverence of God yat ʒyke to take me in to the handys of ʒowre gred goodnesse. My lege Lord, my fulle trust is yat ʒee wylle have consyderacyoun, thauth yat myn persone be of none valwe, ʒowre hye goodnesse wher God hath sette ʒow in so hye estat to every lege man yat to ʒow longyth plenteousely to geve grace, yat ʒow lyke to accept ʒys myn symple reqwest for ye love of oure Lady and of ye blysfulle Holy Gost, to whome I pray yat yey mot ʒowre hert enduce to all pyte and grace for yeyre hye goodnesse. 

[30]

R.I.P.
 Latin requiēscat (or requiēscantin pāce

https://www.dictionary.com/browse/r-i-p-

[31]

ZIE NOOT 25

[32]
KORT:De Beauforts, ook wel de ”onwettige” tak van het Huis Lancaster genoemd, behoorden feitelijk helemaal niet tot het Huis Lancaster,.aangezien zijgeen kinderen waren van John of Gaunt [derde zoon van Edward III]en zijn eerste vrouw, Blanche of Lancaster, maar afstamden van John of Gaunt en zijn DERDE vrouw, Katherine Swynford:
John of Gaunt’s eerste vrouw, Blanche of Lancaster, was de dochter van Henry Grosmont, de eerste hertog van Lancaster [zijn vader was Graaf Henry of Lancaster] en als zodanig erfde John of Gaunt de hertogelijke titel van zijnvrouw.”Jure uxoris”
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jure_uxoris

John of Gaunt’s zoon, Henry Bolingbroke, de latere Henry IV, was ook de zoon van Blanche of Lancaster en als zodanig een Lancaster.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_IV_of_England
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blanche_of_Lancaster

DE BEAUFORTS echter waren dus kinderen van John of Lancaster en zijn derde vrouw Katherine Swynford, zijn gewezen maitresse.Omdat zij waren geboren tijdens het huwelijk van John of Gaunt, waren ze onwettig, maar werden achteraf gewettigd door zowel Richard II als  Paus Bonifacius IX  en kregen de naam Beaufort.
Maar met de fysieke Lancaster afstamming hadden zij dus niets te maken.Wat hen echter een rol gaf, was dat zij halfbroers/zusters waren van de eerste Lancaster koning, Henry IV en dus partij werden in het conflict .

WIKIPEDIAHOUSE OF BEAUFORT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Beaufort

[33]

WIKIPEDIAMARGARET OF ANJOU

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_of_Anjou

WIKIPEDIAEDMUND  BEAUFORT, 2ND DUKE OF SOMERSET

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Beaufort,_2nd_Duke_of_Somerset

[34]
WIKIPEDIARICHARD, 3RD DUKE OF YORK, PROTECTOR OF THE REALM, 1453-1455
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_York#Protector_of_the_Realm,_1453–1455

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIARICHARD, 3RD DUKE OF YORK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_York

WIKIPEDIAEDMUND BEAUFORT, 2ND DUKE OF SOMERSET, POLITICAL POWER AND CONFLICT
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Beaufort,_2nd_Duke_of_Somerset#Political_power_and_conflict

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIAEDMUND BEAUFORT, 2ND DUKE OF SOMERSET
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Beaufort,_2nd_Duke_of_Somerset

WIKIPEDIAHENRY VI OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VI_of_England

[35]

WIKIPEDIAFIRST BATTLE OF ST ALBANS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Battle_of_St_Albans

”The first battle of St Albans was relatively minor in military terms,[dubious – discuss] but politically was a complete victory for York and the Nevilles: York had captured the king and restored himself to complete power, while Somerset and the Nevilles’ northern rivals Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland and Lord Clifford all fell during the rout”

WIKIPEDIAFIRST BATTLE OF ST ALBANS/RESULT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Battle_of_St_Albans#Result

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIAFIRST BATTLE OF ST ALBANS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Battle_of_St_Albans

[36]

”By now York was determined to depose Somerset by one means or another, and in May 1455 he raised an army. He confronted Somerset and the King in an engagement known as the First Battle of St Albans which marked the beginning of the Wars of the Roses. Somerset was killed in a last wild charge from the house where he had been sheltering.

WIKIPEDIAEDMUND BEAUFORT, 2ND DUKE OF SOMERSET/POLITICAL POWER AND CONFLICT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Beaufort,_2nd_Duke_of_Somerset#Political_power_and_conflict

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIAEDMUND BEAUFORT, 2ND DUKE OF SOMERSET

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Beaufort,_2nd_Duke_of_Somerset

[37]

WIKIPEDIAWARS OF THE ROSES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wars_of_the_Roses

[38]

WIKIPEDIALOVEDAY, 1458

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loveday,_1458

[39]

”The Act of Accord was passed by the English Parliament on 25 October 1460,[1] three weeks after Richard, Duke of York, had entered the Council Chamber and laid his hand on the empty throne. Under the Act, King Henry VI of England was to retain the crown for life but York and his heirs were to succeed, excluding Henry’s son, Edward of Westminster. Henry was forced to agree to the Act.”

WIKIPEDIAACT OF ACCORD

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Act_of_Accord

[40]

WIKIPEDIABATTLE OF WAKEFIELD

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Wakefield

[41]

WIKIPEDIAGAME OF THRONES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Game_of_Thrones

[42]

”When you play the game of thrones, you win or you die.There is no middle ground”[Cersei Lannister in the Game of Thrones]

YOUTUBE.COMCERSEI LANNISTER: IN THE GAME OF THRONES YOU WIN OR YOU DIE

”The title of the episode is part of a quote from Cersei Lannister during the final confrontation with Eddard: “When you play the game of thrones, you win or you die. There is no middle ground.”

WIKIPEDIAYOU WIN OR YOU DIE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/You_Win_or_You_Die

[43]

De term voor Edward IV ”Rozenoorlogkoning” houdt verband met het feit, dat Edward, als 7de Earl [Graaf] van March en erfgenaam van zijn vader de hertog van York, letterlijk met ”bloed, zweet en tranen” voor de troon heeft moeten vechten:Zijn vaders superieure claim op de troon [van moederskant afstammend van de TWEEDE  zoon van Edward III, terwijl de Lancasters afstamden van de DERDEzoon] ging na zijn vaders dood op hem over.En dan was er ook nog het [van koning Henry VI afgedwongen] Act of Accord, dat inhield, dat Henry VI tijdens zijn leven zou regeren, maar dat na zijn dood de hertog van York en zijn erfgenamen de troon zouden bestijgen [waarmee de eigen zoon van de koning, Edward van Westminster, werd gepasseerd]Helemaal ”eerlijk” was de troonsbestijging van Edward IV [ondanks zijn superieure claim dus niet, want Henry VI was op dat moment nog in leven…..
MAAR GOED:Edward heeft dus keihard moeten vechten voor zijn troon en tijdens zijn bewind hebben de meeste veldslagen van de Rozenoorlogen plaatsgehad….
ZIE AAN DE RECHTERKANT VAN ONDERSTAANDE LINK
http://www.luminarium.org/encyclopedia/warsoftheroses.htm

[44]

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/REBELLION AND DEATH
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Rebellion_and_death

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

[45]

WIKIPEDIARICHARD III OF ENGLAND/KING OF ENGLAND
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_III_of_England#King_of_England

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIARICHARD III OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_III_of_England

[46]
WIKIPEDIABATTLE OF BOSWORTH [BATTLE OF  BOSWORTH FIELD]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bosworth_Field

[47]

WIKIPEDIAHENRY VII OF ENGLAND/ANCESTRY AND EARLY LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VII_of_England#Ancestry_and_early_life

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIAHENRY VII OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VII_of_England

[48]

”She was the daughter and sole heiress of John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset (1404–1444), a legitimised grandson of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster (third surviving son of King Edward III) by his mistress Katherine Swynford.”

