King Henry IV was not the son of Katherine Swynford!/My comments on ”Richard II, the last of the PLantagenets?”

Richard II King of England.jpg

Portrait at Westminster Abbey, mid-1390s
KING RICHARD II, WHO PASSED THROUGH DISASTER AND
ENDED SO TRAGICALLY AT PONTEFRACT
Image result for Henry of Bolingbroke/Images
Henry IV
Illumination of Henry IV (cropped).jpg
HENRY OF BOLINGBROKE, THE LATER KING
HENRY IV,  COUSIN OF
KING RICHARD II, WHO USURPED RICHARD II AND
THUS TRIGGERED THE SEED FOR THE WARS
OF THE ROSES [SINCE EDMUND MORTIMER, GRANDSON
OF BOLINGBROKE’S AND KING RICHARD’S  UNCLE LIONEL OF ANTWERP,
CAME BEFORE HIM IN THE LINE OF SUCCESSSION:
LIONEL OF ANTWERP WAS THE SECOND SURVIVING SON OF
KING EDWARD III, GRANDFATHER OF BOTH BOLINGBROKE AND
RICHARD II
WHILE BOLINGBROKE’S FATHER, JOHN OF GAUNT, WAS THE
THIRD SON OF KING EDWARD III]
DURING THE REIGN OF KING HENRY VI, GRANDSON OF
KING HENRY IV, THE WARS OF THE ROSES BROKE OUT,
BETWEEN TWO BRANCHES OF THE HOUSE OF PLANTAGENET
THE HOUSE OF YORK, LED BY RICHARD, 3RD DUKE OF
YORK [FATHER OF KING EDWARD IV AND KING RICHARD III],
WHO WAS THE NEPHEW OF THE CHILDLESS EDMUND MORTIMER
[SON OF HIS SISTER ANN MORTIMER] AND THEREFORE HAD A
SUPERIOR CLAIM ON THE ENGLISH THRONE.
AND
THE HOUSE OF LANCASTER
LED BY KING HENRY VI [ACTUALLY BY HIS WIFE, MARGARET
OF ANJOU, SINCE HENRY VI HAD PSYCHIC PROBLEMS]
AND THE BEAUFORTS, DESCENDANTS OF THE HALFBROTHERS
OF HENRY IV [SONS OF HIS FATHER JOHN OF GAUNT,
DUKE OF LANCASTER AND KATHERINE SWYNFORD, HIS
THIRD WIFE, WHILE HENRY IV WAS THE SON OF JOHN
OF GAUNT’S FIRST WIFE, BLANCHE OF LANCASTER,
HEIRESS OF THE LANCASTER ESTATES
FROM HER FIRST HER HUSBAND
JOHN OF GAUNT AND LATER HER SON HENRY IV
INHERITED THE LANCASTER LANDS AND TITLES]
John of Gaunt
Johnofgaunt.jpg
JOHN OF GAUNT, UNCLE OF KING RICHARD III AND FATHER OF
HENRY OF BOLINGBROKE, THE LATER KING HENRY IV
HIS FIRST WIFE WAS BLANCHE OF LANCASTER,
DAUGHTER OF HENRY OF GROSMONT, THE FIRST DUKE OF
LANCASTER, AND GRANDDAUGHTER OF EARL HENRY,
3RD EARL OF LANCASTER
IURE UXORIS [BY THE RIGHT OF HIS WIFE] JOHN OF GAUNT
INHERITED THE TITLES AND LANCASTER LANDS OF
HIS WIFE, WHICH MADE HIM DUKE OF LANCASTER
HENRY OF BOLINGBROKE, HIS AND BLANCHE’S SON,
INHERITED THOSE LANDS AND TITLES AFTER HIS
DEATH [RICHARD II FIRSTLY DISINHERITED HIS
COUSIN HENRY OF BOLINGBROKE, WHO ROSE AGAINST
HIM, DEPOSED HIM AND THEN HAD HIS RIGHTFUL TITLES
AND LANDS]
Tomb of John of Gaunt and Blanche of Lancaster.jpg
BLANCHE OF LANCASTER [WITH HER HUSBAND, JOHN OF GAUNT]
DAUGHTER OF HENRY OF GROSMONT, THE FIRST DUKE OF
LANCASTER, AND GRANDDAUGHTER OF EARL HENRY,
3RD EARL OF LANCASTER
SHE WAS THE MOTHER OF HENRY OF BOLINGBROKE, LATER
KING HENRY IV
 
 
SO ”INTRUIGING HISTORY” MADE A FAULT BY STATING THAT
HENRY OF BOLINGBROKE [HENRY IV] WAS THE SON
OF JOHN OF GAUNT AND HIS MISTRESS AND GREAT LOVE
KATHERINE SWYNFORD, WITH WHOM HE MARRIED LATER,
MAKING TO HIS THIRD WIFE
THAT IS NOT TRUE!
HIS MOTHER WAS BLANCHE OF LANCASTER!
 
KATHERINE SWYNFORD WAS THE MOTHER OF THE LATER
LEGITIMATED BEAUFORTS [CHILDREN OF HER AND JOHN
OF GAUNT, BORN DURING HIS SECOND MARRIAGE WITH
CATHERINE OF CASTILE, DAUGHTER OF PETER THE CRUEL,
KING OF CASTILE], WHO PLAYED A LARGE PART DURING
THE WARS OF THE ROSES
 
 
 

 

 

KING HENRY IV WAS NOT THE SON OF KATHERINE SWYNFORD!/MY COMMENTS
ON ”RICHARD II KING 1377-99, THE LAST OF THE PLANTAGENETS?”

 

Dear Readers,
Here is your supplier of Medieval history, again
HAHAHA
ABOUT RICHARD II AND THE LINE OF SUCCESSION
TO THE ENGLISH THRONE
This time a short, but interesting travel to the times of
king Richard II [1], son of the famous Black Prince [2]
and grandson of king Edward III.

