by Astrid Essed Wednesday, Jun. 27, 2007 at 3:03 AM
In contrary with the allegations of zionist non-deniers, the expulsion of the Palestinians in 1948 and 1967 was no ad hoc war-crime, but a yearlong deliberate planned strategy
As you all shall know, Israel completely has ignored, over 40 years, to fullfill this resolutionThe occupation was the last fullfillment of the conquest of ”historical Palestine”, which was the very aim of zionismAnother aim was the expulsion of the original and autochton Palestinian population from their own country, which has been executed in 1948 [750.000 people] and 1967 [250.000 people]
In contrary with the allegations of zionist non-deniers [regarding the expulsion] this, however, was not an ad hoc war-crime, but a deliberate strategy, which was based on the views of the early zionist thinkers and is a ‘necessity” for the fullfillment of the political zionism
To expose and unmask this process and in remembrance of all the nameless victims of this ethnic cleansings, I have written underlying article
May justice be like a river
See for picture of Palestinian refugees:
Disaster over Palestine
The Palestinian Refugee-problem and the ideology of transfer
Dedicated to the anonymous Palestinian victims of expulsion
In solemn remembrance and respect for Count Folke Bernadotte, who, being UN mediator for Palestine in 1948, has paid with his life by defending the rights of the Palestinian Arabs, who were victims of the expulsion by the Israeli-zionist militias. 
“The Arabs will have to go, but one needs an opportune moment for making it happen, such as a war.”
Part of a letter of the zionistic-Israeli politician David Ben Gurion, to his son, dd 1937
UN General Assembly Resolution 194 dd 11-12-1948
The General Assembly,
Having considered further the situation in Palestine
Resolves that the refugees wishing to return to their homes and live at peace with their neighbours should be permitted to do so at the earliest practicable date, and that compensation should be paid for the property of those choosing not to return and for loss of or damage to property which, under principles of international law or in equity, should be made good by the Governments or authorities responsible
Instructs the Conciliation Commission to facilitate the repatriation, resettlement and economic and social rehabilitation of the refugees and the payment of compensation, and to maintain close relations with the Director of the United Nations Relief for Palestine Refugees and, through him, with the appropriate organs and agencies of the United Nations;
Few things in life are so tragic like streams of refugees, who, fleeing for the violence of war or directly expelled, are moving painfully forward, towards an uncertain future.
Those images are daily seen on TV and leave behind a non-erasable memory
A Refugees and military activities:
There are few photographs and archives about this tragic fate of Palestinian refugees, on the eve of the one-sided exclamation of the State of Israel, by the zionistic politician Mr Ben Gurion  and the military confrontations thereafter, between the Israeli-zionistic military organisations [the Hagana, Palmach and the terrorgangs Irgun and Stern] on the one hand, and the armies of several Arabic countries , on the other hand
However, contrary with the pro-Israeli-propaganda, no great impression should be made of the strength of the Arabic troops, since it concerned countries, which had become independent recently [for that time under British or French mandatory or ”protective” authority], and therefore couldn’t have formed an extended army, while the zionist troops were very well armed, partly due to own effort, partly due to British military training
Also the Transjordanian army [the present Jordan], which was the biggest army, only fought in the evironments of Jerusalem
A further problem was also the lack of harmony on Arab side, because of mutual conflicts
The result of the military confrontation between the zionist-Israeli troops and the Arab troops is known.
Not only the zionist army won the war, also it occupied 20% of the area, which was granted to the Arabs according to the UN Partition Plan for Palestine [resulting in UN General Assembly-resolution, nr 181,which was accepted dd december 1947]
The rest of the curtailed Arab area was occupied by respective Trans-Jordan [namely the present Westbank and Eastern-Jerusalem] and Egypt [the present Gaza-area]
Jerusalem, which would have a corpus separatum-status [an international character], according to the Partition Plan, was partly occupied by the newly exclaimed State of Israel [Western Jerusalem], partly by Trans-Jordan [Eastern Jerusalem]
B The humanitarian toll of the war
The humanitarian toll of the war was very high, especially on the Arab-Palestine side.