WIKIPEDIALADY MARGARET BEAUFORT/ORIGINS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_Margaret_Beaufort#Origins

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIALADY MARGARET BEAUFORT 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_Margaret_Beaufort

WIKIPEDIAHOUSE OF BEAUFORT 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Beaufort

[49]
”The Battle of Bosworth Field (or Battle of Bosworth) was the last significant battle of the Wars of the Roses, the civil war between the Houses of Lancaster and York that extended across England in the latter half of the 15th century. Fought on 22 August 1485, the battle was won by the Lancastrians. Their leader Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, became the first English monarch of the Tudor dynasty by his victory and subsequent marriage to a Yorkist princess. His opponent Richard III, the last king of the House of York, was killed during the battle, the last English monarch to die in battle. Historians consider Bosworth Field to mark the end of the Plantagenet dynasty, making it one of the defining moments of English history.”

WIKIPEDIABATTLE OF BOSWORTH [BATTLE OF  BOSWORTH FIELD]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bosworth_Field

[50]

WIKIPEDIAHOUSE OF TUDOR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Tudor

[51]

”Henry Tudor, the future Henry VII, succeeded in presenting himself as a candidate not only for traditional Lancastrian supporters, but also for discontented supporters of their rival House of York, and he took the throne by right of conquest
WIKIPEDIAHOUSE OF TUDOR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Tudor

WIKIPEDIARIGHT OF CONQUEST

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Right_of_conquest

[52]

”By 1483, Henry’s mother was actively promoting him as an alternative to Richard III, despite her being married to Lord Stanley, a Yorkist. At Rennes Cathedral on Christmas Day 1483, Henry pledged to marry Elizabeth of York, the eldest daughter of Edward IV, who was also Edward’s heir since the presumed death of her brothers, the Princes in the Tower, King Edward V and his brother Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York

WIKIPEDIAHENRY VII OF ENGLAND/RISE TO THE THRONE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VII_of_England#Rise_to_the_throne

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIAHENRY VII OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VII_of_England

[53]

”The family is descended from John of Gaunt by his then-mistress Katherine Swynford. Gaunt married Swynford in 1396, and their children were legitimized by Richard II and Pope Boniface IX. ”

WIKIPEDIAHOUSE OF BEAUFORT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Beaufort

[54]

ZIE NOOT 25

[55]

WIKIPEDIA MARGARET OF ANJOU

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_of_Anjou

WIKIPEDIAELIZABETH OF YORK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_of_York

[56]

QUEEN BY RIGHT OF QUEEN REGNANT

”A queen regnant (plural: queens regnant) is a female monarch, equivalent in rank to a king, who reigns in her own right, as opposed to a queen consort, who is the wife of a reigning king, or a queen regent, who is the guardian of a child monarch and reigns temporarily in the child’s stead”

WIKIPEDIAQUEEN REGNANT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Queen_regnant

WIKIPEDIAQUEEN CONSORT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Queen_consort

[57]

”Three of Richard’s sisters married dukes (the youngest Cecily, marrying Richard, Duke of York), and Richard himself married Alice Montacute, daughter and heiress of Thomas Montacute, the Earl of Salisbury………..”At the time of the marriage, the Salisbury inheritance was not guaranteed, as not only was Earl Thomas still alive, but in 1424 he remarried (to Alice Chaucer, granddaughter of the poet Geoffrey Chaucer). This second marriage was without issue and when the Earl Thomas Montacute died in 1428, Richard Neville and Alice were confirmed as the Earl and Countess of Salisbury. From this point on, Richard Neville will be referred to as Salisbury.”
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 5TH EARL OF SALISBURY/BACKGROUND
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_5th_Earl_of_Salisbury#Background

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 5TH EARL OF SALISBURY
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_5th_Earl_of_Salisbury

WIKIPEDIAJURE UXORIS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jure_uxoris

[58]

ZIE NOOT 57

[59]

”But the male line of the Nevilles was of native origin, and the family may well have been part of the pre-conquest aristocracy of Northumbria.[1] The continuation of landowning among such native families was more common in the far north of England than further south.”
WIKIPEDIAHOUSE OF NEVILLE/ORIGINS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Neville#Origins

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIAHOUSE OF NEVILLE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Neville

[60]

WIKIPEDIAHOUSE OF NEVILLE/WARS OF THE ROSES
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Neville#Wars_of_the_Roses

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIAHOUSE OF NEVILLE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Neville

[61]

Cecily Neville (3 May 1415 – 31 May 1495) was an English noblewoman, the wife of Richard, Duke of York (1411–1460), and the mother of two kings of EnglandEdward IV and Richard III. Cecily Neville was known as “the Rose of Raby”, because she was born at Raby Castle in Durham, and “Proud Cis”, because of her pride and a temper that went with it, although she was also known for her piety. She herself signed her name “Cecylle”.”
WIKIPEDIACECILY NEVILLE, DUCHESS OF YORK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cecily_Neville,_Duchess_of_York

CECILY NEVILLE, DUCHESS [HERTOGIN] OF YORK, WAS DE ZUSTER VAN DE VADER VAN DE 16DE GRAAF VAN WARWICK [THE KINGMAKER],RICHARD, DE VIJFDE GRAAF VAN SALISBURYMET ANDERE WOORDEN:CECILY NEVILLE, DUCHESS OF YORK WAS WARWICK’S TANTE.
ZIE OOK

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 5TH EARL OF SALISBURY
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_5th_Earl_of_Salisbury

[62]
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/BECOMING WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Becoming_Warwick

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

[63]

BROTHER AGAINST BROTHER/COUSIN AGAINST COUSIN
VOORBEELD:
IN DE SLAG BIJ NORTHAMPTON [1460] STONDEN DE LATERE EDWARD IV [TOEN NOG EDWARD OF YORK,  7DE EARL OF MARCH] EN DE GRAAF VAN WARWICK TEGENOVER ONDER ANDERE HUN NEEF, THOMAS PERCY, EERSTE BARON EGREMONT, DIE AAN DE LANCASTER KANT VOCHT EN IN DEZE SLAG SNEUVELDE

THOMAS PERCY WAS EEN ZOON VAN HENRY PERCY, TWEEDE GRAAF VAN NORTHUMBERLAND EN LADY ELEANOR NEVILLE, DE ZUSTERVAN CECILY OF YORK-NEVILLE [MOEDER VAN EDWARD IV] EN RICHARD,VIJFDE GRAAF VAN SALISBURY, DE VADER VAN GRAAF WARWICK

WIKIPEDIATHOMAS PERCY, 1ST BARON EGREMONT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Percy,_1st_Baron_Egremont

WIKIPEDIA BATTLE OF NORTHAMPTON (1460)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Northampton_(1460)

IN DE SLAG BIJ TOWTON [1461] STONDEN EDWARD IV [TOEN NET TOT KONING GEKROOND, WAARMEE HIJ HENRY VI VERVING] EN DE GRAAF VAN WARWICK, SAMEN MET ANDERE FAMILIELEDEN, ONDER ANDERE TEGENOVER HENRY PERCY, DE DERDE GRAAF VAN NORTHUMBERLAND EN BROER VAN THOMAS PERCY, EERSTE BARON VAN EGREMONT[ZIE DIRECT HIERBOVEN]DUS WEER TEGENOVER EEN NEEF, DIE AAN DE KANT VAN LANCASTER VOCHT.OOK HENRY PERCY SNEUVELDE, IN DE SLAG BIJ TOWTON
WIKIPEDIABATTLE OF TOWTON
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Towton

WIKIPEDIAHENRY PERCY, 3RD EARL OF NORTHUMBERLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Percy,_3rd_Earl_of_Northumberland

EN ZO GING HET SCHERING EN INSLAGBROTHER AGAINST BROTHER/COUSIN AGAINST COUSIN……

[64]

The Wars of the Roses were a series of English civil wars for control of the throne of England fought between supporters of two rival cadet branches of the royal House of Plantagenet: the House of Lancaster, associated with the Red Rose of Lancaster, and the House of York, whose symbol was the White Rose of York. Eventually, the wars eliminated the male lines of both families. 

