ZIE NOOT 2
MIGRANTEN IN LIBISCHE DETENTIECENTRA SLACHTOFFER VAN
28 MAART 2023
Uit onderzoek van door de Verenigde Naties gesteunde onderzoekers blijkt dat migranten in Libië slachtoffer zijn van martelingen, seksuele slavernij, moord en executies. De onderzoekers op het gebied van mensenrechten uiten ook felle kritiek op de Europese Unie.
Volgens hen zouden Europese landen namelijk Libische strijdkrachten steunen die op hun beurt weer bijdragen aan de misdaden tegen de migranten.
Indirecte bijdrage Europa
In de detentiecentra, waar de migranten die op zee zijn tegengehouden naartoe worden gebracht, is volgens onderzoeker Chaloka Beyani bewijs gevonden van misdaden tegen de menselijkheid.
De migranten zijn door de Libische kustwacht naar deze centra gebracht en Europa steunt en traint deze kustwacht, waardoor het indirect zou bijdragen aan de misdaden.
Het gaat hierbij om uiteenlopende misdrijven, van willekeurige gevangenneming tot verkrachting. Beyani: “Wij zeggen niet dat Europa deze misdaden uitvoert, maar het punt is dat Europa indirect bijdraagt aan het plegen van de misdaden”.
Het onderzoek waar het bewijs uit volgde, is uitgevoerd in opdracht van de Mensenrechtenraad van de VN. De bedoeling is dat de bevindingen worden gedeeld met het Internationaal Strafhof (ICC) in Den Haag, zodat individuen voor de misdaden verantwoordelijk gehouden kunnen worden.
Libië verkeert al jaren in een staat van chaos en al deze jaren proberen vele migranten vanuit het land Europa te bereiken. Alleen afgelopen weekend al kwamen binnen 24 uur zo’n 2000 mensen aan op Lampedusa, een Italiaans eiland in de Middellandse zee.
Dit was een recordaantal migranten, die hier vanuit Noord-Afrika in bootjes arriveerden. De reis is niet zonder risico’s, maar desondanks blijven mensen hun leven riskeren.
”Men, women and children returned to Libya face arbitrary detention, torture, cruel and inhuman detention conditions, rape and sexual violence, extortion, forced labour and unlawful killings. Instead of addressing this human rights crisis, the Libyan Government of National Unity (GNU) continues to facilitate further abuses and entrench impunity, as illustrated by its recent appointment of Mohamed al-Khoja as director of the Department for Combating Illegal Migration (DCIM). Al-Khoja was previously in effective control of the Tariq al-Sikka detention centre, where extensive abuses have been documented.”
LIBYA/EU: CONDITIONS REMAIN ”HELLISH” AS
EU MARKS 5 YEARS OF COOPERATION AGREEMENTS
31 JANUARY 2022
Over 82 000 refugees and migrants returned to Libya since deals were struck
Conditions for refugees and migrants in Libya ‘hellish’
The European Union must stop helping to return people to hellish conditions in Libya, Amnesty International said today as the bloc marks five years of formal cooperation to intercept refugees and migrants attempting to cross the Mediterranean. The number of people intercepted at sea and returned to Libya in the last five years is over 82 000.
Men, women and children returned to Libya face arbitrary detention, torture, cruel and inhuman detention conditions, rape and sexual violence, extortion, forced labour and unlawful killings. Instead of addressing this human rights crisis, the Libyan Government of National Unity (GNU) continues to facilitate further abuses and entrench impunity, as illustrated by its recent appointment of Mohamed al-Khoja as director of the Department for Combating Illegal Migration (DCIM). Al-Khoja was previously in effective control of the Tariq al-Sikka detention centre, where extensive abuses have been documented.
“It is high time to put an end to this callous approach, which shows a complete disregard for people’s lives and dignity. Instead, rescue efforts must ensure people are taken to a place of safety, which, as reiterated by the UN Secretary-General just days ago, cannot be Libya.”
The EU started assisting the Libyan Coast Guard in 2016, and interceptions began the same year. Cooperation increased with the adoption of a Memorandum of Understanding between Italy and Libya on 2 February 2017 and the adoption of the Malta Declaration signed by EU leaders in Valletta just a day later.
The agreements provide the bedrock for continuing cooperation that outsources the patrolling of the central Mediterranean to Libyan coastguards by providing speedboats, a maritime coordination centre, and training. The agreements were followed by the establishment of a large sea area where the Libyan Coast Guard is responsible for coordinating search and rescue operations. These arrangements, overwhelmingly funded by the EU, have since enabled Libyan authorities to disembark people intercepted at sea in Libya, despite it being unlawful to return anyone to a place where they face serious abuse.
Migrants and refugees both in and outside of detention in Libya are systematically subjected to a litany of abuses by militias, armed groups and security forces with impunity. On 10 January 2022, militias and security forces fired live ammunition at refugees and migrants camped in front of the Community Day Centre of UNHCR in Tripoli, and arbitrarily arrested hundreds. They are held in overcrowded and unsanitary conditions in the Ain Zara detention centre in Tripoli, where guards subject them to further abuses and deny them adequate food and water. The migrants and refugees had been staging a sit-in outside the Community Day Centre building since October 2021 calling for protection in response to a previous raid by militias and security forces that saw thousands rounded up and many others left homeless.
“Italy and the EU must stop aiding these appalling abuses and start ensuring that people at risk of drowning in the central Mediterranean are rescued promptly and treated humanely,” said Matteo de Bellis.
In 2021, Libyan coastguards — supported by Italy and the EU — captured 32,425 refugees and migrants at sea and returned them to Libya. This is by far the highest figure on record and three times the number recorded the previous year. During the year, 1,553 people died or disappeared at sea in the central Mediterranean.
In a report dated 17 January 2022, the Secretary-General of the United Nations said he felt “grave concern” at continuing human rights violations against refugees and migrants in Libya, including instances of sexual violence, trafficking and collective expulsions. The report confirms that “Libya is not a safe port of disembarkation for refugees and migrants” and reiterates a call to relevant Member States “to re-examine policies that support interception at sea and return of refugees and migrants to Libya”. The report also confirms that the Libyan Coast Guard has continued to operate in ways that put the lives and well-being of migrants and refugees attempting to cross the Mediterranean Sea at grave risk.
Despite acknowledging this, an internal report by the Commander of the EU naval operation Eunavfor Med Irini, leaked by the Associated Press on 25 January 2022, confirms plans to continue capacity-building programmes for Libyan coastguards.
Italy’s current deal with Libya expires in February 2023 but will renew automatically for another three years unless authorities cancel it before this November, as Amnesty International is calling on the Italian government to do.
EINDE STATEMENT AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL
”NO ONE WILL LOOK FOR YOU”: FORIBLY RETURNED FROM SEA
TO ABUSIVE DETENTION IN LIBYA
15 JUNE 2021
Libya has long been unsafe for refugees and migrants. Both state and non-state actors subject them to a catalogue of human rights violations and abuses including unlawful killings, torture and other ill-treatment, rape and other sexual violence, indefinite arbitrary detention in cruel and inhuman conditions, and forced labour, among others. Despite well-documented patterns of horrific abuse committed with impunity for over a decade, European states and institutions continue to provide material support and pursue migration policies enabling Libyan coastguards to intercept men, women and children attempting to flee to safety by crossing the Mediterranean Sea and forcibly return them to Libya.
ZIE GEHELE RAPPORT