The Wars of the Roses/Anne of York, Duchess of Exeter/Her marriage to Henry Holland, 3rd Duke of Exeter

 

File:Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York.jpg
RICHARD OF YORK, CLAIMANT TO THE ENGLISH THRONE

EDWARD IV, SON OF RICHARD, DUKE OF
YORK AND BROTHER OF ANNE OF YORK,
DUCHESS OF EXETER
[FICTION]

Sansa 1

ANNE PLANTAGENET, DUCHESS OF EXETER [MARRIED TO HENRY HOLLAND,
3TH DUKE OF EXETER], DAUGHTER OF THE DUKE OF YORK
[FICTION]
[PLANTAGENET IS THE NAME OF THE ROYAL HOUSE FROM
1154 TILL 1485. SINCE THE DUKE OF YORK WAS A DIRECT MALE
DESCENDANT OF EDMUND OF LANGLEY, FOURTH SON OF EDWARD III,
HIS FAMILY NAME WAS PLANTAGENET, HIS DAUGHTER’S
FAMILY NAME WAS ALSO PLANTAGENET]

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE WARS OF THE ROSES/ANNE OF YORK,DUCHESS OF
EXETER/HER MARRIAGE TO HENRY
HOLLAND, 3RD  DUKE OF EXETER
Dear Readers,
Today, I  take you to a journey of
the past again, this timeabout  the married  life of Anne of York [1]
daughter of Richard, Duke of York [2]
with Henry Holland, the 3rd Duke of Exeter. [3],
which was not quite a succes.
Why not?
ENTER THE WORLD

In 1447, Henry Holland, the 3th Duke of Exeter [4] came into her life,
since in that year his father died [5], Annne’s father, the Duke of
York, became his ward [6] and married him to Anne.
Interesting detail is, that her father payed a large marriage portion
4,500 marks.
However, only  1,000 marks of the portion were paid, probably
due to the arosen enmity between York and his son in law.
On Susan Higginbotham’s blog ”History Refreshed” is speculated
on the fact, that York pay such a large marriage portion ”probably because Henry VI was childless at the time, putting the young Henry Holland in line for the throne” [7]
I don’t think that’s convincing, since York’s claim to the throne
was far stronger. [8]
Besides, large marriage portions were usual for a very rich nobleman
like the Duke of York.
And after all, there is no proof whatsoever, that York was
after the throne in 1447.
The fact, that the Duke of Exeter
sided against Anne’s own father, the Duke of York,
becoming a solid Lancastarian, was, of course, no basis
for a happy marriage [9]
Exeter was aLancastrian military commander in the Battle of Wakefield [10] [in which
the Duke of York was slain and his son, Edmund, Earl of Rutland,
probably executed after the battle [11], ]the  Second  Battle of St Albans [12]
and the Battle of Townton in 1461[13]  [a great Yorkist victory,
which made the Duke of York’s eldest son, Edward,
King of England [14]]
But before the outbreak of the Wars of the Roses, enmity between Anne’s
father, the Duke of York and Exeter was already flourishing.
Exeter was one of the ringleaders of an uprising against
his father in law, York [15], who was then Protector
of the Realm [16] [King Henry VI being incapacitated to rule [17]
Exeter’s uprising failed, he fled to Westminster Abbey seeking sanctuary,
York came after him, fetched him out of sanctauary and imprisoned him
in Pontefract Castle.[18]
Removing someone forcibly out of sanctuary was  contrary
the fugitive’s right in late Medieval England [19], but like in
all times, when power is at stake, those rights were not seldom,
violated.
Interesting fact:
There is a letter from the Duke of York to the Duke of Exeter during this
rebellion [20], which, although York’s assurances of love, as a cousin and father in law, is clearly harsh.
BACK TO THE MARRIAGE OF ANNE OF YORK AND THE
DUKE OF EXETER
As mentioned, due to to his arguably violent and quarrelsome
nature, as his deadly enmity against her father, rising against his
authority in 1454 [21] and taking the Lancastrian side in the subsequent
Wars of the Roses, the marriage between Anne and Exeter was not
”written in the stars”
Being a commander first against her father and later against her brother Edward [later Edward IV], in the the Battle of Townton [22], Exeter
fled to Scotland and later
and later joined Queen Margaret of Anjou in her exile in France.
He was attainted [his estates were  forfeited] in 1461.
Anne’s brother, King Edward, gave Exeter’s estates to her.
Anne separated from Exeter in 1464, [23] although their official
divorce was not until 1472. [24]
The couple had one daughter, Anne, named after her mother.
Anne remarried about 1474 with Thomas St Leger [25] and died
in 1476, giving birth to her daughter, Anne St Leger [26]
INTERESTING DETAIL
DNA AND RICHARD III
When the remains of King Richard III  [Anne’s youngest brother
were found , they were compared with the ”mother to daughter”
DNA of Anne of York. [27]
Her 17th generation descendant from the female line,  Michael Ibsen
was compared with the remains of Richard III and it matched! [28]
TRAGIC END OF THE DUKE OF EXETER
As so many nobles during the Wars of the Roses, Exeter met a tragic
end.
Not by execution, but drowning.
After the brief period of King Henry VI’s restoration [29], Exeter’s estates
were restored to him, but the joy was short.
He was badly wounded in the Battle of Barnet [30] [victorious
for Edward IV, tragic for his long time ally and cousin, Warwick,
”the Kingmaker” [31], who turned against him to the Lancaster cause and died]
Later, Exeter was imprisoned and after “volunteering” to serve on Edward IV’s
1475 expedition to France, fell overboard and drowned, on the way
back to England.[32]
Some say he was in fact thrown overboard at the king’s command.
Possible, alas, but I wonder.
Why King Edward IV would have thrown him in the sea, if he,
in fact, could have made him executed long before, especially because
of Exeter’s part in  the Battle of Wakefield, where the father
of Edward IV,Richard, Duke of York, was slain.
But we will probably never know.
EPILOGUE
Not to be expected, that a marriage is succesful, when
a husband is arguably violent and he deliberately and
stubbornly chooses sides against the father of his wife,
politically and military.
And to make it worse:
Being
one of the commanders in a battle, that leads to the death of
the father of his wife and the execution, after the battle, of
her brother.
 
But in defense of Exeter:
The stakes were high [run for the throne] and it was
a time of overmighty subjects, since King Henry VI was [apart
from mental ill] humanitarian
and forgiving, formidable human qualities, but not in a medieval
king, were warriorship and stern rule was requested.
It was interesting for me to make a journey to a medieval marriage,
starring a loyal daughter and sister and her  ambitious, arguably
violent and quarrelsome husband, who sided against her family.
If he had been loyal to her family, perhaps the marriage would have been succesful.
We will never know.
Thanks for making the travel to the past with me again
Astrid Essed
Amsterdam
The Netherlands
[1]
WIKIPEDIA
ANNE OF YORK
[2]
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD OF YORK, 3D DUKE OF YORK
[3]
WIKIPEDIA
HENRY HOLLAND, 3RD DUKE OF EXETER
[4]
WIKIPEDIA
HENRY HOLLAND, 3RD DUKE OF EXETER
[5]
”He inherited the dukedom of Exeter when his father died in 1447”
WIKIPEDIA
HENRY HOLLAND, 3RD DUKE OF EXETER
[6]
”Anne, who married the Duke of Exeter. Exeter was York’s ward but nevertheless a substantial dowry was paid. ”
THE YORKIST AGE BLOGSPOT
THE CHILDREN OF RICHARD OF YORK
 
 
[7]
 
 
 In 1446, when she was six, she was married to fifteen-year-old Henry Holland, who would shortly become the second Duke of Exeter. The Duke of York offered a large marriage portion—4,500 marks–probably because Henry VI was childless at the time, putting the young Henry Holland in line for the throne.”
SUSAN HIGGINBOTHAM/HISTORY REFRESHED
SISTER TO TWO KINGS : ANNE, DUCHESS OF EXETER
 
 
[8]
 
 
THE WARS OF THE ROSES/ANNE OF YORK, DUCHESS
OF EXETER/THE DUKE OF YORK’S MOTIVES FOR
A LARGE MARRIAGE PORTION TO THE DUKE
OF EXETER/COMMENT ON SUSAN HIGGINBOTHAM’S
HISTORY REFRESHED
ASTRID ESSED
 
 
[9]
 
In the Wars of the Roses, however, he remained an enemy of the House of York. He was a commander at the great Lancastrian victories at Wakefield and St Albans. He was imprisoned at Wallingford Castle in 1455.

He was also a commander at the Lancastrian defeat at the Battle of Towton. He fled to Scotland after the battle, and then joinedQueen Margaret in her exile in France.”

 
WIKIPEDIA
HENRY HOLLAND, 3RD DUKE OF EXETER
[10]
WIKIPEDIA
BATTLE OF WAKEFIELD
”In the Wars of the Roses, however, he remained an enemy of the House of York. He was a commander at the great Lancastrian victories at Wakefield and St Albans. He was imprisoned at Wallingford Castle in 1455.”
WIKIPEDIA
HENRY HOLLAND, 3RD DUKE OF EXETER
 
THE RICHARD III FOUNDATION
 
THE BATTLE OF WAKEFIELD
 
It needs to be said, that the information, that Richard, Duke of
York, is killed after the battle, probably is not right.
Most historians mention, that Richard of York was slain in the battle.
 
[11]
”Edmund was thus executed on the orders of the Lancastrian Lord Clifford, or by some accounts, by Lord Clifford himself. His head was displayed on the gates of York, England, along with those of his father and of his uncle, Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury.”
WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND, EARL OF RUTLAND
[12]
WIKIPEDIA
SECOND BATTLE OF ST ALBANS
[13]
BATTLE OF TOWTON
 
 
[14]
 
 
WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD IV OF ENGLAND
 
[15]
”They found an ally in Henry Holland, duke of Exeter. He wanted to be protector, and based his claim on his being more closely related to the king than York. Exeter and Holland had agreed an alliance early in 1454, and on 14 May they seized York. This was the high-point of their short-lived revolt. York reacted quickly and led a small army to York. ”
HISTORY OF WAR
BATTLE OF STAMFORD BRIDGE, 31 OCTOBER OR
1 NOVEMBER 1454
 
 
 
[16]
 
 
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD OF YORK, 3RD DUKE OF YORK
PROTECTOR OF THE REALM [1453-1454]
 
SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD OF YORK, 3RD DUKE OF YORK
 
 
 
[17]
 
 
WIKIPEDIA
HENRY VI OF ENGLAND
INSANITY, AND THE ASCENDANCY OF YORK
 
 
SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
HENRY VI OF ENGLAND
 
 
 
[18]
 
The would-be protector fled to London and attempted to seek sanctuary in Westminster Abbey. York followed him south and removed him from sanctuary. He was then imprisoned in Pontefract.”
HISTORY OF WAR
BATTLE OF STAMFORD BRIDGE, 31 OCTOBER OR
1 NOVEMBER 1454
 
 
[19]
 
WORLDWIDE UNIVERSITIES NETWORK
SANCTUARY, VIOLENCE AND LAW IN LATE
MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
 
 
 
[20]
 
NEVILLFEAST
LETTER FROM RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK
TO HENRY HOLLAND, DUKE OF EXETER
 
[21]
HISTORY OF WAR
BATTLE OF STAMFORD BRIDGE, 31 OCTOBER OR
1 NOVEMBER 1454
[22]
WIKIPEDIA
BATTLE OF TOWTON
[23]
” On 4 March 1461 Anne’s younger brother Edward, Duke of York, was declared in London as King Edward IV. Exeter was attainted but the new king gave his estates to Anne, with remainder to their daughter Anne Holland. Anne and Exeter separated in 1464 and divorced in 1472.”
WIKIPEDIA
ANNE OF YORK, DUCHESS OF EXETER
FIRST MARRIAGE
 
SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
ANNE OF YORK, DUCHESS OF EXETER
 
 
[24]
 
 
” On 4 March 1461 Anne’s younger brother Edward, Duke of York, was declared in London as King Edward IV. Exeter was attainted but the new king gave his estates to Anne, with remainder to their daughter Anne Holland. Anne and Exeter separated in 1464 and divorced in 1472.”
WIKIPEDIA
ANNE OF YORK, DUCHESS OF EXETER
FIRST MARRIAGE
 
SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
ANNE OF YORK, DUCHESS OF EXETER
 
 
[25]
 
 
WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS ST LEGER
[26]
WIKIPEDIA
ANNE ST LEGER
[27]
WIKIPEDIA
ANNE OF YORK, DUCHESS OF EXETER
DNA AND RICHARD III
 
SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
ANNE OF YORK, DUCHESS OF EXETER
 
 
[28]
WIKIPEDIA
ANNE OF YORK, DUCHESS OF EXETER
DNA AND RICHARD III
 
SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
ANNE OF YORK, DUCHESS OF EXETER
 
 
[29]
 
 
WIKIPEDIA
HENRY VI OF ENGLAND
REDEMPTION: THE RETURN TO THE THRONE
SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
HENRY VI OF ENGLAND
[30]
WIKIPEDIA
BATTLE OF BARNET
[31]
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
[32]
”At the Battle of Barnet, Exeter commanded the Lancastrian left flank. He was badly wounded and left for dead, but survived. Afterwards he was imprisoned, and Anne divorced him in 1472. He “volunteered” to serve on Edward’s 1475 expedition to France. On the return voyage he fell overboard and drowned Some say he was in fact thrown overboard at the king’s command..”
WIKIPEDIA
HENRY HOLLAND, 3RD DUKE OF EXETER
[33]
”Some say he was in fact thrown overboard at the king’s command.”
WIKIPEDIA
HENRY HOLLAND, 3RD DUKE OF EXETER

Reacties uitgeschakeld voor The Wars of the Roses/Anne of York, Duchess of Exeter/Her marriage to Henry Holland, 3rd Duke of Exeter

Filed under Divers

Comments are closed.