WIKIPEDIAWARS OF THE ROSES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wars_of_the_Roses

[65]

WIKIPEDIASOUTHAMPTON PLOT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southampton_Plot

Henry was by now fully determined to take the throne, but presenting a rationale for this action proved a dilemma.[2] It was argued that Richard, through his tyranny and misgovernment, had rendered himself unworthy of being king.[98] However, Henry was not next in line to the throne; the heir presumptive was Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, great-grandson of Edward III’s second surviving son, Lionel. Bolingbroke’s father, John of Gaunt, was Edward’s third son to survive to adulthood”
WIKIPEDIARICHARD II OF ENGLAND/DOWNFALL
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_of_England#Downfall

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIA RICHARD II OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_of_England

 [66]

WIKIPEDIASOUTHAMPTON PLOT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southampton_Plot

[67]
ZIE NOOT 23 EN 65

[68]
ZIE NOOT 23

[69]

WIKIPEDIAEDMUND BEAUFORT, 2ND DUKE OF SOMERSET/POLITICAL POWER AND CONFLICT
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Beaufort,_2nd_Duke_of_Somerset#Political_power_and_conflict

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIAEDMUND BEAUFORT, 2ND DUKE OF SOMERSET
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Beaufort,_2nd_Duke_of_Somerset

[70]

ZIE NOOT 69

ZIE OOK
WIKIPEDIA FIRST BATTLE OF ST ALBANS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Battle_of_St_Albans

[71]

WIKIPEDIAHENRY VI OF ENGLAND
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VI_of_England

[72]

WIKIPEDIARICHARD OF YORK, 3RD DUKE OF YORK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_York

WIKIPEDIAEDMUND BEAUFORT, 2ND DUKE OF SOMERSET
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Beaufort,_2nd_Duke_of_Somerset

[73]

”Margaret at the time seven months pregnant, attempted to claim the regency, but gained no support. It was given instead to Henry’s cousin, Richard, Duke of York, much to the annoyance of the Queen, who strongly felt that she and her party should govern England.”
ENGLISH MONARCHSMARGARET OF ANJOU
http://www.englishmonarchs.co.uk/plantagenet_26.html

[74]

YOUTUBE.COMTHE CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSESMARK GOACHER

[75]

”What Cade and York were challenging was the improper influence of the king’s advisors on the application of royal authority. It is difficult to regard this as anything other than a tactic intended to prevent the imputation of treason against them. In York’s case he embellished his complaints with the inference that the king was the innocent victim of evil councillors. It was a situation from which York — the king’s true and loyal subject — would recue him; thus, allowing him to rule properly as was always his intention. 

DUKE RICHARD, THE 3RD DUKE OF YORK, THE KING’S TRUE LIEGEMAN?

ZIE OOK
https://www.astridessed.nl/the-wars-of-the-rosesmurreyandbluewordpress-comduke-richard-the-3rd-duke-of-york-the-kings-true-liegeman/

[76]

ZIE NOOT 23

ZIE OOK

YOUTUBE.COMTHE CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSESMARK GOACHER

[77]

YOUTUBE.COMTHE CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSESMARK GOACHER

[77]

WIKIPEDIAHENRY VI OF ENGLAND/INSANITY AND THE ASCENDANCY OF YORK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VI_of_England#Insanity,_and_the_ascendancy_of_York

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIAHENRY VI OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VI_of_England

[78]
[78]

”When Richard, Duke of York, unsuccessfully rose up against the king in 1452, both Warwick and his father rallied to the side of King Henry VI”

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK, BECOMING WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Becoming_Warwick

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

[79]

CON IGGULDENTRINITY
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/22468475-trinity
CON IGGULDEN [Vertaald in het Nederlands]HET DRIEVOUDIG VERBOND
https://www.bol.com/nl/f/de-rozenoorlogen-het-drievoudig-verbond/9200000036034854/
 [80]

STAMBOOM, WAARUIT HET ZWAGERSCHAP VAN RICHARD NEVILLE, 16E GRAAF VAN WARWICK MET EDMUND BEAUFORT, 2DE HERTOG VAN SOMERSET, IS AF TE LEIDEN.HUN VROUWEN WAREN ELKAARS HALFZUSTERS, KINDEREN VANRICHARD, 13E GRAAF VAN WARWICK UIT ZIJN EERSTE EN TWEEDE HUWELIJKZIE DIRECT HIERONDER:

RICHARD BEAUCHAMP, 13E GRAAF VAN WARWICKUIT ZIJN EERSTE HUWELIJK MET ELIZABETH DE BERKELEY WERDEN GEBOREN:
MARGARET BEAUCHAMP, DE LATERE COUNTESS OF SHRESBURYELEANOR BEAUCHAMP, DE LATERE DUCHESS OF SOMERSETELIZABETH BEAUCHAMP, DE LATERE BARONESS LATIMER
UIT ZIJN TWEEDE HUWELIJK MET ISABEL LE DESPENSER WERDEN GEBOREN
HENRY, 14E GRAAF VAN WARWICK [OVERLEDEN IN 1446]ANNE [DIE DAARDOOR LATER DE TITEL ERFDE], 16E GRAAF VAN WARWICK[NA HET OVERLIJDEN VAN DE DOCHTER VAN HAAR BROER HENRY, OOKEEN ANNE [OVERLEDEN IN 1449]
ZIEHIER DE DRAMATIS PERSONAE
RICHARD BEAUCHAMP, 13E GRAAF VAN WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Beauchamp,_13th_Earl_of_Warwick
ZIJN EERSTE VROUW ELIZABETH DE BERKELEY
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_Berkeley,_Countess_of_Warwick
HUN DRIE DOCHTERS
MARGARET, COUNTESS OF SHREWSBURY
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_Beauchamp,_Countess_of_Shrewsbury
ELEANOR, DUCHESS OF SOMERSET, GETROUWD MET EDMUND BEAUFORT, 2E HERTOG VAN SOMERSET
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eleanor_Beauchamp,_Duchess_of_Somerset

ELIZABETH, BARONESS LATIMER [GEEN WIKIPEDIA]

TWEEDE VROUW VAN RICHARD BEAUCHAMP, 13E GRAAF VAN WARWICK
ISABEL LE DESPENSER
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isabel_Despenser,_Countess_of_Warwick

ZOON EN DOCHTER UIT DIT TWEEDE HUWELIJK
HENRY BEAUCHAMP, 14E GRAAF VAN WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Beauchamp,_1st_Duke_of_Warwick

ANNE BEAUCHAMP, 16E GRAVIN VAN WARWICKGETROUWD MET RICHARD NEVILLE, 16E GRAAF VAN WARWICK [JURE UXORIS]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anne_Beauchamp,_16th_Countess_of_Warwick
[81]

”In June 1453, Somerset was granted custody of the lordship of Glamorgan – part of the Despenser heritage held by Warwick until then – and open conflict broke out between the two men.[15] Then, in the summer of that year, King Henry fell ill.[16] Somerset was a favourite of the king and Queen Margaret, and with the king incapacitated he was virtually in complete control of government.[17] This put Warwick at a disadvantage in his dispute with Somerset, and drove him into collaboration with York”
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/CIVIL WAR
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Civil_War

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK  

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

[82]

” The political climate, influenced by the military defeat in France, then started turning against Somerset. On 27 March 1454, a group of royal councillors appointed the Duke of York protector of the realm.[19] York could now count on the support not only of Warwick, but also of Warwick’s father Salisbury, who had become more deeply involved in disputes with the House of Percy in the north of England

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/CIVIL WAR
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Civil_War

ORIGINELE BRONWIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

[83]
WIKIPEDIAPERCY-NEVILLE FEUD
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Percy–Neville_feud

[84]

WIKIPEDIAFIRST BATTLE OF ST ALBANS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Battle_of_St_Albans

YOUTUBE.COMTHE CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES

[85]

Thomas Percy, 1st Baron Egremont (29 November 1422 – 10 July 1460) was the son of Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland, and Eleanor Neville, being made Lord Egremont in 1449. A northern baron, he became a leading figure in the internecine Percy-Neville feud, fighting at the Battle of Heworth Moor. When the Wars of the Roses began mid-decade, Egremont fought for the king on the Lancastrian side, being killed five years later at the Battle of Northampton.