 

As you’ll know, king Richard II was deposed and usurped in 1399 by his cousin,
Henry of Bolingbroke, who became king Henry IV of England. [3]
Richard II died tragically at Pontefract, supposedly starved to death.[4]
Brrrrrrrr
Tragic in itself, it was an usurpation, because it broke the rightful
line of succession, resulting in the later Wars of the Roses,
the strugglefor the English throne between the two branches of the Plantagenet House,
The House of Lancaster and the House of York. [5]
Because what happened:
Yet apart from the fact, that it WAS usurpation, because the rightful
king was deposed, but besides that,
Henry of Bolingbroke was not even heir presumptive [6] [the next
in line of succession when the king died childless]
He was the son of the THIRD son of his and Richard II’s grandfather,
king Edward III, John of Gaunt, [7] while there were still
descendants from the SECOND son of king Edward III, Lionel
of Antwerp [8], namely Edmund Mortimer, greatgrandson of
Lionel of Antwerp [Edmund’s father was Roger Mortimer, NOT
the famous or notorious one, ally and supposedly
lover of Isabella of France [9], but a descendant]
Roger Mortimer’s mother,Philippa Plantagenet had been Lionel
of Antwerp’s daughter] [10]
And although the descendants of Lionel of Antwerp descended of
his daughter Philippa Plantagenet [11] [he had no son], that
was no problem at all, since there were no Salic Laws [only
succession from the male line] [12] in England. [13]
Anyway, the descendants of the second son of king Edward III were
overtaken, which lead to the wars of the Roses, with as the
leader of the House of York, Richard, 3rd Duke of York [14], nephew
of Edmund Mortimer from his mother’s side, Edmund, who
died childless,
was the brother of his mother, Anne Mortimer] and the House
of Lancaster.
Read in note 15 about the Wars of the Roses.
But I digress
INTRUIGING HISTORY AND THEIR IMPORTANT ERROR:
I recently read a great book about king Richard II.
From Jean Plaidy ”Passage to Pontefract”
A fantastic historical novel [I am a real fan of
Jean Plaidy, read nearly all her books about
English and French history, she mixes history and
romantic fiction brilliantly], which describes
convincingly his life, his love for his Queens [16],
his devotion to his favourite, Robert de Vere, Duke
of Ireland and 9th Earl of Oxford [17], his constant
wrong choices, leading him to his tragic
end.
I also look forward reading the historical non
fiction book of the excellent historian Kathryn Warner:
”Richard II: A true King’s Fall”.
ANYWAY:
Searching the Internet about information about
king Richard II, I discovered several website, among else
a site named ”Intruiging History”
They had posted an article with the rather bizarre title
[since according to me, the Plantagenets ruled until 1485] ”
”RICHARD II KING 1377-1399, THE LAST OF THE PLANTAGENETS?” [18]
Again, a rather bizarre, but interesting title and I did not yet have the opportunity to convince
myself of the historical accuracy, at least as far as my knowledge reaches.
But one sentence stroke my attention in particular and I for sure knew that this at
least was not right at all:
I quote
1399 Henry IV,King of England, Usurper of Richard II, Henry Bolingbroke, grandson of Edward III by John of Gaunt and his wife Katherine Swynsford (former mistress, subsequently legitimised by marriage and royal assent) but could be disputed, is now King of England.” [19]
FROM:
INTRUIGING HISTORY.COM
RICHARD II KING 1377-1399, THE LAST OF THE PLANTAGENETS
Honestly said:
Henry of Bolingbroke, being the son of John of Gaunt and his mistress,
Katherine Swynford, is a pretty elementary and stupid mistake:
You don’t have to be a great historian to know that and any serious
Wikipedia or other source can help you out here.
Here is the thing:
Henry of Bolingbroke, cousin of Richard II and later king Henry IV,
was the son of John of Gaunt and Blanche of Lancaster.
NOT Katherine Swynford.
It is true, that she was John of Gaunt’s great love and lifelong mistress
and came in his household as a governess of his children. [20]
During his marriage with Constance of Castile [21], daughter of
Peter the Cruel [22], he and Katherine Swynford had an affair
 and got several children.
They were later legitimated as the Beauforts [Margaret Beaufort,
the mother of Henry Tudor, the later king Henry VII [23], was their greatgranddaughter]
[24], who played a major role in the wars of the Roses. [25]
So the Beauforts were the halfbrothers and sisters of Henry Bolingbroke.
ABOUT THE ANCESTRY OF HENRY OF BOLINGBROKE
Henry of Bolingbroke was the Duke of Lancaster as his father, John of
Gaunt.
Yet this title and lands don’t have their origins in his father, but
in his mother.
As I said, she was Blanche of Lancaster, the daughter of Henry of Grosmont,
the 1st Duke of Lancaster. [26]
Blanche’s father was the son of Earl Henry, the 3rd Earl of Lancaster,
who on his turn was the son of Edmund Crouchback, who was the
1st Earl of Lancaster [and son of King Henry III and
brother of king Edward I, the Hammer of the Scots] [27]
The second Earl of Lancaster was the brother of Earl Henry,
Thomas of Lancaster, who inherited
the title and lands from his father, Edmund Crouchback:
I wrote about him in an extended book/article.
Thomas was executed after his rebellion against his
cousin, king Edward II. [28]
Later Thomas’ brother Earl Henry inherited the lands of his brother
[that were firstly forfeited because he was executed
as a ”traitor” to King Edward II] and became the 3rd Earl
of Lancaster.
His son Henry of Grosmont [Blanche of Lancaster’s father]
had been made Duke of Lancaster by king Edward III. [29]
When Blanche was married to John of Gaunt, he controlled her lands
iure uxoris [by the right of his wife] [30], as was usual in those times,
but she remained owner of the lands.
After the death of his father, John of Gaunt, Henry of Bolingbroke
eventually inherited the lands and title, that came from his mother,
Blanche of Lancaster [initially Richard II disinherited Henry of
Bolingbroke, whom he had exiled earlier and that inheritance was one
of the reasons why Bolingbroke rose against Richard II, deposing him]
[31]
ANYWAY, from a historical site one may expect, that they don’t make such a
mistake.
Wonder whether the rest of their information is truly correct.
Maybe I write about that yet.
But you know what is funny and more stupid?
I wrote Intruiging History about their mistake, Henry of
Bolingbroke [later king Henry IV] being the son of Katherine
Swynford instead of his real mother, Blanche of Lancaster and
untill now [26 january 2018 at least], they did not restore
the mistake.
I post my reaction to Intruiging History below, before the notes.
SEE BELOW [UNDER DE NOTES] THE LINK AND FULL TEXT OF THE
ARTICLE OF INTRUIGING HISTORY!
Well, I hope you have enjoyed my rather short travel to the past.
More will come, soon enough.
Thank you for joining me.
You were nice companions!
Astrid Essed
MY REACTION TO INTRUIGING HISTORY:

MY REACTION TO INTRUIGING HISTORY.COM

INTRUIGING HISTORY.COM
RICHARD II KING 1377-1399, THE LAST OF THE]
PLANTAGENETS?
Dear Management of ”Intruiging History.com”
I just read your page about the English king Richard II
with great interest.

Richard II King 1377-1399, the last of the Plantagenets?

MY INTRODUCTION:
Being a historian myself [although not specialized in Medieval
history] I take great interest in Medieval history and I’ve published some
articles on my website, especially about the Wars of the Roses and
14th century English history
See on my website [Search function]
THOMAS OF LANCASTER, REBEL COUSIN OF
KING EDWARD II/FROM WARLORD TO SAINT
About the wars of the Roses
See among else
USURPATION AND THE RIGHT TO THE THRONE THROUGH
FEMALES
CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES/TRAVEL TO THE PAST
MY COMMENTS ON YOUR ARTICLE:
Now to refer to your article about king Richard II
You wrote
”1399 Henry IV,King of England, Usurper of Richard II, Henry Bolingbroke, grandson of Edward III by John of Gaunt and his wife Katherine Swynsford (former mistress, subsequently legitimised by marriage and royal assent) but could be disputed, is now King of England.”
Your historical information is correct, except from one fact.
Henry Bolingbroke [the later king Henry IV] is the son
of John of Gaunt, but NOT of Katherine Swynford.
Bolingbroke’s mother was Blanche of Lancaster,
daughter of Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster.
Through Bolingbroke’s mother Blanche, Bolingbroke was 
the greatgrandson of Earl Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster
[I described Earl Henry’s brother, Thomas of Lancaster,
see my first link] and the great great grandson of
Edmund Crouchback [Earl Henry and Earl Thomas’
father]
 
And Edmund Crouchback was the son of king Henry III
and the first Earl of Lancaster [given in possession
by his father]
He was also the brother of king Edward I
 
Although Bolingbroke’s father John of Gaunt was
Duke of Lancaster, he held that title ure uxoris,
as you’ll know.
 
So Henry of Bolingbroke’s Lancastrian inheritance
came through his mother Blanche, not
his father John of Gaunt.
 
KATHERINE SWYNFORD
 
Katherine Swynford was, as you know, the life long
mistress and great love of John of Gaunt and came into
his household as governess to his children.
After the death of John of Gaunt’s second wife
Constance of Castile, he finally married Katherine.
You know of course, that the Baeufort family, who played
such a great part in the wars of the Roses, was descended
from the children of John of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford,
who were legitimized as ”Beauforts”, first by Richard II
and later by their halfbrother king Henry IV [Henry Bolingbroke],
under condition that they would not claijm the throne,
but of course they did….
HAHAHAHA
 
 
Perhaps I have some more remarks about your
article, but I save that for another time!
 
 
Kind greetings
Astrid Essed
Amsterdam
The Netherlands
 
 
 
NOTES
 
 

[1]

WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD II OF ENGLAND
[2]
WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD THE BLACK PRINCE
[3]
WIKIPEDIA
HENRY IV OF ENGLAND
[4]
”He is thought to have starved to death in captivity on or around 14 February 1400, although there is some question over the date and manner of his death”
RICHARD II OF ENGLAND/OVERTHROW AND DEATH
 
 
 
ORIGINAL SOURCE
 
 
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD II OF ENGLAND
[5]
THE WARS OF THE ROSES/CAUSES OF THE WARS OF
THE ROSES/A TRAVEL TO THE PAST
ASTRID ESSED
3 FEBRUARY 2015
SEE ALSO
THE CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES
[6]
WIKIPEDIA
HEIR PRESUMPTIVE
[7]
IN THE UNDERLYING WIKIPEDIA, THE TITLE OF
JOHN OF GAUNT ”1ST DUKE OF LANCASTER”,
IS NOT RIGHT:
THE FIRST DUKE OF LANCASTER WAS JOHN OF GAUNT”S
FATHER IN LAW, HENRY OF GROSMONT AND THE TITLE
WAS GRANTED TO HIM BY KING EDWARD III
SEE
” A few years later, in 1351, Edward bestowed an even greater honour on Lancaster when he created him Duke of Lancaster.”
HENRY OF GROSMONT, 1ST DUKE OF LANCASTER/DUKE OF
LANCASTER
 
 
ORIGINAL SOURCE
 
HENRY OF GROSMONT, 1ST DUKE OF LANCASTER
 
 
 
[8]
WIKIPEDIA
LIONEL OF ANTWERP, 1ST DUKE OF CLARENCE
 
 
 
[9]
 
 
THIS WAS THE FATHER OF EDMUND MORTIMER
ROGER MORTIMER, GRANDSON OF LIONEL OF
ANTWERP AND SON OF LIONEL’S
DAUGHTER PHILIPPA PLANTAGENET 
HE ALSO WAS RICHARD II’S HEIR PRESUMPTIVE UNTIL
HIS DAETH IN 1398
 