Although it has to be admitted, that war-crimes and grave human rights violations took place on both sides , the fact remains, that, yet apart from the horrible character as such, a number of massacres in Arabic villages, instigated by zionist/Israeli terrorgangs, has had disasterous consequences for the Palestinian/Arab population in Palestine
The most notorious was the massacre in the Arab village of Deir Yassin in the night of april the 9th to the 10th, in which 100 to 120 Palestinian/Arab inhabitants were killed.
Those responsible, who have been actually never brought to justice, were units of the Israeli-zionistic terror-gangs Irgun and Stern [with knowlegde of the regular zionist army the Haganah, which would later deny any responsibility], with as commanders the later Israeli prime-ministers mr Begin and mr Shamir.
Moreover, in his book ”The Revolt”, the Israeli prime-minister Mr Begin alleged, that without the ”victory” (his words) of Deir Yassin, the State of Israel probably wouldn’t be founded at all.
Although this allegation could have referred to the intimidating effect on the Palestinian civilian population, without a deliberated plan to provoke this, it must be noticed, that this bery allegation was made by one of the responsible commanders for the attack on Deir Yassin.
Yet apart from the massacres and the following immense stream of refugees, on which I shall refer, also 400 Arab villages were destroyed 
C Military aims of Plan Dalet and other Israeli military operations:
Although I will not go as far as to assume, that the massacres were aimed deliberately to expell the Arab population, it is highly probable, that Plan Dalet (the zionist-Israeli military operations between april the 1st and may the 15th 1948] has had as main goals as well the occupation of parts of the Arab area [according to the decision by UN resolution 181], as the destruction of Arab villages in the Jewish area [according to the decision by UN resolution 181]
Referring to that occupation, I quote the ”introduction” to Plan Dalet:
´´a) “The objective of this plan is to gain control of the areas of the Hebrew state and defend its borders. It also aims at gaining control of the areas of Jewish settlements and concentration which are located outside the borders (of the Hebrew state) against regular, semi-regular, and small forces operating from bases outside or inside the state.´´
Regarding the deliberate destruction of Arab villages I quote Section B of the Plan:
´´Destruction of villages (setting fire to, blowing up, and planting mines in the debris), especially those population centers which are difficult to control continuously. … Mounting search and control operations according to the following guidelines: encirclement of the village and conducting a search inside it. In the event of resistance, the armed force must be destroyed and the population expelled outside the borders of the state. ´´
Also the later Israeli-zionist plans were embroidering on the mourning clothes of military attacks on Arab villages and the occupation of as much as Arab area as possible.
D Stream of refugees:
It will not be a surprise to the reader, that as a consequence of this dirty war, hunderd-thousands of Arab people fled, due to the ditect and indirect expulsion from their houses and lands
Indirectly because of fear for new massacres, directly because of expulsions by the Israeli-zionistic regulary troops, as well the terrorgangs Irgun and Stern.
More than 750.000 Arab refugees were the victims of those expulsions
Not only those expulsions are definitely inhuman, morover, being ethnic cleanings, they belong to the gravest war-crimes
The humanitarian toll has its consequences till today and is still enlarged by the second ethnic cleansing in 1967, after the Israeli victory in the Six Day war [the socalled ”june-war], by which more than 250.000 people fled or were expulsed.
Further it needs to be said, that this expulsion of the Arab-Palestinian population was not only one of the aims of Plan Dalet, but was also rooted in the political-ideological ideas of great number of prominent zionist leaders
I will refer to this later
1 Israeli version of the cause of the Refugee-stream:
Evidently, the need of an official apologetic Israeli version of the tragic events was high, not only as a justification for the ”outside world”, but also to keep up the myth of the ”high standard” principles of the ”Jewish State”, in contrast with the ”barbarism” of the Arabs, thus corresponding with the Western-European racist views about Arab people.