WIKIPEDIATHOMAS PERCY, 1ST BARON EGREMONT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Percy,_1st_Baron_Egremont
ZOALS TE LEZEN [ZIE BOVENSTAANDE]
HET TRIESTE WAS, DAT DEZE THOMAS PERCY DE ZOON WAS VANGENOEMDE LORD PERCY, MAAR OOK VAN ELEANOR NEVILLE, TANTE VAN VADERSZIJDE [ZUSTER VAN ZIJN VADER] VAN WARWICK EN TANTE VAN MOEDERSZIJDE VAN DE LATERE EDWARD IV [ZUSTER VAN ZIJN MOEDER CECILY NEVILLE] , TOEN NOG DE 7E EARL OF MARCH [ZOON VAN DE HERTOG VAN YORK]

IN DE BATTLE OF NORTHAMPTON STREED THOMAS PERCY TEGEN ZIJN NEVEN WARWICK EN DE EARL OF MARCH [ZOON VAN DE HERTOG VAN YORK] EN SNEUVELDE
WIKIPEDIABATTLE OF NORTHAMPTON (1460)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Northampton_(1460)

[86]

YOUTUBE.COMTHE CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES

WIKIPEDIAPERCY-NEVILLE FEUD
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Percy–Neville_feud

WIKIPEDIAHUNDRED YEARS WAR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hundred_Years%27_War

 [87]

BELANGRIJKE EDELEN, DIE GETROUWEN WAREN VAN KONING HENRY VI:
Edmund Beaufort, 2de hertog van York
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Beaufort,_2nd_Duke_of_Somerset

Henry Percy, 2e Graaf van Northumberland, getrouwd met Lady Eleanor Neville, zuster van Richard Neville [de vader van Warwick, tegenpartij en bondgenoot van York] en Cecily Neville, vrouw van de hertog van York.
Humphrey Stafford, Eerste hertog van Buckingham , getrouwd met Lady Anne Neville, ook een zuster van Richard Neville en Cecily Neville, vrouw van de hertog van YorkToen al liepen de Families in de Rozenoorlogen door elkaar!
HENRY PERCY, TWEEDE GRAAF VAN NORTHUMBERLAND
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Percy,_2nd_Earl_of_Northumberland

HUMPHREY STAFFORD, EERSTE HERTOG VAN BUCKINGHAM
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humphrey_Stafford,_1st_Duke_of_Buckingham

Eleanor Neville, Richard Neville en Cecily Nevilles zuster, Humphrey Stafford, Eerste hertog van Buckingham en getrouwd met de zuster van Warwick’s vader, Lady Anne Neville, die eveneens de zuster was van Cecily Neville, de vrouw van de hertog van York/Toen al stonden de families tegenover elkaar]

[88]

WIKIPEDIAFIRST BATTLE OF ST ALBANS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Battle_of_St_Albans

[89]

WIKIPEDIAWARS OF THE ROSES
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wars_of_the_Roses

DE DRIE RICHARDS WERDEN DOOR HET ”PARLIAMENT OF DEVILS” ALS VERRADERS GEBRANDMERKT [FIGUURLIJK] EN HUN BEZITTINGEN VERBEURD VERKLAARD [ATTAINDER]DIT WAS VOORAL HET WERK VAN MARGARETHA VAN ANJOUKONING HENRY VI NEIGDE ALTIJD TOT VERGEVINGSGEZINDHEIDIK DENK, DAT DE PASSAGE [ZIE HET LAATSTE CITAAT, NA DE STIPPELLIJNEN] WAARBIJ VOLLEDIG PARDON WERD AANGEBODEN VOOR WIE ZICH AAN DE KONING ONDERWIERP, VAN DE HAND VAN HENRY VI KWAM……

”The Parliament opened in the chapter house of St. Mary’s priory with a speech by the chancellor, William Waynflete, bishop of Winchester, preaching on the text ‘Grace to you and peace be multiplied’, but the government’s purpose was undoubtedly to condemn York and his kinsmen and allies as traitors. A bill accused twenty-four persons of levying war against the King at Blore Heath and Ludford, and three more (including the countess of Salisbury) of plotting  his death elsewhere. It recited York’s treasons since 1450; what had been done at St. Albans (in 1455 when the duke had eliminated several of his political opponents in a pitched battle in the streets of the town) had been an ‘execrabill and moost detestable dede’, prompted by ‘the moost diabolique unkyndnesse and wrecched envye’. Attainder was fully justified, whereby the traitors were condemned to death and all their possessions declared forfeit. Furthermore, their heirs were to be barred from inheritance forever”…………”The chancellor’s choice of text for his sermon could be taken to imply an intention to pursue peace by softening the rigour of justice with the King’s prerogative of mercy, and at the end of the session Henry VI did indeed mitigate the effects of the act of attainder, insisting on a proviso that he could grant full pardon and restoration to those who humbly sought his grace”

THE HISTORY OF PARLIAMENTON THIS DAY: 20 NOVEMBER 1459, THE ”PARLIAMENT OF DEVILS” ASSEMBLES AT COVENTRY
https://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/periods/medieval/day-20-november-1459-parliament-devils-assembles-coventry

”The main business of the Parliament was to pass bills of attainder for High treason against the leading Yorkist nobles, following the start of a new stage in the Wars of the Roses and the Battle of Ludford Bridge.”

WIKIPEDIAPARLIAMENT OF DEVILS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parliament_of_Devils

”A bill of attainder (also known as an act of attainder or writ of attainder or bill of pains and penalties) is an act of a legislature declaring a person or group of persons guilty of some crime and punishing them, often without a trial. As with attainder resulting from the normal judicial process, the effect of such a bill is to nullify the targeted person’s civil rights, most notably the right to own property (and thus pass it on to heirs), the right to a title of nobility, and, in at least the original usage, the right to life itself.”

