Tag Archives: France

[EdwardthesecondBlogspot]/Piers Gaveston’s second exile

 

Edward II recalled Piers from the exile imposed on him by Edward I immediately after he heard the news that his father was dead, on 11 July 1307. Piers was back in England by early August, and Edward created him earl of Cornwall on 6 August, possibly without Piers’ prior knowledge – or so Edward would claim in letters to the Pope and the king of France the following year. (Edward can’t entirely be trusted here, however – he also claimed that he made Piers an earl at the urging of his barons – which was emphatically not the case!)Edward also arranged Piers’ marriage to his (Edward’s, not Piers’, obviously) niece Margaret de Clare, which took place on 1 November 1307, but which had been planned for months – the charter granting the earldom of Cornwall to Piers on 6 August was decorated with the de Clare arms as well as Piers’ own. Piers had an annual income of £4000, making him one of the richest men in the country.As though all this wasn’t bad enough – making the younger son of a minor Gascon noble a wealthy earl and a member of the royal family by marriage – Piers dominated Edward’s favour and attention. According to the contemporary Vita Edwardi Secundi, Piers “alone found favour in the king’s eyes and lorded it over them [the English barons] like a second king, to whom all were subject and none equal. Almost all the land hated him..his name was reviled far and wide…he was an object of mockery to almost everyone in the kingdom.” The comment that Piers was ‘like a second king’ is echoed in other chronicles – the (later) Meaux chronicle called him “almost a king” (quasi rex) and the canon of Bridlington claimed there were two kings in England.

 

 

 

 

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[EdwardthesecondBlogspot]/Edward II’s Coronation oath, 25 February 1308

 

 

Sire, volez vous graunter, è garder, &, par vostre serment, confermer au poeple d’Engleterre les leys, & les custumes, à eux grauntees par les auntiens Rois d’Engleterre, voz predecessours droitures & devotz a DIEU; & nomement les lois, les custumes, & les fraunchises, grantez au clerge, è au poeple par le glorieus Roi seint Edward, vostre predecessour? Jeo les grante & promette. Sire, garderez vous à DIEU, & seinte eglise, & au clerge, & au poeple paes, & acord en DIEU entierment, solonc vostre poer? Jeo les garderai. Sire, freez vous faire, en touz voz jugementz, ovele & droit justice & discretion, en misericorde & verite, à vostre poer? Jeo le frai. Sire, graunte vous à tenir & garder les loys & les custumes droitureles, les quiels la communaute de vostre roiaume aura esleu, & les defendrez & afforcerez, al honour de DIEU, à vostre poer? Jeo les graunte & promette.

 

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King Edward II/[Edward the second Blogspot]/What happened after the barons killed Piers Gaveston

 

 

 

A post about what happened in the days after Piers Gaveston’s death, which I’d originally intended to coincide with the anniversary of said death, i.e. 19 June. Oh well, only six weeks late.Piers was killed at Blacklow Hill in Warwickshire on Monday 19 June 1312 – see this post, and Anerje’s great blog about Piers, for more details. On that day, Edward II was staying 150 miles away at Burstwick-in-Holderness near Hull, with Queen Isabella, who was about four months pregnant with Edward III. Let me emphasise the fact that Isabella was already pregnant when Piers died; too many websites give the impression that Edward only began a proper relationship with his wife after the death of his favourite, as though the killing of Piers Gaveston was a necessary step to ensure the continuation of the royal English line.

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King Edward II/[Edward the second Blogspot]/Isabella of France and her relationship with Edward II

This is a post which I originally wrote a few months ago as a guest post on my lovely friend Sarah’s history blog, which is now sadly defunct, though she writes one about Edward II’s grandfather Henry III instead, yay.Isabella of France, queen consort of England, lady of Ireland, duchess of Aquitaine, countess of Chester and Ponthieu, had a remarkably illustrious lineage: she was the daughter of Philip IV, king of France and of Joan, queen of Navarre and countess of Brie, Bigorre and Champagne in her own right. Isabella was the sixth of Philip and Joan’s seven children. Her three older brothers all reigned as kings of France, Louis X, Philip V and Charles IV, her younger brother Robert died in 1308 aged about eleven, and she also had two older sisters, Marguerite and Blanche, who both died in early childhood in or shortly after 1294. Her paternal grandmother Isabel, queen of Philip III of France, after whom she was presumably named, was the daughter of King Jaime I ‘el Conquistador’ of Aragon and the granddaughter of King Andras II of Hungary; via the Hungarian line, Isabella of France was the seven greats granddaughter of Harold Godwinson, the king of England killed at Hastings in 1066.  She and her husband Edward II were related: her great-grandmother Marguerite of Provence, queen of France was the older sister of Edward’s paternal grandmother Eleanor of Provence, queen of England.  They were also related rather more distantly via the Castilian royal family, Edward’s great-grandmother Berenguela, queen of Castile and Leon, being the sister of Isabella’s great-great-grandmother Blanche of Castile, queen of France.