Except for those racist views, there were more reasons for believing the Israeli version and supporting the new-founded State of Israel, like Western guilt-feelings about the holocaust, religious fantasies about the refoundation of the ”Promised Land” by people, who called themselves ”christians” and colonial thought [which didn’t consider it as unacceptable to ”found a State” in the country of the autochtonous people, in casu the Palestinian Arabs]
In the Israeli version, the emphasis was being laid on the voluntarily departure of the Arab-Palestinian population, in response to an Arab broadcast-call, which urged the Palestinian Arabs to leave Palestine, waiting for the victory over ”the Jews” [thus referring to the zionist-Israeli armies]
However, neither the official Israeli ”first generation” historians, nor the later New Historians, who are contradicting the official version, ever have found any proof of the existence of this socalled ”broadcast-call”
2 Unmasking of the official Israeli version: The New Historians
However, another important discovery, which would throw a whole different light on the official Israeli history, was made by the New Historians like Benny Morris, Ilan Pappe and others, namely the evident proof, that no ”voluntarily depart” had taken place, but either a mass expulsion or a flight in panic, out of fear for future massacres
The proof was found in Israeli governmental and army papers, archive-materials and other documentation.
Yet apart from the official governmental and army material, it is highly unlikely anyway, that a great deal of the civilian population, consisting of complete families, would abamdon homes and lands to depart because of a broadcast-call of one or more Arab leaders.
Further, the flight behaviour [a mother without her children, a man without his wife, a family without an old father or mother], as well as the leaving behind of neccessary tools [like clothes] shows a hurried and unvoluntarily depart.
To complete the zionist ”hall of shame”, some films have been discovered, which show pictures of the actual expulsion of the civilian population by Israeli military units.
E The deeperlying motivation for the ethnic cleansings:
1 The views of the zionist leaders
Untill recently the reality of the expulsions, as well as the criminal character of them, has been unmasked, but yet too little, the deeperlying causes have been emphasized
It must be said, that there are critical zionists, who have the moral decency, not to deny the scientific findings of the New Historians, but they assumpt mosltly, that the ethnic cleansings were not a part of a deliberate plan.
That is not correct
The historian Ilan Pappe states in his book ”The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine”, that the decision to this ethnic cleansing has been made in the socalled ”Red House” [located on the present Sheraton Tel Aviv], on the 30th of march 1948, during a meeting, headed under the chairmanship of the Israeli politician David Ben Gurion.
That this isn’t a new view, is being confirmed by a number of statements, made by zionist leaders in the past, who obviously have shown no moral objections against the expulsion of the Arab-Palestinian population.
In the introduction to this article I have quoted already a sentence of a letter, the already named politician David Ben Gurion wrote to his son in 1937.
Another notorious example is article III of the draft charter, which Theodor Herzl  proposed to the Sultan of Turkey  in 1901, which would give the Jews the right to deport the existing rural population 
However, it needs to be said, that not all zionist leaders hold this opinion.
So at the 7th zionistic Congress in Basel in 1905, Hillel Zeitlin  challenged the defenders of the transfer-idea by stating:
”Everyone seems to forget, that Palestine belongs to others and that the country is fully populated” 
The removal of the Jews to Palestine couldn’t be succesfull, according to Zeitlins opinion, unless the others should be transferred ”which shouldn’t be executed by anyone ”
Probably without realizing fully, this conscientious man referred to the very essence of the latter unscrupulous actions of the zionist leaders in the war of 1948.
2 The demografical problem
Although is being shown, that the perversity of the ethnical cleansing is based on zionist views from the time of Theodor Herzl, which are related to the then colonial contempt for the autochton population, also another motive must be named, the socalled ”demografical problem”
This ”demografical problem” has played a part in early Israeli politics till nowadays and can be in shortly characterized as the fear for a Palestinian population-majority in Israel.