WIKIPEDIABILL OF ATTAINDER
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_of_attainder

NA DEZE HANDELINGEN VAN HET PARLIAMENT OF DEVILS, ONTVLUCHTTEN DE  DRIE RICHARDS [MET YORK’S ZOON EDWARD, DE EARL OF MARCH, LATER EDWARD IV] HET LAND
YORK NAAR IERLAND, WARWICK, NEEF EDWARD [EARL OF MARCH] EN VADER RICHARD NEVILLE, 5E GRAAF VAN SALISBURY, NAAR FRANKRIJK, CALAIS [LAATSTE ENGELSE BOLWERK IN FRANKRIJK,WARWICK WAS KAPITEIN VAN CALAIS

”Forced to flee the country, York left for Dublin, Ireland, with his second son Edmund, Earl of Rutland, while Warwick and Salisbury sailed to Calais, accompanied by the Duke’s son, Edward, Earl of March (the future King Edward IV).”
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/HOUSE OF YORK TRIUMPHANT
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#House_of_York_triumphant

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

[90]

WIKIPEDIAEDWARD OF WESTMINSTER, PRINCE OF WALES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_of_Westminster,_Prince_of_Wales

[91]

‘Forced to flee the country, York left for Dublin, Ireland, with his second son Edmund, Earl of Rutland, while Warwick and Salisbury sailed to Calais, accompanied by the Duke’s son, Edward, Earl of March (the future King Edward IV).”
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/HOUSE OF YORK TRIUMPHANT
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#House_of_York_triumphant
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

[92]

WIKIPEDIABATTLE OF NORTHAMPTON (1460)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Northampton_(1460)

[93]
”The Act of Accord was passed by the English Parliament on 25 October 1460,[1] three weeks after Richard, Duke of York, had entered the Council Chamber and laid his hand on the empty throne. Under the Act, King Henry VI of England was to retain the crown for life but York and his heirs were to succeed, excluding Henry’s son, Edward of Westminster. Henry was forced to agree to the Act.”

WIKIPEDIAACT OF ACCORD
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Act_of_Accord

[94]

”The Duke of York was either killed in the battle or captured and immediately executed. Some later works support the folklore that he suffered a crippling wound to the knee and was unhorsed, and he and his closest followers then fought to the death at that spot;[38] others relate the account that he was taken prisoner (by one Sir James Luttrell of Devonshire), mocked by his captors and beheaded.[40]

His son Edmund, Earl of Rutland attempted to escape over Wakefield Bridge, but was overtaken and killed, possibly by Clifford in revenge for his father’s death at St Albans. Salisbury’s second son Sir Thomas Neville also died in the battle.[21] Salisbury’s son in law William, Lord Harington and Harington’s father, William Bonville, were captured and executed immediately after the battle. (The Bonvilles had been engaged in a feud with the Earl of Devon and the Courtenay family in Devon and Cornwall.) Salisbury himself escaped the battlefield but was captured during the night, and was taken to the Lancastrian camp. Although the Lancastrian nobles might have been prepared to allow Salisbury to ransom himself, he was dragged out of Pontefract Castle and beheaded by local commoners, to whom he had been a harsh overlord”

WIKIPEDIABATTLE OF WAKEFIELD/CASUALTIES
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Wakefield#Casualties

ORIGINELE BRON 

WIKIPEDIABATTLE OF WAKEFIELD
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Wakefield

[95]

[95]

”The death of his father left Edward, now Duke of York, at the head of the Yorkist faction. He defeated a Lancastrian army at Mortimer’s Cross in Herefordshire on 2–3 February 1461. He then united his forces with those of Warwick, whom Margaret’s army had defeated at the Second Battle of St Albans (17 February 1461), during which Henry VI had been rescued by his supporters.[7] Edward’s father had restricted his ambitions to becoming Henry’s heir, but Edward now took the more radical step of proclaiming himself king in March 1461.[7] He then advanced against the Lancastrians, having his life saved on the battlefield by the Welsh Knight Sir David Ap Mathew. He defeated the Lancastrian army in the exceptionally bloody Battle of Towton in Yorkshire on 29 March 1461.[8] Edward had effectively broken the military strength of the Lancastrians, and he returned to London for his coronation. King Edward IV named Sir David Ap Mathew Standard Bearer of England and allowed him to use “Towton” on the Mathew family crest.”

WIKIPEDIAEDWARD IV OF ENGLAND/ACCESSION TO THE THRONE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England#Accession_to_the_throne

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIAEDWARD IV OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England

[96]

WIKIPEDIAACT OF ACCORD

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Act_of_Accord

[97]

”Warwick’s position after the accession of Edward IV was stronger than ever.[59] He had now succeeded to his father’s possessions, and in 1462 he also inherited his mother’s lands and the Salisbury title.[60] Altogether he had an annual income from his lands of over £7,000 far more than any other man in the realm but the king.[61] Edward confirmed Warwick’s position as Captain of Calais, and made him High Admiral of England and Steward of the Duchy of Lancaster, along with several other offices”

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/WARWICK’S APEX
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Warwick’s_apex

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

[98]

””They have but two rulers, M. de Warwick and another whose name I have forgotten.”– The Governor of Abbeville in a letter to Louis XI[2][58]

AAN DE RECHTERKANT VAN
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/WARWICK’S APEX
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Warwick’s_apex

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick [99]

WIKIPEDIABATTLE OF MORTIMER’S CROSS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Mortimer%27s_Cross

[100]

WIKIPEDIAJASPER TUDOR
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jasper_Tudor

[101]

”I myself hold the opinion, that when King Edward would have concentratedon the military (he was an extremely capable military commander) and the Earl of Warwick on ruling and diplomacy, they whould have been made a deadly double and perhapsruled England happily together, if at least Edward had not fallen ill and diedso untimely.”

THE WARS OF THE ROSES/CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES/A TRAVEL OF THE PASTASTRID ESSED3 FEBRUARI 2015
https://www.astridessed.nl/the-wars-of-the-rosescauses-of-the-wars-of-the-rosesa-travel-to-the-past/

[102]
”When you play the game of thrones, you win or you die.There is no middle ground”[Cersei Lannister in the Game of Thrones]

YOUTUBE.COMCERSEI LANNISTER: IN THE GAME OF THRONES YOU WIN OR YOU DIE

”The title of the episode is part of a quote from Cersei Lannister during the final confrontation with Eddard: “When you play the game of thrones, you win or you die. There is no middle ground.”

WIKIPEDIAYOU WIN OR YOU DIE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/You_Win_or_You_Die

[103]

”Sir John Grey was killed in the Second Battle of St Albans in 1461, fighting for the Lancastrian cause.[1] His widow, Dame Elizabeth Grey, later secretly married Edward IV who was the successful Yorkist claimant to the throne.”
WIKIPEDIAJOHN GREY OF GROBY/DEATH AT THE BATTLE OF ST ABLANS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Grey_of_Groby#Death_at_the_battle_of_St_Albans
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIAJOHN GREY OF GROBY
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Grey_of_Groby

[104]
”At the negotiations with the French, Warwick had intimated that King Edward was interested in a marriage arrangement with the French crown, the intended bride being Louis XI’s sister-in-law, Bona, daughter of Louis, Duke of Savoy.[71] This marriage was not to be, however, because in September 1464, Edward revealed that he was already married, to Elizabeth Woodville.[72] The marriage caused great offence to Warwick: not only due to the fact that his plans had been sabotaged, but also the secrecy with which the king had acted.[73] The marriage – contracted on 1 May of the same year – was not made public before Warwick pressed Edward on the issue at a council meeting, and in the meanwhile Warwick had been unknowingly deceiving the French into believing the king was serious about the marriage proposal.”
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/EARLY TENSIONS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Early_tensions

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

[105]

For Edward the marriage may very well have been a love match, but in the long run he sought to build the Woodville family into a powerhouse independent of Warwick’s influence.[74] The marriage of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville caused Warwick to lose his power and influence. He accused Elizabeth, and her mother Jacquetta of Luxembourg, of witchcraft to try and restore the power that he had lost 

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/EARLY TENSIONS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Early_tensions

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick


YOUTUBE.COM
BRITAIN’S BLOODY CROWNTHE KINGMAKER MUST DIE/EP 2 OF 4 (WARS OF THE ROSES DOCUMENTARY

[106]

”VERRADER WILDE ZELF OP DE TROON
De Graaf van Warwick, bijgenaamd ”The Kingmaker” steunde Hendrik VI van het Huis van Lancaster met zijn rijkdom., welsprekendheid en leger.Hij liep over toen zijn neef van het huis York als Eduard IV werd gekroond.Uit machtswellust nam de Graaf van Warwick na een veldslag de koning gevangenen probeerde hij zelf op de Engelse troon te komen.”