 

 

 

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King Edward II/[Edward the Second Blogspot]/Edward II and his children and why neither William Wallace nor Roger Mortimer was their father

 

This (long!) article was inspired by my huge irritation a) that so many people still think the Braveheart story of William Wallace fathering Isabella of France’s child is somehow factual – people hit this blog pretty well every day searching for it – and b) that the notion of Edward II not being the father of his own eldest child has so well and truly taken hold in the popular imagination.  For examples, if you can stomach them, seeherehereherehere and here, and the novels cited below.  Read them and weep.  I cannot adequately express my annoyance that a man with an Oxford doctorate on Isabella (Paul Doherty) wrote a novel (Death of a King) in which Edward III’s biological father is Roger Mortimer, which Doherty must know is absolute BS but chose to sex up his novel by including it anyway and thereby giving the notion spurious plausibility. Agh.
EDIT: Thanks to Susan Higginbotham for telling me about a very recent post claiming that Edward II may have been ‘cuckolded’ and not the father of his children, in the Yahoo group of the Richard III Society, no less.  Check out Susan’s excellent and elegant rebuttal.Braveheart features the future King Edward II as a fairly major character, with Edward – in real life, an enormously strong, athletic and handsome man – caricatured as a useless feeble court fop whose lover is thrown out of a window and whose wife cuckolds him with William Wallace.  There are countless historical inaccuracies in Braveheart, which have been well detailed elsewhere, and I won’t go into them here.  I just want to focus on one: the statement at the end of the film that Wallace is the real father of the baby Edward’s wife Isabella is carrying, who is, presumably, intended to be Isabella’s first-born child King Edward III.Let’s check some basic dates and facts here:

 

 

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The Wars of the Roses/Enmity between Margaret of Anjou and Richard, Duke of York/After the battle of Wakefield/Manifesto of Margaret of Anjou to the citizens of London in 1461

File:Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York.jpg
RICHARD OF YORK, CLAIMANT TO THE ENGLISH THRONE
AND ONE OF THE MAIN LEADERS OF THE WAR OF ROSES
[HISTORICAL IMAGE]
 

13501173331

_________________________________________

EDMUND BEAUFORT, 2ND DUKE OF SOMERSET, THE GREAT RIVAL
OF RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK
HISTORICAL FICTION
 
 
King Edward IV.jpg

KING EDWARD IV, SON OF RICHARD, DUKE OF

YORK
HISTORICAL IMAGE

KING EDWARD IV, SON OF RICHARD, DUKE OF

YORK
HISTORICAL FICTION

image

RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK, THE KINGMAKER
COUSIN TO EDWARD IV, FIRST ALLY TO HIS FATHER, RICHARD,
DUKE OF YORK, THEN TO KING EDWARD IV
LATER THEY BECAME ADVERSARIES AND THE KINGMAKER TURNED
TO MARGARET OF ANJOU [BECOMING A ”LANCASTRIAN] TO RESTORE HENRY VI TO THE THRONE
HE FAILED AND LOST HIS LIFE IN THE BATTLE OF TEWKESBURY
HIS DAUGHTER, ANNE, LATER BECAME QUEEN OF ENGLAND,
MARRIED TO KING RICHARD III [BROTHER TO KING EDWARD IV]
[FICTION]
 
KING HENRY VI OF ENGLAND
[HISTORICAL IMAGE]
 
MARGARET OF ANJOU, QUEEN OF ENGLAND
MARGARET OF ANJOU, QUEEN OF ENGLAND
[HISTORICAL IMAGE]
 

TWO IMAGES OF MARGARET OF ANJOU, QUEEN OF ENGLAND
[FICTION]
ENMITY BETWEEN MARGARET OF ANJOU AND RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK/
AFTER THE BATTLE OF WAKEFIELD/MANIFESTO OF MARGARET OF
ANJOU TO THE CITIZENS OF LONDON IN 1461
I proudly present one of the rare documents I found in which Queen Margaret
of Anjou  refers to her great enemy, Richard, Duke of York.
It is to be read in a Manifesto she proclaimed to the citizens
of London concerning her military campaigns  after
See the text of the Manifesto  below
But first:
BACKGROUND

 

 

 

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The Wars of the Roses/[Murreyandblue/WordPress.com]/Duke Richard the 3rd Duke of York (3), heir to the throne

DUKE RICHARD, THE 3RD DUKE OF YORK (3), HEIR TO

THE THRONE

The she-wolf of France, but worse than wolves of France

Whose tongue more poisons than an adders tooth

How ill beseeming it is in thy sex

To triumph like an amazon trull

(Henry VI Part 3)

St Albans and its significance

 

The first battle of St Albans represents a landmark in the dispute between York and Lancaster; not as the first battle of a civil war, since it was not that, or as their biggest or bloodiest battle, since it was not that either. Its importance lay in the fact that it represented the ultimate expression of York’s change of tack from being the king’s champion to being the realm’s champion.

 

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The Wars of the Roses/[Murreyandblue/WordPress.com]/Duke Richard the 3rd Duke of York ”……..the King’s true liegeman……?”

 

How now? Is Somerset at liberty?

Then, York unloose thy long-imprisoned thoughts

And let thy tongue be equal with thy heart.

Shall I endure the sight of Somerset?

(Shakespeare: Henry VI part 2)

On his return from service in Normandy, duke Richard was the king’s true liegeman and an obedient servant of the Lancastrian establishment: or so it seemed. If he blamed the government for his enormous debts incurred on the king’s service, he did not show it. If he resented the preferment of John Beaufort and two other Lancastrian earls, he did not show it. If he was angry at the loss of Anjou and Main as part of the queen’s marriage settlement, he did not show it. In fact his reticence was a remarkable display of sangfroid in the face of his worsening financial, dynastic and political situation. Whether this reflected his true feelings or not is doubtful. Although there was now a fracture in his bond of loyalty to the Lancastrian government, he could not afford a public show of pique. He was politically weak and only harm could come to him from making a fuss now. Discretion is indeed the better part of valour; York was keeping his own counsel and biding his time.

 

 

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The Wars of the Roses/[Murreyandblue/WordPress.com]/Duke Richard of York (1), the man who would be king

 

 

On the 10th of October 1460, Richard Plantagenet 3rd duke of York walked into Westminster Hall wearing the full arms of England undifferenced. After a moment, he put his hand on the empty throne. When asked if he wished to see the king, he replied “I know of no one in the realm who would not more fitly come to me than I to him”. With those words, he declared to all those present that duke Richard had finally renounced his allegiance to king Henry VI and claimed the English crown by right of strict inheritance. York’s motive has puzzled historians ever since. Was it really his ‘natural disposition’ to champion the public interest, or was it the notion that he was the rightful king all along that stirred his ambition? This is the first of three essays in which I hope to explore that question from a personal perspective. I should add for the avoidance of doubt, that I have no intention of considering the validity duke Richard’s title: that is for another time. Neither is this a potted biography; I have included a few details of what I believe are some relevant friction points in his life for purely contextual reasons.

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The Wars of the Roses/The House of York/Reaction on Encyclopaedia Britannica’s changes in their article after my comments

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HISTORICAL FICTION
Richard II King of England.jpg
HISTORICAL IMAGE