WIKIPEDIA
ROGER MORTIMER, 4TH EARL OF MARCH
 
 
 
AND HERE THE FAMOUS OR NOTORIOUS ROGER MORTIMER,
THE 1ST EARL OF MARCH, THE GREAT GREAT GRANDFATHER OF’
ROGER MORTIMER [ABOVE] AND SUPPOSEDLY LOVER
OF QUEEN ISABELLA OF FRANCE, WIFE OF KING EDWARD II AND
MOTHER OF KING EDWARD III
 
 
WIKIPEDIA
ROGER MORTIMER, 1ST EARL OF MARCH
[10]
WIKIPEDIA
PHILIPPA OF CLARENCE, 5TH COUNTESS OF ULSTER
 
 
 
[11]
 
 
 
WIKIPEDIA
PHILIPPA OF CLARENCE, 5TH COUNTESS OF ULSTER
 
 

[12]
WIKIPEDIA
SALIC LAW
[13]
THE WARS OF THE ROSES/LANCASTER AND YORK
USURPATION AND THE RIGHT THROUGH THE THRONE
THROUGH FEMALES
ASTRID ESSED
17 FEBRUARY 2015
[14]
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD OF YORK, 3RD DUKE OF YORK
 
 
THE WARS OF THE ROSES/RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK/THE
CLAIMS TO THE THRONE OF LANCASTER AND YORK
ASTRID ESSED
22 JANUARY 2015
 
 
[15]
THE WARS OF THE ROSES/CAUSES OF THE WARS OF
THE ROSES/A TRAVEL TO THE PAST
ASTRID ESSED
3 FEBRUARY 2015
SEE ALSO
THE CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES
[16]
”Anne and Richard were only 14 years old when they first met and married. Yet these “two wispy teenagers ” soon fell into a loving relationship and “over the years the king proved truly devoted to his new wife.”
WIKIPEDIA
ANNE OF BOHEMIA/QUEEN OF ENGLAND
 
 
ORIGINAL SOURCE
 
 
WIKIPEDIA
ANNE OF BOHEMIA
 
 
[17]
 
 
 
He died in or near Louvain in 1392. Three years later, on the anniversary of his death, 22 November 1395, Richard II had his embalmed body brought back to England for burial. It was recorded by the chronicler Thomas Walsingham that many magnates did not attend the re-burial ceremony because they ‘had not yet digested their hatred’ of him. The king had the coffin opened to kiss his lost friend’s hand and to gaze on his face one last time”
ROBERT DE VERE, DUKE OF IRELAND/DEATH
 
 
 
ORIGINAL SOURCE
 
ROBERT DE VERE, DUKE OF IRELAND
 
 
 
 
[18]
 
 
 
 
INTRUIGING HISTORY.COM
RICHARD II KING 1377-1399, THE LAST OF THE]
PLANTAGENETS?
[19]
INTRUIGING HISTORY.COM
RICHARD II KING 1377-1399, THE LAST OF THE]
PLANTAGENETS?
[20]
WIKIPEDIA
KATHERINE SWYNFORD
 
 
 
[21]
 
 
 
WIKIPEDIA
CONSTANCE OF CASTILE, DUCHESS OF LANCASTER
 
 
 
 
[22]
 
PETER OF CASTILE [NAMED ”THE CRUEL], FATHER OF
CONSTANCE OF CASTILE
 
 
WIKIPEDIA
PETER OF CASTILE
 
 
[23]
HENRY VII  OF ENGLAND [FIRST HENRY TUDOR]
SON OF MARGARET BEAUFORT AND EDMUND TUDOR
HALFBROTHER OF KING HENRY VI FROM HIS MOTHER’S
SIDE
WIKIPEDIA
HENRY VII OF ENGLAND
 
HIS FATHER
EDMUND TUDOR, 1ST EARL OF RICHMIND
 
 
 
HIS MOTHER
MARGARET BEAUFORT, COUNTESS OF RICHMIND AND DERBY
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
[24]
MARGARET BEAUFORT WAS THE GREAT GRANDDAUGHTER OF
JOHN OF GAUNT AND KATHERINE SWYNFORD
HER FATHER WAS JOHN BEAUFORT, THE 1ST DUKE OF SOMERSET
AND HE [JOHN BEAUFORT] WAS THE SON OF JOHN BEAUFORT,
THE 1ST EARL OF BEAUFORT
AND THE 1ST EARL OF BEAUFORT WAS THE SON OF
JOHN OF GAUNT AND KATHERINE SWYNFORD
WIKIPEDIA
MARGARET BEAUFORT, COUNTESS OF RICHMOND AND DERBY
HER FATHER
JOHN BEAUFORT. 1ST DUKE OF SOMERSET
HER GRANDFATHER
JOHN BEAUFORT, 1ST EARL OF SOMERSET
HER GREATGRANDPARENTS
JOHN OF GAUNT
KATHERINE SWYNFORD
[25]
THE WARS OF THE ROSES/CAUSES OF THE WARS OF
THE ROSES/A TRAVEL TO THE PAST
ASTRID ESSED
3 FEBRUARY 2015
WIKIPEDIA
HOUSE OF BEAUFORT
 