Bladzijde 24Magazine ”Ontdek”Aflevering:De geschiedenis achter Game of Thrones

[107]
This was not enough to cause a complete fallout between the two men, though from this point on Warwick increasingly stayed away from court.[76] The promotion of Warwick’s brother George to Archbishop of York shows that the earl was still in favour with the king. In July 1465, when Henry VI was once more captured, it was Warwick who escorted the fallen king to his captivity in the Tower. 

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/EARLY TENSIONS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Early_tensions

WIKIPEDIA
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

[108]

”The Burgundian party was a political allegiance against France that formed during the latter half of the Hundred Years’ War. The term “Burgundians” refers to the supporters of the Duke of BurgundyJohn the Fearless, that formed after the assassination of Louis I, Duke of Orléans. Their opposition to the Armagnac party, the supporters of Charles, Duke of Orléans, led to a civil war.”
WIKIPEDIABURGUNDIAN (PARTY)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burgundian_(party)

”The English negotiated with their Burgundian allies to transfer her to their custody, with Bishop Pierre Cauchon of Beauvais, an English partisan, assuming a prominent role in these negotiations and her later trial.[68] The final agreement called for the English to pay the sum of 10,000 livres tournois[69] to obtain her from Jean de Luxembourg, a member of the Council of Duke Philip of Burgundy.”
WIKIPEDIAJOAN OF ARC/CAPTURE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joan_of_Arc#Capture

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIAJOAN OF ARC
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joan_of_Arc

[109]

””They have but two rulers, M. de Warwick and another whose name I have forgotten.”– The Governor of Abbeville in a letter to Louis XI[2][58]

AAN DE RECHTERKANT VAN
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/WARWICK’S APEX
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Warwick’s_apex

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

[110]

”Meanwhile, Edward’s father-in-law, Richard Woodville, Earl Rivers, who had been created treasurer, was in favour of a Burgundian alliance.[80] This set up internal conflict within the English court, which was not alleviated by the fact that Edward had signed a secret treaty in October with Burgundy, while Warwick was forced to carry on sham negotiations with the French”

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/EARLY TENSIONS’
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Early_tensions

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

WIKIPEDIAMARGARET OF YORK/MARRIAGE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_of_York#Marriage

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIAMARGARET OF YORK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_of_York

[111]

Meanwhile, Edward’s father-in-law, Richard Woodville, Earl Rivers, who had been created treasurer, was in favour of a Burgundian alliance 

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/EARLY TENSIONS’
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Early_tensions

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

[112]

WIKIPEDIAHUNDRED YEARS WAR/BEGINNING OF THE WAR: 1337-1360
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hundred_Years%27_War#Beginning_of_the_war:_1337–1360

ORIGINELE BERICHT

WIKIPEDIAHUNDRED YEARS WAR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hundred_Years%27_War

[113]

”Later, George Neville was dismissed as chancellor, while Edward refused to contemplate a marriage between Warwick’s oldest daughter Isabel, and Edward’s brother George, Duke of Clarence.[82] It became increasingly clear that Warwick’s position of dominance at court had been taken over by Rivers
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE. 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/EARLY TENSIONS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Early_tensions

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE. 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

[114]
WARWICK ALS HOOFD VAN DE NEVILLE FAMILIE

Most of England’s leading families had remained loyal to Henry VI or remained uncommitted in the recent conflict. The new regime, therefore, relied heavily on the support of the Nevilles, who held vast estates and had been so instrumental in bringing Edward to the throne. However, the king increasingly became estranged from their leader the Earl of Warwick, due primarily to his marriage 

WIKIPEDIAEDWARD IV OF ENGLAND/OVERTHROW
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England#Overthrow

Edward’s impetuous marriage to Elizabeth Woodville greatly offended the Nevilles, largely because Warwick had been negotiating several continental alliances to support Edward’s tenuous reign, including a marriage to one of several family members of Louis XI of France.  

WIKIPEDIAEDWARD IV OF ENGLAND
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England

ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIAEDWARD IV OF ENGLAND
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England

[115]

Warwick now orchestrated a rebellion in Yorkshire while he was away, led by a “Robin of Redesdale“.[87] Part of Warwick’s plan was winning over King Edward’s younger brother, George Plantagenet, possibly with the prospect of installing him on the throne 

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/REBELLION AND DEATH
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Rebellion_and_death

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

[116]

WIKIPEDIAHOUSE OF NEVILLE/DISAFFECTION AND DEFECTION

Disaffection and defection

Warwick, now the richest man in England after the king, was the power behind the throne in Edward’s regime during its early years, but the two men later fell out.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Neville#Disaffection_and_defection

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIA

HOUSE OF NEVILLE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Neville

[117]

The king opposed the marriage as it would bring the already powerful Earl of Warwick too close to the throne. However the ceremony took place in secret at Calais on 11 July 1469, conducted by Isabel Neville’s uncle George Neville, archbishop of York.  

WIKIPEDIA

ISABEL NEVILLE, DUCHESS OF CLARENCE/LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isabel_Neville,_Duchess_of_Clarence#Life

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIA

ISABEL NEVILLE, DUCHESS OF CLARENCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isabel_Neville,_Duchess_of_Clarence

”Warwick retired in dudgeon to his estates, and began to plot in secret for his revenge. In the summer of 1469 he went over to Calais, where Isabel and Clarence were married without the king’s knowledge. ”

LUMINARIUM

RICHARD NEVILLE, EARL OF WARWICK

 ”THE KINGMAKER”

(1428-1471)

http://www.luminarium.org/encyclopedia/warwick.htm  [118]

Robin of Redesdale (fl. 1469), sometimes called “Robin Mend-All”, was the leader of an insurrection against King Edward IV of England.[1] His true identity is unknown, but it is thought he could have been either Sir John Conyers of Hornby (d. 1490) or his brother Sir William Conyers of Marske (d. 1469), or even both. Whoever he was, the power behind his rebellion was Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick (“Warwick the Kingmaker”).”
WIKIPEDIAROBIN OF REDESDALE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robin_of_Redesdale

”Warwick now orchestrated a rebellion in Yorkshire while he was away, led by a “Robin of Redesdale“.[87] Part of Warwick’s plan was winning over King Edward’s younger brother, George Plantagenet, possibly with the prospect of installing him on the throne”
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/REBELLION AND DEATH
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Rebellion_and_death

ORIGINELE BRON 

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

[119]

WIKIPEDIABATTLE OF EDGECOTE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Edgecote_Moor

[120]

”Following the battle, Richard Woodville, Earl Rivers, father of the Yorkist Queen Elizabeth Woodville, and his second son John were taken prisoners at Chepstow. Following a hasty show trial, they were beheaded at Kenilworth on 12 August 1469”

WIKIPEDIABATTLE OF EDGECOTE/THE REBELLION
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Edgecote_Moor#The_rebellion
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIABATTLE OF EDGECOTE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Edgecote_Moor

[121]

With his army now defeated, King Edward IV was taken under arrest by George Neville.[95] Warwick then imprisoned the king in Warwick Castle, and in August, the king was taken north to Middleham Castle.[96] In the long run, however, it proved impossible to rule without the king, and continuing disorder forced Warwick to release King Edward IV in September 1469 
WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/REBELLION AND DEATH
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Rebellion_and_death

ORIGINELE BRON 

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick
[122]
At this point, Edward did not seek to destroy either Warwick or Clarence but sought reconciliation instead 

WIKIPEDIAEDWARD IV OF ENGLAND/OVERTHROW
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England#Overthrow

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIAEDWARD IV OF ENGLAND
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England

”A modus vivendi had been achieved between Warwick and the king for some months, but the restoration of Henry Percy to Montagu’s earldom of Northumberland prevented any chance of full reconciliation.[97] A trap was set for the king when disturbances in Lincolnshire led him north, where he could be confronted by Warwick’s men.[98] Edward, however, discovered the plot when Robert, Lord Welles, was routed at Losecote Field in Rutland, and gave away the plan

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/REBELLION AND DEATH
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Rebellion_and_death

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

[123]

”A few months later in March 1470, Warwick and Clarence chose this opportunity to rebel against Edward IV again”
WIKIPEDIAEDWARD IV OF ENGLAND/OVERTHROW
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England#Overthrow

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIAEDWARD IV OF ENGLAND
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England

”This time, Edward IV was forced to flee to Flanders when he learned that Warwick’s brother John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu, had also switched to the Lancastrian side, making Edward’s military position untenable.[WIKIPEDIAEDWARD IV OF ENGLAND/OVERTHROW
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England#Overthrow

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIAEDWARD IV OF ENGLAND
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England 



”Despite this matrimonial relationship with the Nevilles, when Warwick drove Edward IV into exile in 1470, Hastings went with Edward and accompanied the king back the following spring

WIKIPEDIAWILLIAM HASTINGS, 1ST BARON HASTINGS/BIOGRAPHY
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Hastings,_1st_Baron_Hastings#Biography 

ORIGINELE BRON


WIKIPEDIAWILLIAM HASTINGS, 1ST BARON HASTINGS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Hastings,_1st_Baron_Hastings  

”During the latter part of Edward IV’s reign, Richard demonstrated his loyalty to the king,[49] in contrast to their brother George who had allied himself with Warwick when the earl rebelled towards the end of the 1460s.[50] Following Warwick’s 1470 rebellion, before which he had made peace with Margaret of Anjou and promised the restoration of Henry VI to the English throne, Richard, William, Lord Hastings and Anthony Woodville, Earl Rivers escaped capture at Doncaster by Warwick’s brother, Lord Montague.[51] On 2 October they sailed from King’s Lynn in two ships; Edward landed at Marsdiep and Richard at Zeeland.[52] It was said that, having left England in such haste as to possess almost nothing, Edward was forced to pay their passage with his fur cloak; certainly, Richard borrowed three pounds from Zeeland’s town bailiff.

WIKIPEDIARICHARD III OF ENGLAND/EXILE AND RETURN
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_III_of_England#Exile_and_return 

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIARICHARD III OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_III_of_England 
”Henry VI was briefly restored to the throne in 1470 in an event known as the Readeption of Henry VI, and Edward took refuge in Flanders, part of Burgundy, accompanied by his younger brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester (later King Richard III of England). The Duke of Burgundy had been Edward’s brother-in-law since the marriage of Edward’s sister Margaret of York to Charles, Duke of Burgundy, on 3 July 1468”
WIKIPEDIAEDWARD IV OF ENGLAND/RESTORATION
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England#Restoration  


ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIAEDWARD IV OF ENGLAND
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England  


[124]

”Henry VI was briefly restored to the throne in 1470 in an event known as the Readeption of Henry VI, and Edward took refuge in Flanders, part of Burgundy, accompanied by his younger brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester (later King Richard III of England). The Duke of Burgundy had been Edward’s brother-in-law since the marriage of Edward’s sister Margaret of York to Charles, Duke of Burgundy, on 3 July 1468”
WIKIPEDIAEDWARD IV OF ENGLAND/RESTORATION
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England#Restoration  


ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIAEDWARD IV OF ENGLAND
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England  



[125]

”Warwick soon gave up, and once more fled the country with Clarence. Denied access to Calais, they sought refuge with King Louis XI of France.[100] Louis arranged a reconciliation between Warwick and Margaret of Anjou, and as part of the agreement, Margaret and Henry’s son, Edward, Prince of Wales, would marry Warwick’s daughter Anne



WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/REBELLION AND DEATH
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Rebellion_and_death 

ORIGINELE BRON 

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick 


”Warwick made an accord with Louis XI and Queen Margaret in which he agreed to restore Henry VI in return for French support for a military invasion of England”

WIKIPEDIAEDWARD IV OF ENGLAND/OVERTHROW
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England#Overthrow

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIAEDWARD IV OF ENGLAND
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England 

[126]

”On 30 December, at the Battle of WakefieldYork was killed, as were York’s second son Edmund, Earl of Rutland, and Warwick’s younger brother Thomas

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/HOUSE OF YORK TRIUMPHANT
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#House_of_York_triumphant

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

[127]

Warwick soon gave up, and once more fled the country with Clarence. Denied access to Calais, they sought refuge with King Louis XI of France.[100] Louis arranged a reconciliation between Warwick and Margaret of Anjou, and as part of the agreement, Margaret and Henry’s son, Edward, Prince of Wales, would marry Warwick’s daughter Anne 

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/REBELLION AND DEATH
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick#Rebellion_and_death

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIARICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

[128]

WIKIPEDIABATTLE OF BARNET

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Barnet

[129]

”Henry VI rewarded Clarence by making him next in line to the throne after his own son, justifying the exclusion of Edward IV either by attainder for his treason against Henry VI or on the grounds of his alleged illegitimacy.[citation needed] After a short time, Clarence realized that his loyalty to his father-in-law was misplaced: Warwick had his younger daughter, Anne Neville, Clarence’s sister-in-law, marry Henry VI’s son in December 1470. This demonstrated that his father-in-law was less interested in making him king than in serving his own interests and, since it now seemed unlikely that Warwick would replace Edward IV with Clarence, Clarence was secretly reconciled with Edward ”

WIKIPEDIAGEORGE PLANTAGENET, 1ST DUKE OF CLARENCE/LIFE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Plantagenet,_1st_Duke_of_Clarence#Life

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIAGEORGE PLANTAGENET, 1ST DUKE OF CLARENCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Plantagenet,_1st_Duke_of_Clarence

[130]


YOUTUBE.COM
BRITAIN’S BLOODY CROWNTHE KINGMAKER MUST DIE/EP 2 OF 4 (WARS OF THE ROSES DOCUMENTARY

[131]
”Most of England’s leading families had remained loyal to Henry VI or remained uncommitted in the recent conflict. The new regime, therefore, relied heavily on the support of the Nevilles, who held vast estates and had been so instrumental in bringing Edward to the throne.”

WIKIPEDIA EDWARD IV OF ENGLAND/OVERTHROW
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England#Overthrow

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIA EDWARD IV OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV_of_England

[132]

”Henry was by now fully determined to take the throne, but presenting a rationale for this action proved a dilemma.[2] It was argued that Richard, through his tyranny and misgovernment, had rendered himself unworthy of being king.[98] However, Henry was not next in line to the throne; the heir presumptive was Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, great-grandson of Edward III’s second surviving son, Lionel. Bolingbroke’s father, John of Gaunt, was Edward’s third son to survive to adulthood”
WIKIPEDIARICHARD II OF ENGLAND/DOWNFALL
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_of_England#Downfall

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIARICHARD II OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_III_of_England

ZIE VOOR HET SUPERIEURE RECHT VAN HET HUIS YORK OP DE TROON, OOK DE NOTEN 24 EN 25 

[133]

WIKIPEDIA BATTLE OF TEWKESBURY

Battle of Tewkesbury
Battle of TewkesburyThe Battle of Tewkesbury, which took place on 4 May 1471, was one of the decisive battles of the Wars of the Ros…

Reacties uitgeschakeld voor Rozenoorlogen tussen Huizen York en Lancaster/Onzininformatie over hoofdrolspeler Richard Neville, 16e Graaf van Warwick, de ”Kingmaker”

Opgeslagen onder Divers

The Wars of the Roses/[NevillFeast]/More nonsense about Isobel and Anne Nevill

 

MORE NONSENS ABOUT ISOBEL AND ANNE NEVILLE

SEE WEBSITE NEVILLFEAST

I stumbled on this while I was on the hunt for information for an upcoming post.