It is clear
When a society is based on equal rights for everyone, regardless race, religion or descent, the number of different population-groups are of no importance.
However, when State policy is based on unequal rights, or stronger, on the denial of the right of existence of a certain part of the population, the demografical situation does matter.
It is clear also, that the Arab Palestinians were the autochton population of Palestine.
Further it is a fact, that they would have obtained the de facto political power in Palestine, when there had been a normal decolonization-process, like in the surrounding countries [Syria, Jordan, the then Trans-Jordan, Iraq, Lebanon etc]
However, due to Jewish immigration from the outside and the unjust claim of zionist leaders on Palestine, with the Balfour Declaration in their hands, the Palestinian right on selfdetermination was fundamentally and seriously violated.
The international legitimation for the violation of their own UN/Charter  was consolidated in UN resolution 181, by which Palestine was divided in a Jewish and Arab part, completely ignoring the right of selfdetermination of the autochton Arab population.
Quite rightly, the representive of the Arabic High Committee called the resolution a colonial decision
However, to legimate this ”Jewish State”  [the part of Palestine, that according to Resolution 181, was granted to the zionists] as much as possible , it was of the utmost importance, to make it as ”empty” as possible , since the zionist idea was hardly to defend, when there was an Arab majority.
Further the zionist leaders wanted to make ”room” for the immigration of Jewish peope from Europe and the rest of the world.
F After the june-war, ethnic cleansing again
It is of importance, to focus on the relation between the zionist idea and the ethnic cleansings, because of its next role in the ethnic cleansings after the Six Day War [june war] in 1967.
Of course the zionist leaders knew, that the occupation of the remaining Palestinian areas [the Westbank and Gaza, which were conquered by Jordan and Egypt in the war of 1948] would meet important critics, especially because of the extension of members of the UN, since 1948.
The old bastion of colonial powers with some subject semi-colonies [like a number of South-American countries, the Fillippines and the very poor Haiti] had been extended with a large number of ex-colonies, which could see a comparison between the fate of the Palestinians and their own colonial past.
However, given the nature of zionist ”necessity”, again ethnic cleansings took place, with as tragic result 250.000 Palestinian refugees.
Only this time the zionists didn’t succeed in fullfilling the dirty game, because of the above named extension of the UN and the Palestinians, who had become wiser by the former bitter experiences.
The occupation of the remaining of historial Palestine was a fact and despite the unanimously accepted Security Resolution 242 , which Israel summoned to withdraw from the Palestinian territories [The Westbank, the Gaza-area and Eastern Jerusalem] , the occupation still lasts, 40 years later, with as humanitarian consequences, numerous human rights violations of the Palestinian civilian population, mass-expropriations by the illegal settlementspolicy and the building of the Israeli Wall through occupied Palestinian area.
5 june 2007
A sad jubilee.
G Tragical fate of the refugees and UN General Assembly resolution 194:
When it was too late for the 750.000 fled or expelled Palestinian Arabs, the international community reacted.
In General Assembly Resolution 194 [dd december 1948] Israel was summoned to permit the refugees to return to their homes or that compensation should be paid for their property.
It is a known fact, that Israel is ignoring this resolution now for 59 years, with as a consequence, that the most of the refugees are living since 1948 in refugee-camps, in often miserable circumstances, without much chance on better conditions, as well in the occupied Palestinian territories as in surrounding countries.
Yet apart from the bad conditions, for which Israel is head-responsible, at least in the occupied territories , it has been said already, that Israel always has refused to acknowledge the right to return of the Palestinian refugees or to compensate them for their loss of property.
Except inhuman, it is also discriminatory, since every Jew in the world has the right to ”return”, while this right has been denied to the original autochton population.