SO THE CHILDREN OF JOHN OF GAUNT AND KATHERINE
SWYNFORD WERE NAMED BEAUFORT
 
BUT:
ORIGINALLY THE BEAUFORT TITLE AND NAME [WITH POSSESSIONS] WAS
INHERITED BY EARL HENRY, 3RD EARL OF LANCASTER
[ALTHOUGH HE WAS NO EARL OF LANCASTER YET
ON THAT MOMENT, SINCE THE TITLE WAS THEN HELD
BY HIS BROTHER, THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER,
WHO HAD INHERITED IT FROM HIS AND HENRY’S FATHER,
EDMUND CROUCHBACK, 1ST EARL OF LANCASTER AND
SON OF KING HENRY III AND BROTHER OF THE LATER
KING EDWARD I]
ANYWAY, HENRY OF LANCASTER INHERITED THE TITLE
IN 1317 FROM HIS YOUNGER BROTHER JOHN.
THIS TITLE REMAINED IN THE FAMILY AND THE
TITLE CAME TO JOHN OF GAUNT,
DUE TO HIS MARRIAGE WITH EARL HENRY’S GRANDDAUGHTER,
BLANCHE OF LANCASTER
 
SEE ALSO
EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
HENRY, EARL OF LANCASTER
 
 
As well as his elder brother Thomas, Henry of Lancaster had a younger brother, John, who died childless in 1317; Henry was heir to his lands in France, including Beaufort, after which the illegitimate children of his grandson by marriage and heir John of Gaunt were named.”
 
 
 
 
 
 
SO IN THE STRICT SENSE THE BEAUFORTS WERE NO BLOOD
FAMILY OF THE ”OLD” BEAUFORT, EARL HENRY, SINCE
THEY WERE CHILDREN OF JOHN OF GAUNT AND KATHRYN
SWYNFORD AND NOT FROM BLANCHE OF LANCASTER,
EARL HENRY’S GRANDDAUGHTER
 
 
 
[26]
 
 
WIKIPEDIA
BLANCHE OF LANCASTER
 
 
 
 
HER FATHER WAS HENRY OF GROSMONT, 1ST DUKE OF
LANCASTER
 
WIKIPEDIA
HENRY OF GROSMONT, 1ST DUKE OF LANCASTER
 
 
EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
A VERRAY PARFIT GENTIL KNYGHT: HENRY OF GROSMONT,
DUKE OF LANCASTER (1)
 
 
 
 
EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
A VERRAY PARFIT GENTIL KNYGHT: HENRY OF GROSMONT,
DUKE OF LANCASTER (2)
 
 
 
 
 
EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
A VERRAY PARFIT GENTIL KNYGHT: HENRY OF GROSMONT,
DUKE OF LANCASTER (3)
 
 
 
 
 
 
[27]
 
 
 
WIKIPEDIA
BLANCHE OF LANCASTER
 
 
 
 
 
 
HER FATHER  HENRY OF GROSMONT, 1ST DUKE OF
LANCASTER
 
WIKIPEDIA
HENRY OF GROSMONT, 1ST DUKE OF LANCASTER
 
 
 
 
HER GRANDFATHER
EARL HENRY, 3RD EARL OF LANCASTER
 
 
 
 
HER GREATGRANDFATHER
EDMUND CROUCHBACK, 1ST EARL OF LANCASTER
 
 
 
 
HER GREATGRANDFATHER, KING HENRY OF ENGLAND
 
 
 
 
EDMUND CROCHBACK WAS THE BROTHER OF THE LATER
KING EDWARD I, WHO SUCCEEDED HIS FATHER KING HENRY III
 
 
 
AND LAST, BUT NOT LEAST:
EDMUND CROUCHBACK’S ELDEST SON AND BROTHER
OF EARL HENRY, THOMAS OF LANCASTER, WAS THE
2ND EARL OF LANCASTER
 
 
 
 
SEE ALSO
 
THOMAS OF LANCASTER, REBEL COUSIN OF KING EDWARD II/
FROM WARLORD TO SAINT
ASTRID ESSED
18 SEPTEMBER 2017
 
 
[28]
THOMAS OF LANCASTER, REBEL COUSIN OF KING EDWARD II/
FROM WARLORD TO SAINT
ASTRID ESSED
18 SEPTEMBER 2017
 
 
SEE ALSO
[29]
‘ A few years later, in 1351, Edward bestowed an even greater honour on Lancaster when he created him Duke of Lancaster.”
HENRY OF GROSMONT, 1ST DUKE OF LANCASTER/DUKE OF
LANCASTER
 
 
ORIGINAL SOURCE
 
HENRY OF GROSMONT, 1ST DUKE OF LANCASTER
 
 
 
 
[30]
 
 
WIKIPEDIA
IURE UXORIS
 
 
 
 
 
 
[31]
 
 
On 3 February 1399, John of Gaunt died. Rather than allowing Bolingbroke to succeed, Richard extended the term of his exile to life and expropriated his properties.[67] The king felt safe from Bolingbroke, who was residing in Paris, since the French had little interest in any challenge to Richard and his peace policy.[68] Richard left the country in May for another expedition in Ireland.”
RICHARD II OF ENGLAND/SECOND CRISIS OF 1397-99
 
 
In June 1399, Louis, Duke of Orléans, gained control of the court of the insane Charles VI of France. The policy of rapprochement with the English crown did not suit Louis’s political ambitions, and for this reason he found it opportune to allow Henry to leave for England.[71] With a small group of followers, Bolingbroke landed at Ravenspur in Yorkshire towards the end of June 1399.[72] Men from all over the country soon rallied around the duke. Meeting with Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, who had his own misgivings about the king, Bolingbroke insisted that his only object was to regain his own patrimony.”
‘RICHARD II OF ENGLAND/OVERTHROW AND DEATH
 
 
 
 
ORIGINAL SOURCE
 
WIKIPEDIA
 
RICHARD II OF ENGLAND
SEE, AGAIN:
THE ERROR OF INTRUIGING HISTORY.COM,
NOW IN FULL TEXT!
RICHARD II KING 1377-1399, THE LAST OF THE]
PLANTAGENETS?
THIS WAS THE TEXT ON 26 JANUARY 2018:
AS YOU CAN SEE, INTRUIGING HISTORY.COM MAINTAINS
THE ERROR, THAT HENRY OF BOLINGBROKE [THE LATER KING
HENRY IV] WAS THE SON OF JOHN OF GAUNT AND KATHERINE
SWYNFORD, WHILE HIS MOTHER WAS BLANCHE OF LANCASTER!
I HOPE THEY WILL RESTORE THIS DISTURBING ERROR!

Richard II reigned 1377 – 1399 as King of England, last of the Plantagenet Period and whilst he started too young and brave confronting peasants revolt early in his reign under the guidance of his Uncle John of Gaunt, his success would be short lived. Most of us learn as we live longer but the reverse seems to be true of Richard.

Richard II King of England from 9 years oldHis avarice and greed consumes his life and once again the King fails to administer with reasonable balance amongst his nobles, the Barons and the outcome is not good. He would be usurped by his own cousin, Henry Bolingbroke and from there would would follow the trouble and strife of civil war in the period known as the War of the Roses But how does his life end in such a demise and what happens between his privileged birth and its sad conclusion.

Follow his timeline and chronology of events with links and a brief narrative scroll below. You can also find out more about the Plantagenets here, and the War of the Roses to help scan the time before Richard and the period after. Click here for the House of LancasterHouse of York and of course the coming of the Tudors.

Richard II Timeline Difficult Beginnings

Richard II inherited the throne when Edward III’s heir, the Black Prince died following a protracted period of illness before he could inherit. His mother was Joan of Kent, known as the ‘Fair Maid of Kent.’ Richard was still a boy aged just aged 10 years old. No father, no grandfather and facing an uncertain future as yet another Boy King.

  • 1328 Phillipa of Hainault married Edward III (grandparents to Richard II)
  • 1337 Start of the Hundred Years War

Richard’s Uncles, sons of Edward III born:

  • 1340 John of Gaunt, future Duke of Lancaster and father of Henry Bolingbroke (Henry IV) initially a help to Richard in holding on to power subsequently his son usurps Richard. Was this always the plan?
    John of Gaunt uncle to Richard II son of Edward III
    Uncle to Richard II and father to Henry IV
    • 1340 Edward III asserted his claim to the French Crown, a familiar cry from an English king and his 4th son John of Gaunt (future Duke of Lancaster) is born Richard’s Uncle
  • 1355 Thomas of Woodstock. future Duke of Gloucester: Richard would conflict with Thomas and would not forgive and forget.
  • 1361 Richard II’s parents marry Edward’s eldest son the Black Prince and Joan of Kent (known as the ‘Fair Maid of Kent’), who was the widow of Sir Thomas Holland and mother of his son also Thomas Holland and later the Earl of Kent and John Holland, later Earl of Huntingdon and Duke of Exeter.

Richard II Born in Bordeaux 1367, King in less than 10 Years

  • 1367 Richard II is born in Bordeaux the only son of Joan and Edward the Black Prince.
  • 1369 Richard’s Mother Queen Philippa dies
  • 1374 Marriage of Thomas of Woodstock to Eleanor de Bohun, daughter and co-heiress of the earl of Hereford
  • 1376 – 1377 Richard’s father (The Black Prince) and grandfather (Edward III) die in quick succession.
  • 1377 Richard aged 9 ascends to the throne having lost both his father, grandmother and grandfather in quick succession and with no siblings to help him at hand. His mother is his only living immediate family member and at age 9 he must look quickly to his Uncles if he is to survive his minority.
    • Edward III died  21st June 1377 at Shene Palace (Richmond in Surrey) ‘Parishes: Richmond (anciently Sheen).‘ A History of the County of Surrey: Volume 3. Ed. H E Malden. London: Victoria County History, 1911. 533-546. British History Online. Web. 3 March 2015. http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/surrey/vol3/pp533-546.
    • John of Gaunt is a powerful regent and provides stable protection for the child king.
  • 1378 Papal schism begins: rival Popes, Urban VI in Rome and Clement VII in Avignon
  • 1380 Both a death and a marriage of some consequence:
    • Marriage of Henry of Bolingbroke, earl of Derby, son of John of Gaunt, to Mary de Bohun, daughter and co-heiress of the earl of Hereford. Her sister is married to his Uncle Thomas of Woodstock.
    • Death of Charles V of France, accession of Charles VI Valois aged twelve, Charles VI  suffers a severe mental illness and by 1422 will have given his daughter to Henry V as his wife, together with his French crown, having disowned his own son the Dauphin under the terms of the Treaty of Troyes
  • 1381 Peasants Revolt, Uncharacteristic show of strength by Richard II, when the peasants revolt murdering the Archbishop of Canterbury and Treasurer of England.
  • 1382 Richard II marries Anne of Bohemia, Richard II and Anne a happy marriage and favourite Palace of Sheen (Shene) in Surreythe daughter of Emperor Charles IV and sister of King Wencelas of Bohemia

Richard’s Mother dies and he begins to keep the wrong kind of company

  • 1385 Richard’s mother Joan of Kent dies:  he has no close kin left alive. No one to reel him in and control his ostentatious lifestyle.
    • 1385 Robert De Vere 9th Earl of Oxford  made Marquess of Dublin by Richard, he was a feckless young man and had become a favourite of Richard. It was not that long ago that Edward had become King deposing his own father over such grave errors of patronage. He received further honours in 1387 and would lead Richard’s forces against the Appellant Lords at the Battle of Radcott Bridge.
    • 1386 Richard Makes De Vere Duke of Ireland:  a Dukedom was a serious matter normally reserved for members of the Royal line with few exceptions. It was not a popular appointment and was clearly about a personal favouritism and nothing to do with service to the country and kingdom itself.
    • 1386 – 1387 Wonderful Parliament This is led by his uncle Thomas of Woodstock and Richard Earl of Arundel. There are two major reasons for seeking to control the king , his financial extravagance and his policy of making peace with France. They impose a council to restrict and control the King. Richard’s Minister Michael de la Pole was  impeached and a commission was established  to control the following year’s expenditure and patronage. Richard sought to oppose the decision citing the Royal Prerogative to be able to determine the proceedings as illegal and those involved as traitors. A panel of judges was formed to confer and determine on the Royal Prerogative, their findings leaked and this led to De Vere’s army moving towards London and the subsequent battle. The age old debate back to Magna Carta and before was central to the issue here. The King be subject to God and the Laws of the Land as with all his subjects and judgement by their peers.
  • Parliament November 1387: The Appellant Lords in an unprecedented procedure brought an appeal or accusation of treason against the King’s friends, not the King himself. In effect accusing them of bining the monarchy into disrepute. It was this that led to those friends unde De Vere raising an army and the Battle of Radcott.
  • Battle of Radcott Bridge 1387:  aware that the Lords were rising against Richard’s excesses De Vere was leading an army he had raised to try to get to aid Richard in London. De Vere’s army tried to cross the Thames but was attacked and defeated. De Vere escaped and fled abroad. The defeat destroyed Richard’s ability to resist the Lords Appellants.
  • 1388 ‘Merciless Parliament’: the Lords Appellant Gloucester, Arundel, Thomas, earl of Warwick, Thomas Mowbray, earl of Nottingham, and Henry of Bolingbroke, attack the king’s close advisors, several of whom are executed but whilst Richard suffers humiliation and censure he is not deposed. He narrowly avoids the same fate as Edward II full deposition but fails to learn from his mistake and determines to revenge himself against the Appellants
  • 1389 Richard regains control 1389 Richard II declares himself to be of age and takes charge of government. John of Gaunt helps him reassert his reign,as loyal Uncle and Councilor (ex-regent) peaceful period maintained for some 8 years.Peace negotiations with France begin.
  • 1393 Westminster Hall rebuilt with a magnificent new roof:  the decoration prominently features Richard’s Arms in the decoration and this was unusual but it seems Richard wanted his feat emblazoned with his arms.Westminster Hall Hamberbeam roof
  • Richard’s White Hart emblem “The King’s personal emblem, the white hart, was repeated along the Hall’s string course, and the roof was decorated with 26 angels carved out of solid beam. They bore shields carved with the royal arms of the period: the fleur-de-lys of France quartered with the three lions, or leopards, of England.”
  • He also ‘impales’ his arms with the purported arms of Edward the Confessor during this period by about 1395.

  • 1394 Death of His wife and 1st expedition to Ireland
    • Grief and Heartache for Richard when his wife Anne of Bohemia dies suffering from Leprosy. Richard was genuinely so grief stricken that he demolished Sheen Palace, near Richmond in Surrey where she died. ‘Shene’ as it was known was their favourite palace and their arranged marriage was a love-match. The loss was deep and real but the palace would be rebuilt later and monarchs would come and go with their favouring of the rebuilt palace and its significance in their lives.
    • Anne was buried in their joint tomb in Westminster Abbey, and Richard would be buried there much later when Henry V came to the throne.
    • Richard II’s 1st expedition to Ireland In October 1394, he landed at Waterford with a large army, and demanded the submission of all the Irish lords. They submitted and paid homage faced by the overwhelming size of Richard’s forces. Richard failed to resolve most issues in ireland but in ENgland his expedition was viewed as a success.
  • 1395 Richard II makes the arrogant decision to impale his arms with the supposed ‘arms of Edward the Confessor:
  • 1396 Richard makes a 28 year truce with france, Appeasement his preferred route but at what cost? 100 Years War has rumbled on but Richard calls a truce and yet another French marriage takes place to Isabelle the elder sister of Catherine of Valois who would later marry Henry V under the arrangements of the Treaty of Troyes. The difficulty was that she was just 7 years old at this time.
  • There was a Meeting between Richard II and Charles VI of France at Ardres, near Calais. Twenty-eight year truce sealed. Richard marries Isabelle born 1389, eldest daughter of Charles VI and Isabeau of Bavaria. Isabelle brings a sumptuous trousseau.
  • 1396 Charter for York with status as a County ‘The later middle ages: The city’s franchise and officers.’ A History of the County of York: the City of York. Ed. P M Tillott. London: Victoria County History, 1961. 69-75. British History Online. Web. 3 March 2015. http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/yorks/city-of-york/pp69-75.
  • 1397 Richard wreaks havoc and terrible revenge known as the ‘Revenge Parliament.’  With war over Richard acts from what he perceives a position of strength and seeks to make the crown independent of the Commons, possibly a fatal mistake? Richard attacks the Lords Appellant of 1388 Duke of Gloucester (his father’s brother) and the Earl of Arundel is executed. Arundel’s brother Archbishop of Canterbury and the Earl of Warwick are exiled. Henry Bolingbroke and Mowbray are pardoned, with the connection to his Uncle John of Gaunt.
  • In exacting revenge Richard has also seized the forfeited lands and wealth whilst he is indeed a very wealthy king he had dispossessed more than a third of the noble families of the kingdom and hounded to death his old enemies and most heinous murdered his own uncle Thomas of Woodstock, like John of Gaunt a son of Edward III. Not ideal actions for a King who needs to keep a fair proportion of his barons on his side.
  • 1398 Mowbray and Bolingbroke fall out and seek a duel both exiled: Richard II forbids the duel and they are both exiled. Mowbray dies in Venice what will transpire for Henry Bolingbroke son of John of Gaunt the wealthy Duke of Lancaster?
  • 1399 John of Gaunt dies and Richard seizes his estates with Bolingbroke still in exile. Hardly a reasonable action for the one Uncle who had stuck by him and now perhaps a fatal error as this would add fire and fuel to Henry’s motivation to come back and fight for the reinstatement of his birthright to the richest estate apart from the kings, the Duchy of Lancaster. This estate had been his mother’s and inherited by his father through marriage. It made the holder of the estate one of the most powerful men in the land. Whether Henry Bolingbroke comes back to seize the Duchy or the Crown of England is open to debate amongst historians but his return is not good news for Richard. Richard decides to make a 2nd expedition to Ireland and leaves the country having upset many noble families and made them suffer he does not anticipate that whilst away his Crown he will be usurped.
    • Second expedition of Richard II to Ireland. It will be another failure and he manages to lose 2 armies in the matter of a few weeks in Conway.
    • Bolingbroke lands at Ravenspur in Yorkshire and claims the crown of England having worked with the Percys their usurpation is almost unopposed, no one of substance or means wants favours Richard II as king any more.
  • 1399 Henry IV,King of England, Usurper of Richard II, Henry Bolingbroke, grandson of Edward III by John of Gaunt and his wife Katherine Swynsford (former mistress, subsequently legitimised by marriage and royal assent) but could be disputed, is now King of England. It is from this usurpation that the House of Lancaster a branch of Edward III’s (Plantagenet) family becomes known due to the Duchy of Lancaster as the House of Lancaster
  • 1399-1400  Richard returned to England and was captured and deposed and dies either of starvation or murdered. Initially he is held in Ponefract Castle, technically still an anointed King, Henry would have been politically aware of the ramifications of murdering/executing a King as well as the religious and spiritual.
  • 1400-1402  Richard II dies in Pontefract Castle: But what do you do with an ex-King when a plot to free him is a possibility and becomes more than rumour? One way or another Richard dies. His body remained at Kings Langley but is later moved and reburied by Henry V at Westminster abbey. Isabelle was returned to France with the valuables of her trousseau. A generous move by Henry IV given the ruthless times and perhaps at that stage having just taken the throne an attempt to let matters settle before engaging in conflict with France.

Intriguing Objects Made by Richard II An horary quadrant enables the user to tell the time from the height of the sun in the British Museum dated around 1398.

Objects and sources that help us determine the history of Richard II and his demise:

  1. British Library Post on original manuscripts and source documents that tell of Richard II’s downfall.
  2. Scroll through the digital manuscripts online examples here.
  3. British Library Historiated (decorated) Order Book of Richard II in British Library Collection.
  4. William Shakespeare, an undoubted genius, but his History Plays, ironically are not history and too often popular images and perspectives on monarchs are really founded in this work of fiction. It is of course beautifully written but soundbites from Shakespeare are not history but in effect one literary author’s own spin that was fixed to suit the politics and perspective of the Elizabethan environment in which he writes. For the full text, certainly worthy of a read and some reflection but as with all history its written with much bias and a particular perspective. The wrong words could have put the authors life at risk with the Queen, somewhat more serious than just a bad review or two… Here is the MIT version of the full text of Shakespeare’s Richard II but you can download from free also on the Internet Archive lovely 1901 Edition here and the Gutenberg Project Richard II. All of which are excellent and free.
  5. Richard II’s Will was retained and locked away by Henry IV and his son, strange that it should be retained and not destroyed in the circumstances. Ruthless times but an intriguing outcome given it might contain sensitive information. If it was not threat why was it locked away but thats for our later Lancastrian considerations but you can read it on this link and it gives some insight into what the deposed King was thinking if he should die.

A Postscript on Richard II’s life last of the Plantagenet Kings

Richard was another boy King, who inherited the throne having lost his grandfather and father within a year of each other. Guided by wise counsel of his father’s brothers most notably John of Gaunt he showed early promise with bravery confronting the Peasants Revolt of 1381. His marriage was a happy one until his queen was lost to the plague or leprosy when he was grief stricken. But his extravagance would prove his undoing and lead his barons to rise-up to censure his government. He would have his revenge but it would cost him his life ultimately.

What did he achieve in his lifetime?

Most notably and of benefit to us all today was his new roof for Westminster Hall. However the heraldic decorations were really another egotistic flourish as he plastered his arms all over the design. When John of Gaunt dies and Richard cannot resist seizing his fortune and lands,  the rift is beyond mending and the house of Lancaster comes to the fore as Henry Bolingbroke who may have started looking for just his birthright gets carried along with the moment and grasps the kingdon along his way. With no children to inherit or challenge Richard II marks more with a whimper than a bang the end of the Plantagenet era but not of the family. From here would spring the war of the Roses, a period in which more families lives would be decimated by the loss of a generation. It is a period that drags on and caused the decimation of society in England in a way that would not be seen again, on such a scale until Wold War 1. Given the power, wealth and opportunity not much is achieved that changes England for the better during his lifetime. There is little to observe that warrants the sympathy Richard sometimes evokes from historians. These were brutal times but perhaps his 28 year truce with France should be more valued although at the time it was seen as a failing. war was commerce, business and about wealth creation, expansion and building a line of succession. In accordance with the values of his time, Richard’s life caused trouble and strife, he seems to have similar traits to those of his great-grandfather Edward II and again whilst he technically abdicates in reality he was deposed. Not much of a testimony to his father either, Richard II seems at first glance to be a poor reflection of the Black Prince born to be King but dying before his father.

The Last of the Plantagenet Kings?

When you take a look as we will when we consider the life reign and family tree of Edward III, its obvious these were branches of the same family, not really different dynasties, the change of names of the Houses representing the branches and connections specifically the lines via John of Gaunt and Henry IV (Lancastrians) and Yorks via Richard 1st Duke of YorkMembrane with genealogy of the kings of England.The consequences of this family rift would of course be profound in shaping the future of England. Richard II is the end of a branch of the Edward III tree but the Plantagenet Blood as we know or thought we did would course in all their veins , or maybe not? Recent genetic research suggests their is a break in Richard III’s line of inheritance but it could be anywhere back in a sequence of patrimonial links over 8 generations. Will we ever really know by science alone whether the Plantagenets and Yorks were ever really one family…Hence we can at least hypothesise that really the family known as the Plantagenets continues across many bloodlines and if you  are interested take an old copy used to be online showing many generations into the 20th century at least, if you find it please do let us know. Will check the archives and see what we can, pardon the pun, dig-up.

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