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_of_England

KING RICHARD II, [SON OF THE BLACK PRINCE, THE FIRST
SON OF KING EDWARD III AND THEREFORE SUCCESSOR
OF KING EDWARD III], WHO DECLARED ROGER MORTIMER
HIS HEIR PRESUMPTIVE.
ROGER MORTIMER WAS THE SON OF RICHARD II’S FIRST
COUSIN PHILIPPA,
THE DAUGHTER OF THE SECOND SON OF KING EDWARD III,
LIONEL OF ANTWERP
AND THEREFORE NEXT IN LINE TO THE SUCCESSION TO
THE THRONE, AS LONG AS RICHARD II WAS CHILDLESS.
ROGER MORTIMER HAD TWO CHILDREN, EDMUND, 4TH EARL OF
MARCH AND ANNE MORTIMER, WHO MARRIED RICHARD CONISBURGH,
SON OF EDMUND OF LANGLEY, DUKE OF YORK [FOURTH SON
OF EDWARD III]
AFTER HIS DEATH, ROGER MORTIMER PASSED HIS HEIR
PRESUMPTIVE RIGHT TO HIS SON EDMUND, 5TH EARL
OF MARCH, WHO PASSED THIS RIGHT TO HIS NEPHEW
RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK,  SON OF HIS SISTER
ANNE MORTIMER.
WHEN RICHARD II WAS USURPED BY HIS COUSIN
HENRY BOLINGBROKE [LATER KING HENRY IV, SON OF JOHN
OF GAUNT, THE THIRD SON OF KING EDWARD III AND
THEREFORE WITH A LESSER RIGHT TO THE THRONE
THAN EDMUND MORTIMER],
EDMUND, THE SON OF THE LATE ROGER MORTIMER,
BEING THE RIGHTFUL SUCCESSOR, WAS OVERLOOKED.
ROGER MORTIMER’S SON AND DAUGHTER, EDMUND AND
ANNE MORTIMER
ANNE MORTIMER’S SON, RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK,
GRANDSON [FROM HIS MOTHER’S SIDE]
OF ROGER MORTIMER
HIS CLAIM TO THE THRONE WAS BASED ON HIS
MATERNAL SIDE AND SUPERIOR TO THE LANCASTERS,
WHO DESCENDED FROM THE THIRD SON OF EDWARD III,
WHILE RICHARD DESCENDED FROM THE SECOND SON
King Henry IV from NPG (2).jpg
KING HENRY IV, WHO USURPED THE THRONE OF RICHARD II AS
HENRY BOLINGBROKE, HIS COUSIN
File:Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York.jpg
RICHARD OF YORK, CLAIMANT TO THE ENGLISH THRONE
AND ONE OF THE MAIN LEADERS OF THE WAR OF ROSES
[WAR BETWEEN THE HOUSES OF LANCASTER AND YORK,
BOTH DESCENDANTS OF KING EDWARD III]
[HISTORICAL IMAGE]
King Henry V from NPG.jpg
KING HENRY V, SON OF KING HENRY IV
[HISTORICAL IMAGE]
KING HENRY VI OF ENGLAND, SON OF KING HENRY V
[HISTORICAL IMAGE]
 
MARGARET OF ANJOU, QUEEN OF ENGLAND
[HISTORICAL IMAGE]
 

TWO IMAGES OF MARGARET OF ANJOU, QUEEN OF ENGLAND
[FICTION]

KING EDWARD IV, SON OF RICHARD, DUKE OF
YORK
[FICTION]
Richard III earliest surviving portrait.jpg
KING RICHARD III, SON OF RICHARD,
DUKE OF YORK
HISTORICAL IMAGE
King Henry VII.jpg
KING HENRY VII, THE FIRST TUDOR KING
AND FOUNDER OF THE TUDOR DYNASTY
HISTORICAL IMAGE

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE WARS OF THE ROSES/THE HOUSE OF YORK/REACTION
ON ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA’S CHANGES IN THEIR
ARTICLE AFTER MY COMMENTS
Dear Readers,
Recently I wrote to Encyclopaedia Britannica about their
article ”The House of York”, adding some critical remarks.
Reasons?
Two.
FIRST:
Encyclopaedia Britannica called the overthrow of King Henry VI
by the son of Richard, Duke of York, the later King Edward IV,
after his victory in the Battle of Towton, an ”usurpation”.
In my letter to Encyclopaedia Britannica,  I pointed out,
that although it was a deposing of King Henry VI, it was no
”usurpation”, because of the York superior claim to
the throne, by descending from maternal side from
King Edward III’s second son, Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of
Clarence, while the Lancasters descended from the third
King Richard II  appointed the grandson of Lionel
 [the son of Lionel’s daughter Philippa Plantagenet,
as his heir presumptive
to the throne, a right which passed through his son, Edmund
Were Richard II not usurped by his cousin, Henrt Bolingbroke
[the later King Henry IV, and Richard II died childless, Edmund
Mortimer should be King of England.
And Edmund Mortimer was the maternal uncle
of Richard, Duke of York, who was the son of Edmund Mortimer’s
sister, Anne Mortimer.
Since Edmund Mortimer died childless, Richard of York inherited
his vast estates and the title of Earl of March [he became the
6th Earl of March], which he passed
to his son, the later Edward IV.
So when Edward IV overthrew Henry VI, it was a deposal, not
usurpation.
SECOND
When mentioning the Act of Accord of 1460, by which
Richard of York and Parliament agreed, that Richard of York
would succeed Henry VI after his death [and thus disinheriting
Edward of Westminster, the son of Henry VI, which infuriated
of course his mother, Margaret of Anjou], which was confirmed
Encyclopaedia Britannica made a remark about the
”weakness” in this claim by deriving from females.
I challenged that by pointing out, that four English Kings
REACTION OF ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA
I received an interesting and partly satisfying reaction
from Encyclopaedia Britannica with some changes
in the article
This was their reaction:

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