I have tried to make clear, that the Palestine refugee-problem is not only the tragic result of the warcrimes in 1948, but is founded on a conscious ideology of transfer, which is a ”necessity” in the concept of an artificially created ”Jewish State”
On this ”Jewish State” concept, the idea of transfer has been based, which is still vivid in Israeli society
As long as there is an artificially created ”Jewish State”, which came to this world with the assistance of unholy midwives, being the UN countries, who approved the UN partition-plan, resulting in resolution 181, there will be no peaceful existence with the neigbouring Arab countries.
Neither a peaceprocess, based on International Law, is possible, since occupation, the construction of the Wall and settlementspolicy are considered as the very tools for the safety of the State of Israel.
Therefore, lasting peace and a just solution of the refugee problem will be possible only in a non-zionist, secular Palestine with equal rights for all inhabitants, based on a one man, one vote government
 Count Folke Bernadotte was assissinated in september 1948 by 3 members of the Stern gang, among else the later Israeli prime-minister Shamir, who was also responsible for the Deir Yassin massacre in april 1948
The reason for this assisination was his courageous defence of the human rights of the Palestinian Arabs, trying to prevent their expulsion
 Although the UN partition-plan for Palestine had been approved by the UN [by means of UN resolution 181], it didn’t imply yet the official acknowledgment of the ”Jewish State”, since there was still UN-discussion about the ”tutelage” of Palestine
Of course this ”tutelage” would be based on the approved UN resolution 181, in respect with the percentage of Palestine, which would be ”Jewish” [56,4] and ”Arab” [42,8] and Jerusalem, being a ”corpus separatum” [international status]
 The respective Arabic States were Egypt, Trans-Jordan [the present Jordan], Syria, Lebanon and Iraq
 At april 13th, 4 days after the Deir Yassin massacre, there was an Arab military attack on a medical convoy travelling to Haddassah Hospital, with as a tragic result the death of 77 doctors, nurses, and other Jewish civilians.
 The Israeli Prof I Pappe is referring to even 531 villages
 Founder of the zionism
 The draft charter was part of the request to the Sultan of Turkey dd 1901, to establish a ”Judisch-Ottomanische LandCompagnie zur Besiedlung von Palestina und Syrien”, simply said, the establishment of a Jewish community in Palestine [which has been often described as a ”Syrian province”]
 See: Rabbi Dr. Chaim Simons, A Historical Survey of Proposals to
Transfer Arabs from Palestine
1895 – 1947
For the part III of the draft charter: See
 About Hillel Zeitlin:
 By this he challenged the early zionist propaganda, that Palestine was barely populated, embodied in the slogan of
“A land without a people for a people without a land”, which was uttered and propagated by the Jewish writer Israel Zangwill
 Article 1, 2, about the selfdetermination of all people, referring among else to the decolonisation-process
Evidently this principle was being ignored regarding the Arab-Palestinian population of Palestine
 the part of Palestine, that according to UN Resolution 181, was granted to the zionists
 In the ”Jewish” part of Palestine [according to UN Resolution 181], the Arab Palestinians formed during the fisrt months of 1948, nearly the half of the whole population
 ”free” from the Arab Palestinian population
 The text of the UN Security Resolution 242
 in respect with the international judicial obligation, according to the 4th Geneva Convention, of an occupying power for the welfare, wellbeing and safety of the ”protected persons” [people, who live under an occupation]
About UN General Assembly resolution 194
About the Deir Yassin massacre:
Testimony of Mr de Reynier, head of the Red Cross-delegation in Palestine
Eyewitness-testimony of Colonel Meir Pael [the former mr Meir Pilevsky], who had been a Palmach-soldier during the tragic events in Deir Yassin
Further information about Deir Yassin:
About the Israeli human rights organisation Zochrot, trying to raise awareness of the Naqba, at the Israeli public opinion:
About Theodor Herzl:
Theodor Herzl: The Jewish State
Rabbi Dr. Chaim Simons, A Historical Survey of Proposals to
Transfer Arabs from Palestine
1895 – 1947
About the historian Mr Benny Morris:
Website of Prof Ilan Pappe: