Tag Archives: Richard of Conisburgh

The Wars of the Roses/[Rusell Butcher]/Propaganda in the prepared parliamentary speeches of 1455-1461

 

RUSELL BUTCHER
Propaganda, perceived by many as a twentieth-century phenomenon, has permeated recorded history. The mass propaganda of the world wars and cold war linger most in present memory, due not only to its chronological proximity, but also its potency. Earlier uses of propaganda can easily be overshadowed, in many cases considered mere bias. Yet it has always existed, and in England developed particularly in the years from 1455 to 1485, which saw a growth in the awareness for the need of propaganda to stabilise or undermine the regime in power. Many historians have made reference to propaganda in the prepared speeches in the parliamentary records for 1455-61, but few have scrutinised them as a whole as I intend to do here.

 

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The Wars of the Roses/The House of York/Reaction on Encyclopaedia Britannica’s changes in their article after my comments

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HISTORICAL FICTION
Richard II King of England.jpg
HISTORICAL IMAGE

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_of_England

KING RICHARD II, [SON OF THE BLACK PRINCE, THE FIRST
SON OF KING EDWARD III AND THEREFORE SUCCESSOR
OF KING EDWARD III], WHO DECLARED ROGER MORTIMER
HIS HEIR PRESUMPTIVE.
ROGER MORTIMER WAS THE SON OF RICHARD II’S FIRST
COUSIN PHILIPPA,
THE DAUGHTER OF THE SECOND SON OF KING EDWARD III,
LIONEL OF ANTWERP
AND THEREFORE NEXT IN LINE TO THE SUCCESSION TO
THE THRONE, AS LONG AS RICHARD II WAS CHILDLESS.
ROGER MORTIMER HAD TWO CHILDREN, EDMUND, 4TH EARL OF
MARCH AND ANNE MORTIMER, WHO MARRIED RICHARD CONISBURGH,
SON OF EDMUND OF LANGLEY, DUKE OF YORK [FOURTH SON
OF EDWARD III]
AFTER HIS DEATH, ROGER MORTIMER PASSED HIS HEIR
PRESUMPTIVE RIGHT TO HIS SON EDMUND, 5TH EARL
OF MARCH, WHO PASSED THIS RIGHT TO HIS NEPHEW
RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK,  SON OF HIS SISTER
ANNE MORTIMER.
WHEN RICHARD II WAS USURPED BY HIS COUSIN
HENRY BOLINGBROKE [LATER KING HENRY IV, SON OF JOHN
OF GAUNT, THE THIRD SON OF KING EDWARD III AND
THEREFORE WITH A LESSER RIGHT TO THE THRONE
THAN EDMUND MORTIMER],
EDMUND, THE SON OF THE LATE ROGER MORTIMER,
BEING THE RIGHTFUL SUCCESSOR, WAS OVERLOOKED.
ROGER MORTIMER’S SON AND DAUGHTER, EDMUND AND
ANNE MORTIMER
ANNE MORTIMER’S SON, RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK,
GRANDSON [FROM HIS MOTHER’S SIDE]
OF ROGER MORTIMER
HIS CLAIM TO THE THRONE WAS BASED ON HIS
MATERNAL SIDE AND SUPERIOR TO THE LANCASTERS,
WHO DESCENDED FROM THE THIRD SON OF EDWARD III,
WHILE RICHARD DESCENDED FROM THE SECOND SON
King Henry IV from NPG (2).jpg
KING HENRY IV, WHO USURPED THE THRONE OF RICHARD II AS
HENRY BOLINGBROKE, HIS COUSIN
File:Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York.jpg
RICHARD OF YORK, CLAIMANT TO THE ENGLISH THRONE
AND ONE OF THE MAIN LEADERS OF THE WAR OF ROSES
[WAR BETWEEN THE HOUSES OF LANCASTER AND YORK,
BOTH DESCENDANTS OF KING EDWARD III]
[HISTORICAL IMAGE]
King Henry V from NPG.jpg
KING HENRY V, SON OF KING HENRY IV
[HISTORICAL IMAGE]
KING HENRY VI OF ENGLAND, SON OF KING HENRY V
[HISTORICAL IMAGE]
 
MARGARET OF ANJOU, QUEEN OF ENGLAND
[HISTORICAL IMAGE]
 

TWO IMAGES OF MARGARET OF ANJOU, QUEEN OF ENGLAND
[FICTION]

KING EDWARD IV, SON OF RICHARD, DUKE OF
YORK
[FICTION]
Richard III earliest surviving portrait.jpg
KING RICHARD III, SON OF RICHARD,
DUKE OF YORK
HISTORICAL IMAGE
King Henry VII.jpg
KING HENRY VII, THE FIRST TUDOR KING
AND FOUNDER OF THE TUDOR DYNASTY
HISTORICAL IMAGE

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE WARS OF THE ROSES/THE HOUSE OF YORK/REACTION
ON ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA’S CHANGES IN THEIR
ARTICLE AFTER MY COMMENTS
Dear Readers,
Recently I wrote to Encyclopaedia Britannica about their
article ”The House of York”, adding some critical remarks.
Reasons?
Two.
FIRST:
Encyclopaedia Britannica called the overthrow of King Henry VI
by the son of Richard, Duke of York, the later King Edward IV,
after his victory in the Battle of Towton, an ”usurpation”.
In my letter to Encyclopaedia Britannica,  I pointed out,
that although it was a deposing of King Henry VI, it was no
”usurpation”, because of the York superior claim to
the throne, by descending from maternal side from
King Edward III’s second son, Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of
Clarence, while the Lancasters descended from the third
King Richard II  appointed the grandson of Lionel
 [the son of Lionel’s daughter Philippa Plantagenet,
as his heir presumptive
to the throne, a right which passed through his son, Edmund
Were Richard II not usurped by his cousin, Henrt Bolingbroke
[the later King Henry IV, and Richard II died childless, Edmund
Mortimer should be King of England.
And Edmund Mortimer was the maternal uncle
of Richard, Duke of York, who was the son of Edmund Mortimer’s
sister, Anne Mortimer.
Since Edmund Mortimer died childless, Richard of York inherited
his vast estates and the title of Earl of March [he became the
6th Earl of March], which he passed
to his son, the later Edward IV.
So when Edward IV overthrew Henry VI, it was a deposal, not
usurpation.
SECOND
When mentioning the Act of Accord of 1460, by which
Richard of York and Parliament agreed, that Richard of York
would succeed Henry VI after his death [and thus disinheriting
Edward of Westminster, the son of Henry VI, which infuriated
of course his mother, Margaret of Anjou], which was confirmed
Encyclopaedia Britannica made a remark about the
”weakness” in this claim by deriving from females.
I challenged that by pointing out, that four English Kings
REACTION OF ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA
I received an interesting and partly satisfying reaction
from Encyclopaedia Britannica with some changes
in the article
This was their reaction:

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The Wars of the Roses/Richard of York’s claim to the throne/Letter to MichaelHistoryBlog about the article ”The Duke of York vs the Duke of Somerset: the initial cause of the War of the Roses”

File:Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York.jpg
RICHARD OF YORK, CLAIMANT TO THE ENGLISH THRONE
AND ONE OF THE MAIN LEADERS OF THE WAR OF THE ROSES
TO BEGIN WITH:
ARMS OF THE ROYAL HOUSE OF PLANTAGENET
DESCENDANTS OF THE PLANTAGENETS, AS
THE HOUSES OF LANCASTER AND YORK, AND OF COURSE
THE PLANTAGENET KINGS, WEAR THOSE ARMS.
FROM THE REIGN OF KING EDWARD III, FRENCH LILIES
[BLUE BLACKGROUND] WERE ADDED TO THE ARMS, SINCE EDWARD III
CLAIMED THE FRENCH CROWN [BEING THE MATERNAL GRANDSON
OF THE DECEASED FRENCH KING PHILIP IV], WHICH WAS THE BEGINNING
OF THE HUNDRED YEAR’S WAR WITH FRANCE
Royal Arms of England (1198-1340).svg
Coat of arms with three lions, gold on red, in two quarter, fleurs de lys, gold on blue, in two.thumb
ARMS OF EDWARD III, THE FIRST
PLANTAGENET KING TO ADD THE FRENCH
LILIES [FLEURS DE LYS] BECAUSE OF
HIS CLAIM TO THE FRENCH THRONE
Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York (Variant).svg
ARMS OF RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK
EXPLANATIONS OF THE ARMS OF RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK

QUARTERLY 1ST [LEFT ABOVE] OF THE ARMS
OF THE DUKE OF YORK:
ROYAL ARMS OF HIS PATERNAL GRANDFATHER,
EDMUND OF LANGLEY,FIRST DUKE
OF YORK SON OF KING EDWARD III
HERE HE HAD A CLAIM TO THE THRONE, BUT LESS
VALID THAN FROM HIS MOTHER’S SIDE, SINCE LANGLEY
WAS THE FOURTH SON OF KING EDWARD III
[LANGLEY HAD THOSE ROYAL ARMS, BEING THE SON
OF A KING]
SECOND QUATERLY [ABOVE RIGHT]
OF THE ARMS
OF THE DUKE OF YORK
THE ARMS OF CASTILE AND LEON.
THOSE WERE THE ARMS OF THE
THE PATERNAL GRANDMOTHER OF
RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK,
ISABELLA OF CASTILE, DUCHESS OF
YORK
Arms of the House of Mortimer.svg
3RD QUATERLY [BELOW LEFT]
OF THE ARMS OF THE DUKE OF YORK
THE ARMS OF THE MORTIMERS
HIS MATERNAL GREAT GRANDMOTHER,
PHILIPPA PLANTAGENET, DAUGHTER
OF LIONEL OF ANTWERP [WHO WAS THE SECOND
SON OF KING EDWARD III], MARRIED EDMUND
MORTIMER, 3RD EARL OF MARCH, WHO THUS
WAS THE GREAT GRANDFATHER OF RICHARD,
DUKE OF YORK.

Arms of the House of de Burgh.svg

3RD QUATERLY [BELOW LEFT]
OF THE ARMS OF THE DUKE OF YORK
THE ARMS OF THE EARLS OF ULSTER
ELIZABETH DE BURGH, DAUGHTER OF
WILLIAM DON DE BURGH, AND THE 4TH
COUNTESS OF ULSTER, WAS THE MATERNAL
GREAT GREAT GRANDMOTHER OF THE
DUKE OF YORK, BEING MARRIED WITH
HIS ANCESTOR, LIONEL OF ANTWERP
[SECOND SON OF KING EDWARD III]
4TH QUARTERLY [BELOW RIGHT]
OF THE ARMS OF THE DUKE OF YORK
ROYAL ARMS OF THE MATERNAL GREAT
GREAT GRANDFATHER OF THE DUKE OF YORK,
LIONEL OF ANTWERP, 1ST DUKE OF CLARENCE, AND
SECOND SON OF KING EDWARD III.
THIS WAS THE SUPERIOR CLAIM TO THE THRONE,
THE DUKE OF YORK HELD OVER THE LANCASTERS
[ALSO OVER KING HENRY VI, WHO WAS OF
THE LANCASTER HOUSE], SINCE THE LANCASTERS
DESCENDED FROM JOHN OF GAUNT, THE
THIRD SON OF KING EDWARD III.
THE IMAGE  IS A LITTLE DIFFERENT FROM THE
ABOVE IMAGE OF THE ROYAL ARMS OF THE DUKE
OF YORK, BUT THESE ARE THE ROYAL ARMS,
AS CARRIED BY ALL SONS OF KING EDWARD III,
THOUGH THERE ARE SOME VARIETIES.
SEE BELOW
SEE THE ARMS OF THE OTHER SONS
THE WARS OF THE ROSES/RICHARD OF YORK’S CLAIM TO
THE THRONE/LETTER TO MICHAEL
HISTORY BLOG  ABOUT HIS ARTICLE ”THE DUKE OF YORK VS. THE DUKE
OF SOMERSET: THE INITIAL CAUSE OF THE WAR OF THE ROSES”
Dear Readers
Recently I discovered an interesting historical site ”MICHEALSHISTORYBLOG”,

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English history/[NevillFeast]/Letter from Richard, Earl of Cambridge [father of Richard, Duke of York], to King Henry V/Confession and plea for mercy

LETTER OF CONFESSION AND A PLEA FOR MERCY
OF RICHARD OF CONISBURGH [3TH EARL OF CAMBRIDGE], FATHER TO
RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK, FOR HIS ROLE IN THE SOUTHAMPTON PLOT
AGAINST KING HENRY V
Richard, Earl of Cambridge, was executed nevertheless in 1415,
leaving his son,  later the  Duke of York behind as an orphan, since his
mother, Anne Mortimer, died, bringing him into the world.
 MY REMARKS
SEE FURTHER:

While hunting down the full text of the Manner & Guiding, I stumbled across these two (too?) sad pieces of correspondence.

(from Ellis’s Original letters)

In 1415, when his son, Richard (later duke of York), was four years old, Richard, earl of Cambridge, was “accused of a treasonable conspiracy, indicted, convicted and beheaded” (p45). This has come to be known as the Southampton Plot. During his captivity he wrote two letters to the king, Henry V: a letter of confession and a plea for mercy, “but neither had any effect upon Henry” (p45).

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