I feel that it needs a response, something to balance the books a little. I know, it’s an uphill battle – the view that poor Isobel and Anne were mere pawns (oh, and Doomed) is so entrenched that it’s going to take a miracle to shift it by so much as a millimetre.

 

 

 

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[Article of Conor Byrne]/The forgotten Countess, Anne Beauchamp, Countess of Warwick

 

THE FORGOTTEN COUNTESS, ANNE BEAUCHAMP, COUNTESS
OF WARWICK
SEE WEBSITE CONOR BYRNE

Sunday, 8 November 2015

The Forgotten Countess: Anne Beauchamp, Countess of Warwick


Above: Anne Beauchamp alongside her husband Richard Neville, earl of Warwick, in the television series The White Queen.

 

 

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The Wars of the Roses/[From Susan Higginbotham]/The King’s Mother in Law, Anne Beauchamp, Countess of Warwick

 

 

 

THE KING’S MOTHER IN LAW:
ANNE BEAUCHAMP, COUNTESS OF WARWICK
BY SUSAN HIGGINBOTHAM

Wife to a kingmaker and mother to a queen, Anne Beauchamp, Countess of Warwick, is nonetheless one of the more shadowy figures caught up in the Wars of the Roses. Yet her life intersected with those of the most powerful men of the time, and her wealth would be much desired by some of those men.

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[EdwardthesecondBlogspot]/Henry of Lancaster’s grandchildren

 

 

 

A post about some of the grandchildren of Henry, earl of Lancaster(1280/81 – 22 September 1345), who was Edward II’s first cousin, Isabella of France’s uncle, Earl Thomas’s younger brother and heir,Blanche of Artois’s son, grandson and nephew of kings of England, great-grandson, brother-in-law and uncle of kings of France, half-brother of the queen of Navarre, and also descended from kings of Castile, Aragon and Germany and the Holy Roman and Byzantine emperors.

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The Wars of the Roses/Manifesto of Margaret of Anjou to the citizens of London in 1461/Letter to Susan Higginbotham

File:Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York.jpg
RICHARD OF YORK, CLAIMANT TO THE ENGLISH THRONE
AND ONE OF THE MAIN LEADERS OF THE WAR OF ROSES
[HISTORICAL IMAGE]

13501173331

_________________________________________

EDMUND BEAUFORT, 2ND DUKE OF SOMERSET, THE GREAT RIVAL
OF RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK
HISTORICAL FICTION
King Edward IV.jpg

KING EDWARD IV, SON OF RICHARD, DUKE OF

YORK
HISTORICAL IMAGE

KING EDWARD IV, SON OF RICHARD, DUKE OF

YORK
HISTORICAL FICTION

image

RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK, THE KINGMAKER
COUSIN TO EDWARD IV, FIRST ALLY TO HIS FATHER, RICHARD,
DUKE OF YORK, THEN TO KING EDWARD IV
LATER THEY BECAME ADVERSARIES AND THE KINGMAKER TURNED
TO MARGARET OF ANJOU [BECOMING A ”LANCASTRIAN] TO RESTORE HENRY VI TO THE THRONE
HE FAILED AND LOST HIS LIFE IN THE BATTLE OF TEWKESBURY
HIS DAUGHTER, ANNE, LATER BECAME QUEEN OF ENGLAND,
MARRIED TO KING RICHARD III [BROTHER TO KING EDWARD IV]
[FICTION]
KING HENRY VI OF ENGLAND
[HISTORICAL IMAGE]
MARGARET OF ANJOU, QUEEN OF ENGLAND
MARGARET OF ANJOU, QUEEN OF ENGLAND
[HISTORICAL IMAGE]

TWO IMAGES OF MARGARET OF ANJOU, QUEEN OF ENGLAND
[FICTION]
MANIFESTO OF MARGARET OF ANJOU TO THE CITIZENS OF
LONDON IN 1461/LETTER TO SUSAN HIGGINBOTHAM
Dear Mrs Higginbotham
As you probably know, I am a great admirer of your interesting
historical novels, especially your  accurate historical research.
Perhaps you’ll remember that  I wrote you some comments on  your novel about
Margaret of Anjou ”Queen of Last Hopes”
See
Since then I wrote some critical remarks on your post
”If Margaret, why not Cecily?”
See your post
See my comments, which were published on your webliog
”History Refreshed”
MANIFESTO OF MARGARET OF ANJOU TO THE CITIZENS
OF LONDON IN 1461

 

 

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The Wars of the Roses/[Murreyandblue/WordPress.com]/Duke Richard the 3rd Duke of York (3), heir to the throne

DUKE RICHARD, THE 3RD DUKE OF YORK (3), HEIR TO

THE THRONE

The she-wolf of France, but worse than wolves of France

Whose tongue more poisons than an adders tooth

How ill beseeming it is in thy sex

To triumph like an amazon trull

(Henry VI Part 3)

St Albans and its significance

 

The first battle of St Albans represents a landmark in the dispute between York and Lancaster; not as the first battle of a civil war, since it was not that, or as their biggest or bloodiest battle, since it was not that either. Its importance lay in the fact that it represented the ultimate expression of York’s change of tack from being the king’s champion to being the realm’s champion.

 

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The Wars of the Roses/[Murreyandblue/WordPress.com]/Duke Richard the 3rd Duke of York ”……..the King’s true liegeman……?”

 

How now? Is Somerset at liberty?

Then, York unloose thy long-imprisoned thoughts

And let thy tongue be equal with thy heart.

Shall I endure the sight of Somerset?

(Shakespeare: Henry VI part 2)

On his return from service in Normandy, duke Richard was the king’s true liegeman and an obedient servant of the Lancastrian establishment: or so it seemed. If he blamed the government for his enormous debts incurred on the king’s service, he did not show it. If he resented the preferment of John Beaufort and two other Lancastrian earls, he did not show it. If he was angry at the loss of Anjou and Main as part of the queen’s marriage settlement, he did not show it. In fact his reticence was a remarkable display of sangfroid in the face of his worsening financial, dynastic and political situation. Whether this reflected his true feelings or not is doubtful. Although there was now a fracture in his bond of loyalty to the Lancastrian government, he could not afford a public show of pique. He was politically weak and only harm could come to him from making a fuss now. Discretion is indeed the better part of valour; York was keeping his own counsel and biding his time.

 

 

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The Wars of the Roses/[Murreyandblue/WordPress.com]/Duke Richard of York (1), the man who would be king

 

 

On the 10th of October 1460, Richard Plantagenet 3rd duke of York walked into Westminster Hall wearing the full arms of England undifferenced. After a moment, he put his hand on the empty throne. When asked if he wished to see the king, he replied “I know of no one in the realm who would not more fitly come to me than I to him”. With those words, he declared to all those present that duke Richard had finally renounced his allegiance to king Henry VI and claimed the English crown by right of strict inheritance. York’s motive has puzzled historians ever since. Was it really his ‘natural disposition’ to champion the public interest, or was it the notion that he was the rightful king all along that stirred his ambition? This is the first of three essays in which I hope to explore that question from a personal perspective. I should add for the avoidance of doubt, that I have no intention of considering the validity duke Richard’s title: that is for another time. Neither is this a potted biography; I have included a few details of what I believe are some relevant friction points in his life for purely contextual reasons.

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